Chapter%202%20Environmental%20Laws,%20Economics%20and%20Ethics - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter%202%20Environmental%20Laws,%20Economics%20and%20Ethics

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Chapter 2 Environmental Laws, Economics and Ethics – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter%202%20Environmental%20Laws,%20Economics%20and%20Ethics


1
Chapter 2 Environmental Laws, Economics and Ethics
2
Overview of Chapter 2
  • Brief US Environmental History
  • US Environmental Legislation
  • Economics and the Environment
  • Environmental Problems in Central and Eastern
    Europe
  • Environmental Ethics, Values and Worldviews

3
Environmental History of the US
1600
1700
1900
1800
Dominated by Frontier Attitude
Establishment of Jamestown, VA
  • 1600s - early 1800s Frontier Attitude
  • Natural Resources (land, timber soil, water)
    seemed inexhaustible
  • Widespread Environmental Destruction

4
Environmental History of US
John James Audobon (1785-1851)
Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862)
George Perkins Marsh (1801-1882)
  • 19th century- US Naturalists voiced concerns
    about natural resources
  • Audobon- painting increased interest in
    environment
  • Thoreau- naturalist author on simplifying life
  • Marsh- wrote Man and Nature

5
Environmental History of US
1875
1900
1850
1875 American Forestry Assoc. Formed
1891 General Revision Act
1890 Yosemite and Sequoia National Parks
Established
  • General Revision Act
  • Gave President Authority to establish forest
    reserves
  • Presidents Harrison, Cleveland, Roosevelt put
    17.4 million hectares into reserve
  • Roosevelt reserved additional 6.5 million
    hectares before signing bill preventing further
    forest reservation

6
Environmental History of US
  • Utilitarian Conservationist
  • Roosevelt
  • Value natural resources for their usefulness
  • Biocentric Preservationist
  • John Muir (founded Sierra Club)
  • Fought for National Parks
  • Protect nature because all life deserves respect

7
Environmental History of US
1925
1950
1900
1935 Creation of Soil Conservation Service
1906 Antiquities Act
1916 National Park Service Created
  • Antiquities Act
  • Allows president to set aside sites of scientific
    or historical importance (monuments)
  • American Dust Bowl (1930s droughts)
  • Basis for Soil Conservation Service
  • Created by Franklin Roosevelt

8
Environmental History of US
1900
1925
1975
1950
Aldo Leopold (1886-1948)
Wallace Stegner (1909-1993)
Rachel Carson (1907-1964)
  • 20th Century Naturalists
  • Leopold- Author (A Sand Country Almanac)
  • Stegner- Author (Wilderness Essay)
  • Carson- Author (Silent Spring)
  • Heightened awareness of DDT and pesticides

9
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10
US Environmental Legislation
  • Environmental Protection Agency
  • Est. 1970
  • National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)

11
Environmental Impact Statements
12
US Environmental Legislation
  • Numerous laws passed since 1970
  • They address
  • Clean water
  • Clean air
  • Energy conservation
  • Hazardous waste
  • Pesticides
  • Federal regulation of pollution

13
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15
Effects of Environmental Legislation (According
to EPAs Draft Report on the Environment 2003)
  • Since 1970,
  • 6 air pollutants have dropped by 25
  • Since 1990
  • wet sulfate levels decreased 20-30
  • In 2002
  • 94 of US had healthy drinking water (up from 79
    in 1993)
  • As of 2002
  • 846 of 1498 Superfund Sites are cleaned up
  • Fewer streams violate water standards

16
Economics and the Environment
  • Economics- study of how people use limited
    resources to satisfy unlimited wants
  • Analytical tools include models

17
Optimum Level of Pollution
  • Optimum Level of Pollution
  • Cost to society of having less pollution is
    offset by benefits to society of activity
    creating pollution
  • Must identify
  • Marginal Cost of Pollution- Cost of small
    additional amount of pollution
  • Marginal Cost of Abatement- Cost of reducing
    small amount of pollution

18
Economic Optimum Level of Pollution
19
Private vs Social Cost of Pollution
20
Strategies for Pollution Control
  • Command and Control Solutions
  • Environmental Taxes/ Tradable Permits

21
Effect of Tax on Optimum Pollution
22
Critiques of Environmental Economics
  • Difficult to assess true costs of environmental
    pollution and abatement
  • Utilitarian economics may not be appropriate

23
National Income Accounts
  • Estimates of National Economic Performance and
    used in Politics
  • Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
  • Net Domestic Product (NDP)
  • Environment may be overexploited to yield a
    higher GDP in developing countries
  • EPI (Environmental Performance Index)
  • Assesses a countrys commitment to environmental
    and resource management

24
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25
Environmental Ethics
  • Field of ethics that considers the moral basis of
    environmental responsibility
  • Western Worldview
  • Human superiority and dominance over nature
  • Deep Ecology Worldview
  • All species have an equal worth to humans
  • Most peoples ethics fall somewhere in between
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