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THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

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THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM ... from the blood Expels heat and water vapour Allows the vocal cords to create speech as air is breathed out Anatomy The lungs are the major ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM


1
THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
2
Functions
  • The respiratory system delivers oxygen from
  • the air we breathe into the blood, and removes
  • the carbon dioxide.
  • It brings air from the atmosphere into the lungs
  • Transfers O2 into the blood
  • Removes carbon dioxide from the blood
  • Expels heat and water vapour
  • Allows the vocal cords to create speech as air is
    breathed out

3
Anatomy
  • The lungs are the major organ of the respiratory
    system.
  • They consist of 3 main parts
  • The conducting system
  • The pleura
  • The diaphragm

4
The Conducting System
  • THE NASAL CAVITY
  • To warm and clean the air
    from outside the body
  • THE PHARYNX
  • Where the back of the mouth
    and the nasal
    passage meet.
    Food is passed into the
    oesophagus,
    whilst air is
    passed to the
  • THE LARYNX
  • The Adams Apple. Contains
    vocal cords which allow
    speech
    as air passes through.

5
The Conducting System
  • THE TRACHEA
  • The windpipe. Constructed by rings of hyaline
    cartilage and sits behind the sternum. Why??
  • THE BRONCHI
  • The trachea divides into 2 bronchi.
    Each bronchus feed one
    of the
    lungs.
  • THE BRONCHIOLES
  • Each bronchus subdivides into a
    series of subdividing
    bronchioles
  • THE ALVEOLI
  • Tiny air sacs. Each alveolus is
    only one cell
    thick and is heavily
    surrounded by capillaries. WHY??

6
  • The Pleura
  • This membrane covers each lung.
  • It is attached to the inside of the chest cavity
    and the top of the diaphragm.
  • Its purpose is to prevent friction between the
    lungs and surrounding body tissue.
  • The Diaphragm
  • This involuntary / smooth muscle
    contracts/relaxes to aid breathing.

7
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8
Pressure inside the lungs
9
GASEOUS EXCHANGE
  • Gases spread from high-concentration areas to
    low-concentration areas.
  • The blood in the capillaries arriving at the
    alveoli is low in O2 and high in CO2.
  • Air in the alveoli is high in O2 and low in CO2.
  • Therefore, O2 diffuses into the blood, CO2
    diffuses into the alveoli, where it breathed out.

10
Gas exchange
11
The mechanism of gaseous exchange
  • The reverse process occurs in the capillaries
    that
  • surround the muscle fibres.
  • The muscle fibres are low in O2, which has been
    used to produce energy (ATP), but high in CO2,
    which is a waste product.
  • The capillaries however, are high in O2, and low
    in CO2.
  • Therefore O2 diffuses into the muscle fibres
    while CO2 moves into capillaries.

12
Oxygen Uptake by the muscles
13
Breathing
  • During Inspiration (Breathing In) our muscles
    between the ribs (Intercostal Muscles) contract
    pulling the rib cage up and out.
  • The Diaphragm also contracts and flattens.
  • The lungs then expand and air is sucked in.

14
Breathing
  • During Expiration (Breathing Out) the intercostal
    muscles relax and the rib cage moves down and in.
  • The diaphragm muscles relax and it moves upwards
    and becomes more domed shaped.
  • The lungs recoil, and air goes out as the space
    inside the lungs is reduced.

15
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16
Control of Breathing
  • The breathing rate and depth of breathing are
    controlled by the respiratory centre in the
    brain.
  • The exercise, the muscles are releasing more
    carbon dioxide as waste.
  • The respiratory centre in the brain detects this
    and initiates the body to breathe more deeply and
    more rapidly because more oxygen is needed by the
    muscles.

17
Measuring our Lung Capacity
  • Vital Capacity This is the largest volume of
    air that can be blown out (expired) after a
    maximal inspiration. (largest breath)
  • Residual Volume is the air that remains in the
    lungs after a maximum expiration. (breathing out
    as much as as possible)

18
Measuring our Lung Capacity
  • Tidal Volume Is the amount of air normally
    inspired and expired.
  • Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV) Is the air
    able to be inspired after a normal breath in.
  • Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV) is the air able
    to be expired after a normal breath out

19
Measuring our Lung Capacity
  • Total Lung Capacity is measured by
  • TLC Vital Capacity (VC)
  • Residual Volume (RV)

20
Ventilation
  • Ventilation is the amount of air breathed in and
    out in one minute.
  • It is measured by
  • Ventilation Tidal Volume (TV) x Respiratory
    Rate (number of breathes per min)

21
Things to Remember
  • During Exercise the things you have to remember
    are
  • Tidal Volume INCREASES
  • Ventilation INCREASES
  • Total Lung Capacity INCREASES
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