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Title: Respiratory%20System


1
Respiratory System

2
Introduction
  • The CV and Respiratory system cooperate to supply
    O2 and eliminate CO2

3
Introduction
  • The Resp. Sys. provides for gas exchange

4
Introduction
  • The CV transports respiratory gases

5
Introduction
  • Respiration is the exchange of gases between the
    atmosphere, blood, and cells

6
Introduction
  • Consists of
  • Nose
  • Pharynx
  • Larynx
  • Trachea
  • Bronchi
  • Lungs

7
Introduction
  • The conducting system consists of a series of
    cavities and tubes nose, pharynx, larynx,
    trachea, bronchi, bronchiole, and terminal
    bronchiole

8
Introduction
  • The conducting system conducts air into lungs

9
Introduction
  • The respiratory portion consists of the area
    where gas exchange occurs-respiratory
    bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and
    alveoli

10
Nose
  • The external portion of the nose is made of
    cartilage and skin and is lined with mucous
    membrane.

11
Nose
  • It is stratified squamous epithelium inside the
    nostrils

12
Nose
  • It turns into pseudostratified columnar
    epithelium deeper inside

13
Nose
  • The bony framework of the nose is formed by the
    frontal bone, nasal bones, and maxillae

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15
Nose
  • The internal structures of the nose are
    specialized for
  • 1. warming

16
Nose
  • 2. moistening

17
Nose
  • 3. Filtering incoming air

18
Nose
  • 4. Receiving olfactory stimuli

19
Nose
  • 5. Serving as large, hollow resonating chambers
    to modify speech sounds

20
Nose
  • The space within the internal nose is called the
    nasal cavity.

21
Nose
  • It is divided into right and left sides by the
    nasal septum

22
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23
Nose
  • The anterior portion of the cavity (nostrils) is
    called the vestibule

24
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25
Pharynx
  • Throat

26
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27
Pharynx
  • Muscular tube lined by a mucous membrane

28
Pharynx
  • Anatomic regions
  • Nasopharynx
  • Oropharynx
  • laryngopharynx

29
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30
Pharynx
  • Nasopharynx functions in respiration

31
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32
Pharynx
  • The oropharynx and laryngopharynx function in
    digestion and in respiration

33
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34
Larynx
  • Voice box

35
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36
Larynx
  • Passageway that connects the pharynx with the
    trachea

37
Larynx
  • It contains
  • 1. Thyroid cartilage (Adams apple)

38
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39
Larynx
  • 2. Epiglottis (prevents food from entering the
    larynx)

40
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41
Larynx
  • 3. Cricoid cartilage (connects the larynx and
    trachea)

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43
Swallowing
  • 1. Larynx raises up

44
Swallowing
  • 2. Epiglottis covers the entry into the glottis

45
Swallowing
  • 3. The upper esophageal sphincter opens

46
Swallowing
  • 4. Food is diverted into the esophagus

47
Voice Production
  • The larynx contains vocal folds (true vocal
    cords) which produces sound

48
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49
Voice Production
  • The true cords and the space between them make up
    the glottis

50
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51
Voice Production
  • In males, the true cords are thicker and longer

52
Voice Production
  • The false cords close when we clear our throat

53
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54
Trachea
  • Windpipe

55
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56
Trachea
  • Extends from the larynx to the primary bronchi

57
Trachea
  • Composed of smooth muscle and C-shaped rings of
    cartilage

58
Trachea
  • Lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar
    epithelium

59
Trachea
  • The cartilage rings keep the airway open

60
Trachea
  • Cilia sweep debris away from the lungs and back
    to the throat to be swallowed

61
Bronchi
  • The trachea divides into the right and left
    primary bronchi

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63
Bronchi
  • The bronchiole tree consists of the
  • 1. trachea

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65
Bronchi
  • 2. Primary bronchi

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67
Bronchi
  • 3. Secondary bronchi

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69
Bronchi
  • 4. Tertiary bronchi

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71
Bronchi
  • 5. Bronchioles

72
Bronchi
  • 6. Terminal bronchioles

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74
Bronchi
  • Walls of bronchi contain rings of cartilage,
    which disappears distally

75
Bronchi
  • Walls of bronchioles contain smooth muscle only,
    without cartilage

76
Bronchi
  • The epithelium changes from ciliated
    pseudostratified columnar to non-ciliated simple
    cuboidal in the terminal bronchioles

77
Bronchi
  • Sympathetics release norepinephrine and epi.
    which stimulates beta two receptors causing
    bronchodilation

