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Transportation

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Transportation & Manufacturing Intro to Manufacturing Electronics The electrical systems base components are the battery and the alternator. The alternator recharges ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Transportation


1
Transportation ManufacturingIntro to
Manufacturing
2
Presenters
  • Daron Fuglsang - Automotive Design Process
  • Justin Ashton - Body and Assembly
  • Cory Larson - Engine and Assembly
  • Evan Rortvedt - Electronics and Assembly
  • Ben Schlappi - Management Techniques

3
Main Points
  • Automotive Design Process
  • Processing Techniques
  • Manufacturing Management Techniques
  • Transportation of Manufactured Products

4
Automotive Design Process
Automotive Design is the first process of
manufacturing a vehicle.
5
Road Vehicles That Undergo The Design Process
  • Automobiles
  • Motorcycles
  • Trucks
  • Buses
  • Coaches
  • Vans

6
Topics Addressed By Design team and Automotive
Engineers
  • Safety Engineering
  • Fuel Economy/Emissions
  • Vehicle Dynamics
  • NVH Engineering
  • Performance
  • Shift Quality
  • Durability / Corrosion Engineering
  • Package / Ergonomics Engineering
  • Climate Control
  • Drivability
  • Cost
  • Program timing
  • Assembly Feasibility

7
The Four Main Aspects of The Designing Process
  • Exterior Design
  • Interior Design
  • Color and Trim Design
  • Graphic Design

8
Exterior and Interior Design Process
  • Drawings
  • Drawings get approved
  • Clay and or digital models are designed (3D
    software such as AutoCAD, and Solidworks)
  • Full sized version is created using CNC Milling
    Machines and clay

9
Topics Addressed for Exterior Design
  • Proportions
  • Shape
  • Surfaces of the vehicle

10
Topics Addressed for Interior Design
  • Proportions
  • Shape
  • Placement
  • Surfaces for the instrument panel
  • Seats
  • Door trim panels

11
Color and Trim Design
  • The designer is responsible for the research,
    design, and development of all interior and
    exterior colors and materials used on a vehicle.
  • Designers draw inspiration from other design
    disciplines such as industrial design, fashion,
    home furnishing, and architecture in order to
    address the consumers level of comfort.

12
Topics Addressed by Color and Trim Designer
  • Paints
  • Plastics
  • Fabric designs
  • Leather
  • Grains
  • Carpet
  • Headliner
  • Wood trim

13
Graphic Design
  • The process of advertising or communication using
    text and images to present information.
  • The design team is also responsible for creating
    graphics for items such as badges, decals,
    dials, switches, kick or tread strips, flames,
    racing stripes, etc

14
Clay Models
  • Since the 1930s automotive engineers and
    design teams have been using clay to show the
    design of a new automobile.
  • Sculpting the clay to an exact replica of the
    new automotive design is guided by the CNC
    Milling machine.
  • The CNC Milling Machine is a computer guided
    router that sculpts the detailed design into the
    clay model to the exact measurements put into the
    computer.

http//www.youtube.com/watch?v7lKg3uC0mqwNR1
15
Conclusion Automotive Design
  • Designs will continue to meet consumers needs
  • Safety
  • Entertainment
  • Designs will be beneficial to the environment
  • Pollution
  • Materials
  • Design process will become even more computer
    aided
  • CNC Milling Machine
  • Computer Software

16
Processing Techniques
  • Body and Assembly
  • Engine and Assembly
  • Transmission and Axle Assembly
  • Brake and Assembly
  • Suspension and Assembly
  • Electronics and Assembly

17
Body
18
Body
Bodies are constructed of Sheet metal and Hydro
formed Metal tubes
The tubes give the body extra rigidity and
strength In higher stress areas These areas
include, rooflines, mounting points, and frame
rails
19
Body continued
Body panels and tubes are welded together via
robotic welders.
20
Body continued
  • This is a crucial step because many cars on the
    road today are of a uni-body construction,
    meaning the frame and body are one piece.
  • Human error can cause flaws and stress the
    integrity of the construction

21
Body Continued
  • After the body has been manufactured it is primed
    then painted to protect the metal against the
    elements and it also gives vehicles their
    desirable look.

22
Body Continued
  • After Paint, the rest of the vehicle is assembled
    and manufactured. The interior is installed
    along with other body panels.
  • Body panels can be made out of several things,
    from sheet metal to plastics.

23
Body/Interior
  • After all the body panels are installed, assembly
    line workers install pre-manufactured interior
    parts, form other providers.
  • This allows for quicker assembly time

24
Conclusion Manufacturing of Body
  • As robotics become more advanced the less human
    contact will be needed, therefore cutting down on
    human error.
  • Different materials are being discovered and
    created allowing the bodies and frames of vehicle
    to be lighter, stronger, safer and
    environmentally friendly.
  • New processes and techniques are being developed
    to cut down on time and up quality.

