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REINFORCEMENT AND FEEDBACK

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Title: REINFORCEMENT AND FEEDBACK


1
REINFORCEMENT AND FEEDBACK
  • Matt Vaartstra
  • University of Idaho
  • Edited from Damon Burton

2
REINFORCEMENT TERMINOLOGY
  • What is reinforcement?
  • What is punishment?
  • What is extinction?
  • What is the difference between positive and
    negative reinforcement?
  • What is the difference between punishment and
    response-cost punishment?

3
5 BASIC RESPONSE CONSEQUENCES
Present
Remove
Extinction (weakens behavior) Response Cost
Punishment (weakens behavior)
Positive Stimuli
Positive Reinforcement (strengthens behavior)
Negative Reinforcement (strengthens behavior)
Punishment (suppresses/weakens behavior)
Aversive Stimuli
4
WHAT IS REINFORCEMENT?
  • Reinforcement is anything that increases
    likelihood that a behavior will occur in the
    future under the same conditions. It may enhance
    both the quantity and/or quality of a behavior.
  • For example, telling an athlete good job when
    she masters a new skill.
  • For example, increasing an athletes playing time
    for their hard work in practice.

5
TYPES OF SPORT REINFORCEMENT
  • What is the most frequently used reinforcer in
    sport?
  • verbal praise
  • What is the most powerful reinforcer in sport?
  • playing time

6
WHAT IS PUNISHMENT?
  • Punishment is the presentation of an aversive
    stimuli in order to decrease the quantity and/or
    quality of a behavior.
  • For example
  • Criticizing an athlete who is not paying
    attention.
  • Suspending an athlete from the team for 4 games
    for breaking team rules.

7
TYPES OF SPORT PUNISHMENT
  • What is the most frequently used punishment in
    sport?
  • stern rebuke
  • What is the most powerful punishment in sport?
  • lack of playing time, suspension or dismissal
    from team

8
EXTINCTION
  • Extinction removal of a positive stimulus that
    has in the past followed certain behavioral
    results.
  • For example, when an athlete no longer get
    attention for being the team clown, his showoff
    behavior will normally decrease.

9
POSITIVE VERSUS NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT
  • Positive reinforcement present or add positive
    stimuli in order to increase the likelihood that
    the behavior, (i.e., quantity, quality, or both)
    will occur under the same conditions.
  • Example?
  • Negative reinforcement remove or take away an
    aversive stimuli in order to strengthen a
    behavior that results in successful avoidance.
    It could change both the quantity and quality of
    a behavior.
  • Example?

10
TWO FORMS OF PUNISHMENT
  • Punishment entails presentation of aversive
    stimuli with the effect of suppressing the
    behavior.
  • Example?
  • Response Cost Punishment contingently taking
    away something valued by the athlete.
  • Example?

11
NEGATIVE SIDE EFFECTS OF PUNISHMENT
  • Punishment promotes fear and can prompt athletes
    to become motivated by fear of failure.
  • Develops an unpleasant team climate that reduces
    enjoyment
  • Reduces coachs ability to be a good role model
  • Inhibits ability to develop good coach-athlete
    relationships

12
WHY AVERSIVE CONTROL COACHES SUCCEED
  • They communicate caring for players as people so
    abuse is not taken personally.
  • They recruit talented athletes.
  • They recruit thick-skinned athletes who are
    less bothered by abuse.
  • They are skilled teachers and tacticians who can
    overcome the abuse.

13
POSITIVE CONTROL COACHES
  • Like John Wooden, they view mistakes as the
    stepping stones to achievement.
  • Emphasis is on improving skills rather than not
    screwing up.
  • Most top coaches and teachers use a very high
    percentage of positive reinforcement (i.e.,
    80-90) and a minimal amount of punishment.

14
WHY POSITIVE CONTROL COACHES SUCCEED
  • Foster a positive learning environment in which
    mistakes are viewed as a valuable part of
    learning.
  • Promote positive coach-athlete relationships.
  • Athletes like coaches more.
  • Athletes enjoy sport experience more.
  • Create high team cohesion.
  • Athletes perform better.