78
Bronchi
  • Parasympathetic release ACh which stimulates
    muscarinic ACh receptors causing
    bronchoconstriction

79
Lungs
  • Paired organs in the thoracic cavity

80
Lungs
  • Enclosed and protected by the pleural membrane

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82
Lungs
  • Parietal pleura outer layer which is attached
    to the wall of the thoracic cavity

83
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84
Lungs
  • Visceral pleura inner layer, covering the lungs

85
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86
Lungs
  • Pleural cavity (space) A small space between
    the pleurae that contains a lubricating fluid
    secreted by the membranes

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88
Lungs
  • Extend from the diaphragm to just slightly
    superior to the clavicles

89
Lungs
  • Lie against the ribs anteriorly and posteriorly

90
Lungs
  • Right lung has three lobes

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92
Lungs
  • The left lung has two lobes

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94
Lungs
  • Tertiary bronchi supply segments of lung tissue
    called bronchopulmonary segments

95
Lungs
  • Each bronchopulmonary segment consists of many
    small compartments called lobules

96
Lungs
  • Lobules contain
  • 1. lymphatics

97
Lungs
  • 2. arterioles

98
Lungs
  • 3. venules

99
Lungs
  • 4. Terminal bronchioles

100
Lungs
  • 5. Respiratory bronchioles

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102
Lungs
  • 6. Alveolar ducts

103
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104
Lungs
  • 7. Alveolar sacs

105
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106
Lungs
  • 8. alveoli

107
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108
Alveoli
  • Have a surface area of 70 square meters

109
Alveoli
  • Consists of
  • Type I alveolar cells (simple squamous)
  • Type II alveolar cells (septal)
  • Alveolar macrophages (dust cells)

110
Alveoli
  • Type II alveolar cells secrete alveolar fluid
    which keeps the alveolar moist

111
Alveoli
  • The alveolar fluid contains surfactant which
    prevents the collapse of alveoli with each
    expiration

112
Alveoli
  • Gas exchange occurs across the alveolar-capillary
    (respiratory) membrane

113
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114
Alveoli
  • Respiratory membrane consists of the two layers
    of simple squamous cells and their basement
    membranes

115
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116
Pulmonary Ventilation
  • Breathing

117
Pulmonary Ventilation
  • Process by which gases are exchanged between the
    atmosphere and lung alveoli.

118
Inspiration
  • Occurs when alveolar pressure fall below atm.
    pressure.

119
Inspiration
  • Contraction of the diaphragm and external
    intercostal muscles increases the size of the
    thorax.

120
Inspiration
  • Thus decreasing the intrathoracic pressure so
    that the lungs expand.

121
Inspiration
  • Expansion of the lungs decreases alveolar
    pressure to 758 mmHg.

122
Inspiration
  • Air moves along the pressure gradient from atm.
    760 into the lungs.

123
Expiration
  • Occurs when alveolar pressure is higher than atm.
    pressure (760).

124
Expiration
  • Relaxtion of the diaphragm and external
    intercostals results in elastic recoil of the
    chest wall and lungs which..

125
Expiration
  • 1. Increases intrathoracic pressure

126
Expiration
  • 2. Decreases lung volume

127
Expiration
  • 3. Increases alveolar pressure so that air moves
    from the lungs to the atmosphere

128
Alveolar Surface Tension
  • Causes the alveolar to assume the smallest
    diameter

129
Alveolar Surface Tension
  • Surface tension must be overcome to expand the
    lungs during each inspiration

130
Alveolar Surface Tension
  • It is the major component of elastic recoil,
    which acts to decrease the size of the alveoli
    during expiration

131
Alveolar Surface Tension
  • Surfactant decreases surface tension of the
    alveoli and prevents their collapse following
    expiration

132
Lung Volumes and Capacities
  • Tidal volume - amount of air inhaled or exhaled
    with each breath under resting conditions (500ml)

133
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134
Lung Volumes and Capacities
  • Inspiratory reserve volume Amount of air that
    can be forcefully inhaled after a normal tidal
    volume inhalation (3100)

135
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136
Lung Volumes and Capacities
  • During forced inspiration the muscles
    sternocleidomastoid and pectoralis minor are also
    used

137
Lung Volumes and Capacities
  • Expiratory reserve volume Amount of air that
    can be forcefully exhaled after a normal tidal
    volume exhalation (1200ml)

138
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139
Lung Volumes and Capacities
  • Forced expiration employs contraction of the
    internal intercostals and abdominal muscles