25
Engine
Parts like the connecting rods are made through
sintering Sintering is a process where metal
powder is place into a die and put under
pressure. The die is then heated and the metal
powders come together to form a solid. Other
parts such as the intake manifold are
casted. After the parts are made inspection and
finally assembly take place
http//www.youtube.com/watch?voY2O-u0hJFk (
Ferrari Engine Production Video)
26
Transmission
Connects the vehicles engine to the drive train,
uses multiple gear ratios to obtain optimum
engine power under varying loads. Housing- Is
cast with Aluminum, then machined to
specifications. Oil pan and covers- Made from
stamping sheet metal. The combination of these
two processes Lowers the cost of these exterior
parts.
27
Internal Gears Differential
Internal Gears are used in Automatic and Manual
Transmissions. They change the direction of the
output shaft and create different ratios. Gears
are manufactured by cutting Or grinding a gear
blank on a CNC mill Specialized or short
production runs increase the cost of these parts
dramatically. Another factor to consider is the
number of operations needed to produce the
part. Ex. GM Ring and Pinion Gears 3 ? 2 cuts
28
Axle
Shaft-made from Chrome-Moly tube Splines-
Machined with CNC mill, Then heat treated for
strength. Bearing Surface- Polished for
easy Installation.
29
Brakes
Rotors Drums- Start with a steel blank, then
machined to specification.
From top Left to Bottom Right Brake drums being
casted with Lost Foam Technique
30
Brakes Continued
Pads- Backing-made from stamped steel.
Lining Material-Ceramic or Metal fibers
enclosed in a matrix. These two are then
bonded together.
Shoes- Only major difference is lining is
riveted to the backing.
31
Brakes Continued
Wheel cylinders and Calipers Are made from cast
Aluminum and Then bored to accept pistons,
seals, Springs.
32
Suspension
  • The suspension of a vehicle can vary. It can
    have coil spring, strut, torsion bar or leaf
    spring, and each have their pros and cons.
  • Each style of these are manufactured to each
    specific vehicle style. This includes the type
    of material and spring rate or softness of the
    spring.

33
Conclusions toEngine, Transmission, and
Suspension Manufacturing
  • 1-CNC Mills will become more complex
  • 2-Less skilled labor to operate needed
  • 3-This will be a continuous process
  • 4-Create unique ways to eliminate the number
    of operations

34
Electronics
The electrical systems base components are the
battery and the alternator. The alternator
recharges the battery, which (battery) is used to
power anything electric in the car, including
starters, radios, and spark plugs. One of the
more important electrical components is the ECU
Alternators
Automotive fuses
Automotive air conditioning parts
Automotive battery terminals
Automotive wire
Automotive relays
Automotive switches
Battery isolators
Car air conditioners
Car batteries
Car heaters
Ignition coils
Ignition switches
Power door locks
Power windows
Regulators
Spark plugs
Starter motors
Vehicle DC motors
35
Sparks plugs are made up of a shell, side
electrode, insulator, and center
electrode. Shell- steel is heated and extruded
through a die Side electrode-made of nickel
alloy and is welded to the shell Insulator- made
of ceramic material casted in rubber
molds Center electrode- made of nickel alloy and
is electric welded along the center of the
insulator. Parts are made through a continuous
in-line assembly process
36
Manufacturing of Electronics Conclusion
  • As the world is looking for petroleum
    alternatives, electricity is going to be playing
    a big role.
  • More and more hybrid cars are reaching the
    market, and automotive electrical components are
    becoming more complex
  • Auto makers are going to have to adjust for the
    new car make ups

37
Manufacturing Management Techniques
  • Lean Manufacturing-
  • People are broadly trained rather than
    specialized
  • Communication is informal and horizontal among
    line workers
  • Equipment is general purpose
  • Work is organized in terms, or cells, that
    produce a group of similar products.
  • Supplier relationships are long-term and
    cooperative.
  • Product development is concurrent, not
    sequential, and is done by cross-functional teams

38
Just-In-Time Manufacturing Manufacturing of
parts as they are needed.
  • Elimination of Waste
  • High Quality
  • Value-added manufacturing
  • Discovery of problems and preventing them
  • Large Warehouses are not necessary

39
Kaizen(continuous improvement)
  • Base around 5 fundamentals
  • Teamwork
  • Personal Discipline
  • Improved Morale
  • Quality Circles
  • Suggestions for Improvement

40
ConclusionManufacturing Management
  • Just-in-Time Manufacturing will continue to gain
    popularity.
  • Helps cut waste material and wasted time.
  • Helps cut large amounts of over head.
  • Helps reduce the amount of raw material on hand.

