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Chapter 12 Kingdoms and Trading States of Africa


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Title: Chapter 12 Kingdoms and Trading States of Africa

Chapter 12 Kingdoms and Trading States of Africa
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Climate Zones of Africa
  1. Tropical rainforests
  2. Savanna grassy plains
  3. Sahara desert
  4. Mediterranean coast

Climate Zones of Africa
  • Tropical rainforests cover less than 5 of
  • Savanna largest and most populated zone

Climate Zones of Africa
  • Sahara the worlds largest desert
  • Desertification ? Migration

Climate Zones of Africa
  • Mediterranean coast the tip of the Northern and
    Southern coasts of Africa
  • Unlike the desert, the Mediterranean climate is
    ideal for farming.

Bantu Migrations
  • West African farmers and herders moved to the
    south and east between 500 and 1500 AD.
  • Migrations contributed to the rich diversity of
    people and cultures
  • They spoke a variety of languages that all came
    from the African root language, Bantu.

Bantu Migrations
Nile Kingdom of Nubia
  • The ancient kingdom Nubia was formed on a wide
    band of fertile land along the Nile. Nubian
    rulers adopted many Egyptian traditions. They
    built palaces and pyramids modeled on Egyptian

Roman Influence on North Africa
  • The Romans built roads, dams, aqueducts, and
    cities across North Africa.
  • They imported lions and other fierce animals to
    do battle with the gladiators.

The Gold-Salt Trade
West Africa
North Africa
The Gold-Salt Trade
  • The camel changed the Saharan trade. For
    centuries trade was limited because the horses
    that transported the salt were not suitable to
    desert travel. However, about 300, the Berbers,
    an Arabic people of North Africa began using
    camels to carry their goods. When the caravans
    reached Ghana, merchants would pay one pound of
    gold dust for one pound of salt. Trade began to
  • Now, more than 1,000 years later, salt
    trade still exists. As late as 1975, workers in
    Taghaza were living in salt huts and mining
    several thousand tons of salt per year. Small
    caravans of camels carrying salt still arrive in
    Timbuktu today.

Kingdoms Of West Africa
Ghana, Mali and Songhai were among the richest of
the West African states. They dominated the
Sahara trade.
Two products that dominated the Sahara trade were
gold and salt. These commodities, or valuable
products, were plentiful.
Sahara Trade Routes
Ghana Land of Gold
  • In 800, the rulers of the Soninke people united
    many farming villages to create Ghana. The
    capitol of Ghana was Kumbi Saleh which was
    comprised of two separate towns.
  • The king controlled the gold-salt trade routes
    across West Africa. Two streams of trade met in
    Ghana, where kings collected tolls on all goods
    entering or leaving his land.
  • Muslim merchants brought their Islamic faith to
    Ghana. They also introduced their written
    language coinage, business methods, and

Ghana Land of Gold
Mali Islamic Empire
  • In 1235, Sundiata founded the kingdom of Mali.
  • The greatest emperor of Mali, Mansa Musa,
    expanded Malis borders and worked to keep peace.
    (mansa king)
  • Mansa Musa converted to Islam and based his
    system of justice on the Quran. He actually
    fulfilled one of the five pillars of Islam by
    making the hajj.
  • He formed diplomatic and economic ties with other
    Muslim states, increasing Malis renown.

Mali Islamic Empire
  • By 1450, Gao, a wealthy trading state became the
    capital of Songhai.
  • Sonni Ali, made it the largest state to have
    ever existed in West Africa. He did not adopt the
    practices of Islam. Instead, he followed more
    traditional religious beliefs.
  • After his death Askia Mohammed set up a Muslim
    dynasty and set up a bureaucracy. He also
    completed the hajj which improved his ties with
    the Muslim world.

Trade Routes of East Africa
By 1000 A.D., port cities in Africa were thriving
from trade across the Indian ocean. Some of the
things that were produced in Africa that they
traded were ivory, rhinoceros horn, hides, and
gold. Some immediate affects from the trading
were that there was thriving commerce in
Mogadishu, Kilwa, and Sofala. There was also a
rise of strong East African city-states and a
rise of slave trade. There was also the
introduction of crops and animals from the Middle
East and Asia.
The Stones of Great Zimbabwe
  • To the south and inland from the coastal
    city-states, massive stone ruins sprawl across
    rocky hilltops near the great bend in the Limpopo
  • These ruins are known as Great Zimbabwe. The
    builders of Great Zimbabwe were a group of
    Bantu-speaking people who settled in the region
    between 900 and 1500.
  • The newcomers brought improved farming methods.
    They produced enough food to support a growing

Economy and Government
  • Scholars have suggested that the ruler of Great
    Zimbabwe was a god-king who presided over a large
    court. A central bureaucracy ruled an inner ring
    of province, while appointed governors had
    authority in more distant villages.

Zimbabwe reached its height in about 1300. By
then, it tapped nearby gold resources and created
profitable commercial links with coastal cities
like Sofala.
African Arts
  • African art was usually created in ivory, bronze,
    and wood. Jewelry and dyed cloth was used in
    African art often. Much art, though, served as
    social and religious purposes.

Regents Questions
  • The wealth and power of Malis ruler, mansa musa,
    were significant because they contributed to the
  • Start of the crusades
    c) Spread of Islam
  • Growth of European nationalism d)
    Rise of Arab nationalism
  • 2) The spread of Islam into the kingdoms of Ghana
    and Mali resulted from
  • Imperialism c)
    cultural diffusion
  • Ethnocentrism d) self-

3) Which civilization best completes the heading
of the partial outline
____________ a)spread of Islam b)Gold and salt
trade c) Growth of Timbuktu d) Pilgrimage of
Mansa Musa
  • Benin
  • Mali
  • Kush
  • 4) Egyptian

Regents Questions
4) Which description best characterizes the city
of Timbuktu
  1. Port of the water route to east Asia
  2. Major urban and industrial center on the Silk
  3. Commercial and cultural center of West Africa
  4. Inland city of the Hanseatic league

5) Which economic activity was the basis for most
of the wealth and power of the West African
empires of Ghana and Mali
  1. Hunting and gathering
  2. Farming and cattle ranching
  3. Trading in salt and gold
  4. Working in bronze and brass

  1. c. the spread of Islam
  2. c. cultural diffusion
  3. c. Mali
  4. c. commercial and cultural center of West Africa
  5. c. trading in salt and gold