140
Lung Volumes and Capacities
  • Vital capacity Maximum amount of air that can
    be exhaled after a maximal inspiration (4800ml)

141
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142
Lung Volumes and Capacities
  • Residual volume Air remaining in the lungs
    after the expiratory reserve volume is exhaled
    (1200)

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144
Lung Volumes and Capacities
  • Minute Volume of Respiration the total volume
    of air taken in during one minute

145
Lung Volumes and Capacities
  • Minute Volume of Respiration tidal volume x 12
    respirations per minute 6000ml/min

146
Daltons law
  • Each gas in a mixture of gases exerts its own
    pressure as if all the other gases were not
    present

147
Daltons law
  • Partial pressure of a gas the pressure exerted
    by that gas in a mixture of gases

148
Daltons law
  • Partial pressure of a gas of the mixture
    represented by the gas times the total pressure

149
Daltons law
  • Total Pressure (P) Add all the partial pressures

150
External Respiration
  • In internal and external respiration, O2 and CO2
    diffuse from areas of their higher partial
    pressures to areas of their lower partial
    pressures

151
External Respiration
  • Results in the conversion of deoxygenated blood
    coming from the heart to oxygenated blood
    returning to the heart.

152
Internal Respiration
  • Tissue Respiration

153
Internal Respiration
  • The exchange of gases between tissue blood
    capillaries and tissue cells.

154
Internal Respiration
  • Results in the conversion of oxygenated blood
    into deoxygenated blood

155
Internal Respiration
  • During exercise more O2 enters tissue cells than
    at rest

156
Respiratory Center
  • Area of the brain from which nerve impulses are
    sent to resp. muscles

157
Respiratory Center
  • Consists of
  • Medullary rhythmicity area
  • Pneumotaxic area
  • Apneustic area

158
Medullary Rhythmicity Area
  • Controls the basic rhythm of respiration

159
Medullary Rhythmicity Area
  • Consists of
  • Inspiratory area
  • Expiratory area

160
Medullary Rhythmicity Area
  • The inspiratory area has autorhythmic neurons
    that set the basic rhythm of respiration

161
Medullary Rhythmicity Area
  • Expiratory area remains inactive during most
    quiet respiration but active during forced
    expiration

162
Medullary Rhythmicity Area
  • Inspiration last 2 seconds

163
Medullary Rhythmicity Area
  • Expiration lasts 3 seconds

164
Pneumotaxic Area
  • Coordinates the transition between inspiration
    and expiration

165
Apneustic Area
  • Sends impulses to the inspiratory area that
    activate it and prolong inspiration, inhibiting
    expiration

166
Cortical Influences
  • Allow conscious control of respiration

167
Cortical Influences
  • Needed to avoid inhaling noxious gasses or water

168
Chemoreceptors
  • Monitor levels of CO2 and O2 and provide input to
    resp. center

169
Central Chemoreceptors
  • Located in the medulla oblongota

170
Central Chemoreceptors
  • Respond to change in H concentration or PCO2 or
    both in cerebrospinal fluid

171
Peripheral Chemoreceptors
  • Located in the walls of systemic arteries

172
Peripheral Chemoreceptors
  • Respond to changes in H,PCO2, and PO2

173
Hypercapnia
  • A slight increase in PCO2 (and H) stimulates
    central chemoreceptors

174
Hypercapnia
  • The inspiratory area is activated and
    hyperventilation occurs

175
Hypocapnia
  • PCO2 is lower than 40 mm Hg

176
Hypocapnia
  • Chemoreceptors are not stimulated

177
Hypocapnia
  • Inspiratory area sets its own pace until CO2
    accumulates

178
Hypoxia
  • Oxygen deficiency at the tissue level

179
Hypoxix Hypoxia
  • Caused by low PO2 in arterial blood

180
Hypoxix Hypoxia
  • Caused by high altitude, airway obstruction,
    fluid in lungs

181
Anemic Hypoxia
  • Too little functioning hemoglobin

182
Anemic Hypoxia
  • Caused by hemorrhage, anemia, carbon monoxide
    poisoning

183
Stagnant hypoxia
  • The inability of blood to carry oxygen to tissues
    fast enough to sustain their needs

184
Stagnant hypoxia
  • Caused by heart failure, circulatory shock

185
Histotoxic hypoxia
  • Blood delivers adequate oxygen to the tissues,
    but the tissues are unable to use it properly

186
Histotoxic hypoxia
  • Caused by cyanide poisoning
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