15
HOW REINFORCEMENT ENHANCES BEHAVIOR
  • Find a reinforcer that works for each athlete
  • Make reinforcement dependent on performing the
    desired behavior
  • Make sure the athlete specifically understands
    why the reinforcement is being given

16
WHAT IS SHAPING?
  • Shaping is the process of using reinforcement
    to gradually enhance performance using operant
    conditioning principles.
  • Operant conditioning the process of allowing an
    animal to operate in its environment until it
    performs correctly and then reinforce them for it
    to motivate them to repeat the desired behavior

17
SHAPING -- HUMAN OPERANT CONDITIONING
  • Shaping breaks down a complex skill into a
    series of manageable parts or goals and
    systematically uses reinforcement to gradually
    improve performance.
  • Each time the first goal is attained, the
    individual is reward
  • immediate reinforcement
  • reinforced every time

18
SHAPING -- HUMAN OPERANT CONDITIONING
  • Shaping is catching athletes doing something
    well or at least better.
  • Gradually reinforcement is modified to enhance
    retention
  • delayed reinforcement
  • reinforce every 3, 5, 7, 9 times
  • Once Goal 1 is mastered, then shaping moves on to
    Step 2 and the process repeats

19
REINFORCEMENT SCHEDULES
  • Continuous schedules reinforce immediately and
    every time and they enhance immediate motivation.
  • Intermittent schedules reinforcement is delayed
    and occurs on a schedule such as every 3rd, 5th,
    7th, or 9th time in order to enhance long-term
    motivation and retention.

20
WHAT TO REINFORCE
  • Effort
  • Learning new material
  • Skill improvement
  • Mental preparation
  • Strategy selection and use
  • Reaching goals

21
SHAPING PROCESS
  • B

4
3
Shaping start with Step 1 and work on it until
behavior is consistent and then move to Step 2,
then Step 3 and finally Step 4
2
1
A
22
FOOTBALL SHAPING EXAMPLE
  • Komaki Barnett (1977) identified 3 offensive
    plays that were each broken down into 5 stages
    judged crucial for overall play execution.
  • For one play, the 5 stages included
  • Quarterback-center exchange
  • Quarterback-right halfback fake
  • Fullback blocking the end
  • Quarterback decision to pitch or keep
  • Quarterback action

23
BEHAVIORAL COACHING PROCEDURES
  • Execute the play and freeze on the whistle.
  • Coach judges correct execution and says freeze
    if incorrect.
  • Coach describes the incorrect behavior.
  • Coach models the correct behavior.
  • Athletes imitate correct behavior and feel what
    good position should be.

24
FOOTBALL SHAPING EXAMPLE
  • Each time the play was run, the coach checked off
    which stages of the play were executed
    successfully.
  • Reinforcement was given to players for the stages
    run successfully.
  • Performance increased significantly for each of
    the 3 plays following shaping (20).
  • Systematic reinforcement can be a great
    performance enhancement strategy.

25
REINFORCEMENT AND INTRINSIC MOTIVATION
  • Self-Determination Theory confirms that
    reinforcement doesnt have to reduce intrinsic
    motivation as long as it is given to
  • Recognize increased competence
  • Enhance greater levels of self-determination
  • Contingent rewards promote IM

26
MOTIVATIONAL CLIMATE
  • Shaping creates a mastery-oriented motivational
    climate that fosters IM, learning, and
    improvement.
  • Outcome-based rewards promote an ego-oriented
    motivation climate that prompts overemphasis on
    winning, fear of failure, underdevelopment, and
    underachievement

27
PERFORMANCE FEEDBACK
  • 75 of John Woodens feedback to his team was
    instructional in nature.
  • Feedback motivates directly.
  • Feedback can also
  • focus attention
  • enhance effort
  • promote persistence
  • stimulate use of new task strategies

28
BEHAVIORAL COACHING
  • Teach skills in a way that allows for greater
    opportunities to use reinforcement.
  • Emphasis is on systematically making closer and
    closer approximations of correct technique and
    form.
  • Understand correct form and focus on what it
    feels like.
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