Chapter%201%20Ancient%20America%20and%20Africa - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Chapter%201%20Ancient%20America%20and%20Africa

Description:

Chapter 1 Ancient America and Africa The American People, 6th ed. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:76
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 28
Provided by: ToddF168
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Chapter%201%20Ancient%20America%20and%20Africa


1
Chapter 1 Ancient America and Africa
  • The American People, 6th ed.

2
The Peoples of America Before Columbus
3
Migration to the Americas
  • Archaeologists have unearthed remains pointing to
    the arrival of humans in America at about 35,000
    B.C.E.
  • Scientists generally agree that the first
    inhabitants of the Americas were nomadic
    travelers from Siberia.
  • These peoples traversed an ancient land bridge
    which connected northeast Asia with Alaska.

4
(No Transcript)
5
Hunters, Farmers, and Environmental Factors
  • The first wave of humans found an abundance of
    megafauna gigantic animals. Changes in
    environment and over-hunting wiped most out.
  • Adaptable humans learned to exploit new sources
    of food from plants in the agricultural
    revolution.
  • Erosion, deforestation, and salinization added to
    Americas environmental stresses over the
    centuries.

6
(No Transcript)
7
Mesoamerican Empires
  • Mesoamerica the middle region bridging the
    great land masses of North and South America.
  • The Aztec people of present-day Mexico numbered
    about 20 million in 1492.
  • The Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan later became
    Mexico City.
  • Aztec society was divided into four classes
    nobility, free commoners, serfs, and slaves.

8
(No Transcript)
9
Regional North American Cultures
  • In the southwestern region of North America,
    Hohokam and Anasazi societies developed
    established communities thousands of years before
    the arrival of Europeans (who called them the
    Pueblo people).
  • Native peoples of the Pacific Northwest formed
    societies emphasizing fishing, wood craftsmanship
    and ceremonies such as the Potlatch.
  • Several societies of Mound Builders developed in
    the Mississippi River valley and Great Plains.

10
(No Transcript)
11
(No Transcript)
12
The Iroquois
  • A confederation of five distinct tribes with
    unified land and goals
  • The Mohawk (People of the Flint)
  • The Oneidas (People of the Stone)
  • The Onondagas (People of the Mountain)
  • The Cayuga (People at the Landing)
  • The Seneca (Great Hill People)

13
Pre-Contact Population
  • Recently, scholars have estimated that the
    pre-contact population of America north of the
    Rio Grande stood at about 4 million.
  • Some estimates put the population of the Western
    Hemisphere at about 50 to 70 million at the same
    period.

14
(No Transcript)
15
(No Transcript)
16
Contrasting Worldviews
  • The stark differences in European and American
    cultures stemmed from perceptions of social
    relationships and interaction with the
    environment.
  • Differences included concepts of property and
    communal ownership of goods and food sources.

17
Africa on the Eve of Contact
18
The Spread of Islam
  • Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam, began preaching
    the tenants of his revelations in 610 B.C.E.
  • Islam spread rapidly across the Arabian Peninsula
    and the whole of northern Africa.
  • Eventually, the religion encompassed most of the
    Eastern Hemisphere.

19
(No Transcript)
20
The Kingdoms of Central and West Africa
  • The Ghana Empire
  • The Mali Empire
  • The Songhai Empire
  • The Kongo Kingdom

21
(No Transcript)
22
African Slavery
  • Slavery existed as a normal social condition in
    this period and had little to do with skin color.
  • Slaves were a sign of wealth for the owners, who
    treated their property very well.
  • The status of slavery was not inherited and
    always held the potential for reversal.

23
The African Ethos
  • As in Europe, the center of African social
    organization was the family unit, which was often
    matrilineal.
  • Individualism was seen as distasteful and widely
    disdained.
  • Africans believed in a Supreme Creator and
    worshipped ancestors.

24
Europe on the Eve of Invading the Americas
25
The Rebirth of Europe
  • Stemmed from revived Italian trade with
    long-distance ports.
  • Led to a rediscovery of forgotten ancient
    knowledge.
  • Economic and political implications for societies
    that survived the Black Death.
  • Enclosure of estates
  • Development of English Parliament

26
The New Monarchies and the Expansionist Impulse
  • From 1450 onwards, France, England, and Spain
    sought social and political stability.
  • Economic distress, civil disorder, plague, and
    Renaissance culture encouraged impulses to expand
    into the New World.
  • The Europeans ultimately hoped to discover an
    eastern oceanic route to Asia and exploit the
    African gold trade.

27
(No Transcript)
About PowerShow.com