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The Respiratory System

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The Respiratory System Why a Respiratory System? Most living things need oxygen to release energy from food. Carbon dioxide is produced as waste and must be eliminated. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Respiratory System


1
The RespiratorySystem
2
Why a Respiratory System?
  • Most living things need oxygen to release energy
    from food. Carbon dioxide is produced as waste
    and must be eliminated.
  • Multi-celled organisms need a way to exchange
    gases with cells deep in the body
  • Works with the circulatory system to exchange
    gases between cells and atmosphere.

Ancestors of lungfish were the first to evolve
lungs for living in oxygen-poor water
3
Trace the path of air
  • nose (warmth and filtration)
  • pharynx (throat)
  • larynx (voice box)
  • trachea (windpipe)
  • bronchus
  • bronchiole
  • alveoli (air sacs)
  • capillaries (to heart)

4
Its a self-cleaning system!
  • Entire respiratory tract lined with ciliated
    cells and mucus glands
  • Cilia constantly sweeping up debris trapped in
    mucus toward throat to be swallowed

5
Ciliated cells in trachea
6
Alveoli sites of gas exchange
  • Each lung contains 600 million air sacs called
    alveoli
  • Provides over 70 m2 surface area for gas exchange
  • Alveoli are wrapped in capillaries
  • Oxygen diffuses into oxygen poor blood. Carbon
    dioxide diffuses out of CO2 rich blood

7
Gas Exchange
8
Anatomy of Breathing
  • Exhalation diaphragm is u-shaped (relaxed),
    decreases volume of body cavity, increasing air
    pressure, forcing air out
  • Inhalation diaphragm is flat (contracted),
    increases volume of body cavity, decreasing air
    pressure, forcing air in

9
Regulation of Breathing
  • Carbon dioxide (CO2) is waste product of cell
    metabolism
  • As blood CO2 concentration increases, blood pH
    decreases.
  • CO2 H2O ? H2CO3
  • carbon dioxide water carbonic acid
  • Brainstem detects decreasing blood pH via sensory
    receptors in aorta. Sends signals to diaphragm
    and rib muscles to contract faster, decreasing
    CO2 and increasing blood pH

10
Breathing Animation
  • http//teachhealthk12.uthscsa.edu/studentresources
    /AnatomyofBreathing3.swf
  • (requires flash)
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