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ANATOMY

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ANATOMY Overview of the Respiratory System Respiratory The respiratory system consists of the lungs and air passages. This system is responsible for taking in oxygen ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ANATOMY


1
ANATOMY
  • Overview of the Respiratory System

2
Respiratory
  • The respiratory system consists of the lungs and
    air passages.
  • This system is responsible for taking in oxygen,
    a gas needed by all body cells, and removing
    carbon dioxide, a gas that is a waste product
    produced by the cells.

3
Why we need oxygen
  • The body has only a four to six minute supply of
    oxygen. The respiratory system must work
    continuously or death will occur.

4
Parts of the system
  • The parts of the respiratory include the nose,
    pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs.

5
The Nose
  • The two nostrils are separated by the nasal
    septum, which divides the nose into two cavities
    called the nares or nasal cavities.

6
What the Nose Do?
  • The function of the nose
  • Removal of foreign bodies, either caught by the
    hairs of the nose or the mucous membranes which
    filter out he foreign objects.

7
What the nose does
  • A rich blood supply in the nares, warms and
    moistens the air.
  • Receptors for the olfactory gives us the sense of
    smell.
  • The tear ducts from the eye drain into the nose.

8
What does the pharynx do?
  • Air leaving the nose passes into the pharnx,
    which is commonly called the throat, which is a
    common passageway for food and air.

9
Anatomy of the Respiratory System
Sinus cavity Nose Mouth Tongue
Nasaopharynx oropharynx

Laryngpharynx
Pharynx
Epiglottis esophagus
Trachea
10
There are three sections to the Pharynx
  • The nasopharynx contains the tonsils and adenoids
  • The oropharynx opens into the mouth.
  • The larynopharynx opens into the larynx.
  • Small tubes from the middle ear open into the
    larynopharynx

11
Larynx
  • The larynx , which is also called the voice box
    is formed of cartilage plates. The largest is the
    thyroid cartilage called the Adams apple.

12
Larynx
  • The larynx contains two folds which are your
    vocal cords which vibrate to produce sound and
    speech.
  • At the end of the larynx is the epiglottis, that
    closes during swallowing which prevents foods
    from entering the respiratory tract.

13
Trachea
  • The trachea or windpipe carries air to the
    bronchi.
  • The rings of the trachea are almost
    noncollapsible which keeps the trachea open
    allowing for air to enter the lungs, but can be
    obstructed by large pieces of food.

14
Trachea
  • Coughing occurs when the tracheas mucous and
    cilia (hair like structures) move foreign objects
    upward. This is your bodies natural defense
    against choking.

15
Bronchi
  • The lower end of the trachea is divided into two
    Bronchi. As the bronchi enter the lung, they
    branch off into smaller tubes called bronchioles.
    These end in tiny air sacs called alveoli.

16
The lungs
  • The lungs are divided into lobes The right lung
    has three lobes and left lung has two lobes.
  • Tiny grape like structures call alveoli are
    located in the lungs and are highly elastic.

17
Lungs
  • A rich supply of blood capillaries surround the
    alveoli allowing the air exchange to occur.
  • The lungs are covered by a two layered membrane
    called the pleura.

18
Breathing
  • The process of breathing is called respiration.
    It involves inspiration ( inhaling of air) and
    expiration ( exhaling air.)
  • One inspiration plus one expiration equals one
    respiration.

19
The lungs
  • The large muscle separating the lungs from the
    abdomen is called the diaphragm. This contracts
    along with the rib muscles and allows air to get
    into the lungs.

20
Lungs
  • The alveoli expanded with fresh oxygen, exchange
    oxygen for carbon dioxide with the tiny blood
    vessels that surround the alveoli.

21
Respirations
  • Respirations vary at 14- 22 per minute and are
    controlled by the medulla of the brain.
  • Chemical factors and conscious control also
    affect respiration.

22
Diseases affecting the respiratory system
  • Infections are the most common affliction of the
    respiratory system.
  • Pneumonia inflamation of the lungs.
  • Upper respiratory Ears, eyes, nose or throat.
    Also called URIs
  • Emphysema loss of elasticity of alveoli causing
    air to be trapped.
  • Asthma causes spasms of the bronchi
  • Cancers abnormal cell growth

23
Your Lungs
  • NormL Chest X ray
  • Abnormal x-ray

24
Respiratory vocabulary
  • Respiratory Medical Terms
  • anoxia (ah-NOCK-see-ah) without oxygen.
  • apnea ( AP-nee-ah) temporary cessation of
    breathing.
  • bradypnea (brad-ihp-NEE-ah) abnormal slow
    breathing.
  • Cheyne-stokes respiration (chayn-stohks) periods
    of apnea lasting 10 to 60 seconds.
  • dyspnea (disp-nee-ah) difficulty with breathing
    or labored breathing.
  • epistaxis (ep-ih-stack-sis) nose bleed.
  • hyperpnea ( high-perp-NEE- ah) an increased
    respiratory rate, or breathing that is deeper.
  • hypoxia ( high-POCK-see-ah) defeciency of oxygen.
  • rhinorrhea (rye-noh-REE-ah) thin watery discharge
    from the nose.
  • tachypnea ( tack-ihp-NEE- ah) abnormal rapid
    respirations.
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