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World History

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World History: Connection to Today Chapter 3 Early Civilizations in India (2500 B.C. 256 B.C.) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: World History


1
World History Connection to Today
Chapter 3
Early Civilizations in India (2500 B.C.256 B.C.)
2
Cities of the Indus Valley
  • How has geography influenced India?
  • How has archaeology provided clues about Indus
    Valley civilization?
  • What theories do scholars hold about the decline
    of Indus Valley civilization?

3
Geography of the Indian Subcontinent
1
  • The Indus Valley is located on the subcontinent
    of India.
  • The mountains in the north limited contact with
    other lands and helped India to develop a
    distinct culture.
  • The subcontinent is divided into three major
    zones northern plain, Deccan, and coastal
    plains.
  • The rivers of India, particularly the Ganges, are
    considered sacred.
  • The monsoon, or seasonal wind, is a defining
    feature of Indian life.

4
Indus Valley Civilization
1
The earliest Indian civilization flourished for
about 1,000 years, then vanished without a
trace. Archaeologists have only recently begun
to uncover evidence of these early people, whose
civilization included the following
characteristics
Well-organized government
Modern plumbing and sewer system
Carefully planned cities
Most people were farmers
First people to cultivate cotton
Covered largest area of any civilization until
the rise of Persia 1,000 years later
Traded with distant lands, including Sumer
Polytheistic honored mother goddess worship of
sacred animals influenced the later
veneration of cattle
5
II. Early Civilizations in the Indus River Valley
An artistic conception of ancient Lothal
  • 2500 BC to 1500 BC the Harappan Civilization
  • developed in the Indus River valley

6
II. Early Civilizations in the Indus River Valley
  • The named derives from one of the two
    discovered
  • cities - Harappa and Mohenjo Daro("Mound of the
    Dead)

Early settlements date to 7000 BC
7
II. Early Civilizations in the Indus River Valley
Ruins of Harappa
  • Both cities were planned with wide streets,
  • water systems, public baths, and brick sewers

8
This map shows the layout of Mohenjo-Daro, one of
the principal cities of the Indus Valley
civilization. The larger eastern area contained
the residential and commercial sections of the
city, which were laid out in a grid of large
rectangular blocks. Rising more than twenty feet
to the west stood the citadel, built on a mound
of mud brick and rubble. Fortified by a brick
wall and towers, the citadel contained the citys
shrine, assembly hall, baths, and granary.
9
The Great Bath was entered using two wide
staircases, one from the north and one from the
south. The floor of the tank is watertight due to
finely fitted bricks laid on edge with gypsum
plaster.
10
II. Early Civilizations in the Indus River Valley
Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro
  • Each city had a strong central fortress, or
    citadel,
  • on a brick platform

11
II. Early Civilizations in the Indus River Valley
Harappa granary
  • Storehouses for grain indicate careful planning
  • and a strong central government

12
Decline and Disappearance of Indus Valley
Civilization
1
  • No one knows for certain why the cities were
    abandoned and forgotten. Scholars have proposed a
    number of theories
  • Too many trees were cut down.
  • A devastating earthquake destroyed the region.
  • A volcanic eruption caused the Indus to flood
  • the city.
  • Aryan invaders overran the region.

13
Section 1 Assessment
1
Which of the following is true about the Indus
Valley civilization? a) Its people were
monotheistic.
b) Its people
were polytheistic.
c) Most
people were merchants.
d) Its
people were the first to grow corn.
Which geographical feature helped India to
develop a distinct culture? a) river

b) plain

c) mountains

d) plateaus
14
Section 1 Assessment
1
.
15
Name the 5 levels of IndiasCaste System
1.__________
2.
3._____________________
4.____________________________
5.
16
Kingdoms of the Ganges
2
  • What were the main characteristics of Aryan
    civilization in India?
  • How did expansion lead to changes in Aryan
    civilization?
  • What do ancient Indian epics reveal about Aryan
    life?

17
Aryan Civilization
2
The Aryans destroyed and looted the civilization
of the Indus Valley and built a new Indian
civilization, which reflected the following
characteristics
18
The Caste System of India
  • Brahmins (the priests and academics)
  • Kshatriyas (rulers and military)
  • Vaishyas (farmers, landlords,merchants)
  • Sudras (peasants, servants, and workers in
    non-polluting jobs)
  • Untouchables (leatherwork, street cleaning)

19
  • structures the society.
  • The Caste
  • system is
  • based on
  • Hinduisms belief in reincarnation.