41
Transportation of Products
  • Truck Freight
  • Air Freight
  • Sea Freight
  • Rail Freight

42
Brief History of Trucking
  • First started by a Frenchman in 1769 who used his
    tractor to haul artillery around.
  • By the 1890s many new more road worthy haulers
    were developed.
  • After 1910 was when the common tractor trailer
    look appeared.
  • The 1920s brought the interstate rage which led
    to bigger better trucks allowing for more freight
    movement and this really gave the manufacturing
    industry its big jump start.
  • The rest is history

43
Brief History of Railroad
  • The U.S. system was based off of Englands
    developing system as it competed against the
    canal system.
  • In the 1860s the first Transcontinental Railroad
    was built across America allowing freight and
    manufactured parts to be moved from coast to
    coast again giving the manufacturing industry a
    jump start.

44
Brief History of Sea Freight
  • The idea to use ships at sea to move and
    transport goods has been around since man has
    discovered that wood floats and was able to
    create the first crude rafts.
  • The sea created almost no limitations, for water
    came into contact with all major cities and their
    industries.

45
Brief History of Air Freight
  • Ever since long distance flight was capable, the
    promoters of aviation looked for practical uses
    for the airplane.
  • They came up with the idea to use them to carry
    freight.
  • The first couple of tries were only somewhat
    successful but after some modifications in the
    1920s, it opened up a new door in merchandise
    and manufactured goods transportation. It
    allowed businesses to be more efficient.
  • The rest is history

46
Rail Freight
  • Most economical for large and heavy freight.
  • And if you are close to a rail head at pick up
    and drop off points.

47
Truck Freight
  • No restrictions on size, location or destination.
  • Typical price range is 100 to 250.
  • Average lead-time is 1 to 3 weeks.

48
Air Freight
C - 17
  • -The transportation of manufactured goods
    through air is an economical way for fast over
    seas shipment.
  • Air Freight cost can be 250 or more.
  • -It has no limitations, due to road, rail or
    land. That is needed is a big flat area to land
    and take off.

MRAP being loaded on C-17
49
Sea Freight
  • Shipping manufactured goods by sea is very cheap
    for transporting large amounts of freight at one
    time to the same location over seas.

50
Petroleum Alternatives
  • Currently our country is in a big Go Green trend
  • Engineering new environmentally friendly ways to
    power vehicles.
  • Current alternative include
  • Alcohols - ethanol and methanol.
  • Compressed natural gas (CNG) - natural gas under
    high pressure.
  • Electricity - stored in batteries.
  • Hydrogen - a very special type of gas.
  • Liquefied natural gas (LNG) - natural gas that is
    very, very cold.
  • Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) (also called
    propane) - hydrocarbon gases under low pressure.
  • Liquids made from coal - gasoline and diesel fuel
    that doesn't come from petroleum.
  • Biodiesel - a lot like diesel fuel, but made from
    plant oil or animal fat.
  • Change the manufacturing process of vehicles
  • Need to accommodate new assembly machines and the
    like

51
Petroleum Alternatives
  • Hybrid Vehicle- A vehicle that combines two or
    more power sources to provide power.
  • Reduce emissions, and improve mileage
  • Hydrogen Vehicle- Turn hydrogen to power trough
    either combustion, or use of fuel cell.
  • Combustion- hydrogen is burned in the
    engine
  • Fuel Cell- hydrogen is combined to produce
    water and electricity.

52
Conclusion-What Lies in the future of
Manufacturing and Transportation
  • More hybrid vehicles will be put on the market,
    including commercial vehicles.
  • Freightliner offers hybrid trucks
  • Hydrogen power will be explored and introduced as
    well to commercial vehicles.
  • Currently fuel cells are being tested in aircraft
    by Boeing
  • Being used in Buses as well

Ideally every vehicle in the future will be
running on some sort of renewable petroleum
alternative fuel.
53
References
  • Valuebasedmanagement.com

http//www.globalsources.com/gsol/I/Automotive-Ele
ctronic-manufacturers/b/2000000003844/300000015141
0/-1.htm http//www.answers.com/topic/trucking-in
dustry-2 http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rail_trans
port_in_the_United_States http//www.century-of-
flight.net/new20site/commercial/history20of20ai
r20freight.htm
http//auto.howstuffworks.com/engine6.htm
http//www.madehow.com/Volume-1/Spark-Plug.html
54
References
  • Valuebasedmanagement.com

http//auto.howstuffworks.com/engine6.htm
http//www.madehow.com/Volume-1/Spark-Plug.html
http//www.globalsources.com/gsol/I/Automotive-Ele
ctronic-manufacturers/b/2000000003844/300000015141
0/-1.htm
http//youtube.com/watch?v0YgxRanYd6E
http//youtube.com/watch?vsRKL6hDng-Q http//you
tube.com/watch?vmJkdk50zjuE
55
References
  • Enterprise Automotive Systems
  • Currie enterprises
  • Yukon axle
  • Allison transmission
  • KP Metallurgical Casting Company Limited
  • Wilwood
  • Stop-Tech
  • Holden Manufacturing
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