20
Brahman
Vishnu
Shiva
21
Temple Priest
Brahmin
22
Kshatriya
Politicians
23
Farmers in rural India
Vaishya
24
Sweeping rice
Sudras
25
Untouchables
Women sweeping rain off road
26
Aryan Civilization
2
  • Expansion led to change in Aryan civilization
    because they
  • mingled with the people they conquered
  • gave up their nomadic ways and settled into
    villages to farm and breed cattle
  • learned such skills as iron making and developed
    crafts of their own
  • fought to control trade and territory
  • moved toward the idea of a single spiritual
    power
  • some rajas, or tribal chiefs, became hereditary
    rulers
  • developed the written language of Sanskrit.

27
Sanskrit Written Language
  • A written language was developed

28
Epic Literature
2
Two great epic poems, the Mahabharata and the
Ramayana, tell us about Aryan life and values.
  • The Mahabharata celebrates battle and reflects
    important Indian beliefs about the immortality of
    the soul.
  • The Ramayana celebrates a daring and adventurous
    hero and portrays the ideal woman as loyal and
    obedient to her husband.

29
Section 2 Assessment
2
  • Which of the following is not true of the early
    Aryans? a) They built
    magnificent palaces and temples.
    b) They were nomadic warriors.
    c) They organized
    people into castes.
    d) They believed in many gods.
  • What is one way that expansion changed Aryan
    civilization? a) People settled into
    villages and took up farming.
  • b) The Aryans isolated themselves from
    the people that they conquered.

    c) The Aryans stopped trying to gain additional
    lands. d) The Aryans developed a more
    complex religious system, which involved the
    worship of many more gods.

Want to connect to the World History link for
this section? Click Here.
30
Section 2 Assessment
2
  • Which of the following is not true of the early
    Aryans? a) They built
    magnificent palaces and temples.
    b) They were nomadic warriors.
    c) They organized
    people into castes.
    d) They believed in many gods.
  • What is one way that expansion changed Aryan
    civilization? a) People settled into
    villages and took up farming. b) The
    Aryans isolated themselves from the people that
    they conquered.
    c) The Aryans
    stopped trying to gain additional lands.
    d) The Aryans developed a more complex
    religious system, which involved the worship of
    many more gods.

Want to connect to the World History link for
this section? Click Here.
31
Early Civilization in China
3
  • How did geography influence early Chinese
    civilization?
  • How did Chinese culture take shape under the
    Shang and the Zhou?
  • What were key cultural achievements in early
    China?

32
The Geography of China
3
China was the most isolated of the civilizations
studied thus far. Long distances and physical
barriers separated China from Egypt, the Middle
East, and India. Isolation contributed to the
Chinese belief that China was the center of the
earth and the only civilization. As in Egypt and
Mesopotamia, Chinese civilization began in a
river valley, the Huang He.
33
Chinese civilization took shape under the Shang
and Zhou.
3
Zhou Dynasty (1027 B.C.256 B.C.)
Shang Dynasty (1650 B.C.1027 B.C.)
  • Gained control of corner of northern China along
    Huang He.
  • Drove off nomads from northern steppes and
    deserts.
  • Held complex religious beliefs.
  • Developed written language used by all Chinese
    people.
  • Overthrew the Shang.
  • Promoted idea of Mandate of Heaven.
  • Set up feudal state.
  • Economy and commerce grew.
  • Population increased.

34
The Dynastic Cycle in China
3
The dynastic cycle refers to the rise and fall of
dynasties.
35
Cultural Achievements
3
The Chinese made progress in many areas during
the Shang and Zhou periods.
Discovered how to make silk thread. Silk became
Chinas most valuable export. Trade route to the
Middle East became known as Silk Road. Made the
first books from wood or bamboo. Studied the
movement of planets and recorded eclipses of the
sun. Developed accurate calendar with 365 1/4
days. Made remarkable achievements in the art of
bronzemaking.
36
Section 3 Assessment
3
  • What does the dynastic cycle explain?
    a) why the
    Chinese had developed complex religious beliefs
    b) why there are floods and famine
    c)
    why there are peasant revolts
    d) why
    dynasties rise and fall
  • Why was the development of silk making so
    important? a) It gave the
    peasants something to do.
    b) Silk became Chinas most
    valuable export.
    c) It provided a way for the Chinese to get rid
    of annoying silkworms.

    d) Chinese experts traveled to
    foreign countries to teach silk making
    techniques.

Want to connect to the World History link for
this section? Click Here.
37
Section 3 Assessment
3
  • What does the dynastic cycle explain?
    a) why the
    Chinese had developed complex religious beliefs
    b) why there are floods and famine
    c)
    why there are peasant revolts
    d) why
    dynasties rise and fall
  • Why was the development of silk making so
    important? a) It gave the
    peasants something to do.
    b) Silk became Chinas most
    valuable export.
    c) It provided a way for the Chinese to get rid
    of annoying silkworms.

    d) Chinese experts traveled to
    foreign countries to teach silk making
    techniques.

Want to connect to the World History link for
this section? Click Here.
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