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Technological Contributions to Rural Development-The CST (astra) experience

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Title: Slide 1 Author: Prof. Sudhakar Rao Last modified by: Prof.M.Sudhakar Rao Created Date: 1/29/2009 1:32:08 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Technological Contributions to Rural Development-The CST (astra) experience


1
  • Technological Contributions to Rural
    Development-The CST (astra) experience
  • Centre for Sustainable Technologies
  • IISc

2
Though importance of S T for rural India was
appreciated as early in 1930s by Mahatma Gandhi,
S T in Advanced Academic Institutions turned
their attention to this area only 1970s. Most
well-known effort is from IISc with its
programme Application of Science and Technology
to Rural Areas known as ASTRA. Guiding
Principles of ASTRA Technological development is
driven by societal demands First step in
technology development for rural masses is needs
identification through direct contact and
translating needs to technological
solutions Technological solutions bound by
constraints of user-acceptability and
sustainability
Amulya Reddy CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 87, NO. 7, 10
OCTOBER 2004
3
BROAD AREAS of Technological Interventions
  • Bioenergy Technologies
  • Biomass gasification, biomethanation, improved
    wood burning devices (cook stoves, driers, kilns,
    etc.)
  • Technology generation and transfer/dissemination
  • Alternative building technologies
  • Technology generation, training and
    transfer/dissemination
  • Defluoridation of Water Sanitation Program
  • Hazardous waste management
  • .Forestry, sustainable biomass production and
    climate change

4
Bio-Energy Activities
  • Early 1980s - accepted a challenge to look into
    the energy needs of agricultural sector through
    the route of bioenergy conversion by mainly
    focusing on
  • Improved stoves for meeting the cooking energy
    needs
  • Biogas through bio-methanation route for meeting
    cooking and any small power needs
  • Biomass gasification to provide electricity or
    mechanical power to various rural needs.
  • What it means to the Country
  • Based on a analysis, total agro production of 415
    million tons which totals to about 440 million
    tons of bio-residues in India.
  • Accounting for current usage pattern there is
    surplus of 130 million tons of agro residues that
    can realize a power of potential of 17000 MW.
  • Further there are waste lands for bio resource
    development to address both transportation and
    stationary applications
  • Distributed power generation is the concepts
    using
  • Captive generation, Micro grids, Hybrid systems

5
Bio-Energy Activities Biomass combustion Fixed
stoves
  • ASTRA ole a three pan stove based on standard
    engineering principles
  • Increasing the area of heat transfer using, Multi
    pans, dipping the pan entirely, fins
  • A chimney to remove the flue and create the draft
  • Applications
  • DOMESTIC COOKING (ASTRA OLE) LARGE - SCALE
    COOKING BATH WATER HEATING ARECA PROCESSING,
    JAGGERY MAKINGAYURVEDIC MEDICINE, SILK
    REELING,DYEING OF YARNS STEAM DISTILLATION
    ,STEAM CURING OF LIME-STABILISED MUD
    BLOCKS,DRYING TOBACCO CURINGCRAMATION
  • These stoves were disseminated through subsidy
    programs over 1.5 million!

6
Fuel-efficient ASTRA Stoves
Bio-Energy Activities Biomass combustion Fixed
stoves
  • Motivation for development for technology
  • Conservation of fuel wood and biomass to save
    deforestation less time to be spent by women and
    children to collect firewood, thus children can
    be encouraged to attend school
  • Smokeless ness thus avoiding ill effects of
    exposure to smoke environment.
  • S T component
  • Application of principles of combustion heat
    transfer
  • Technology Dissemination
  • Through involvement of govt.agencies, NGOs,
    institutions. Entrepreneurs
  • Bottlenecks
  • Lack / not sufficient trained man power
  • Poor Market net-work
  • Needs more awareness

7
Wood Burning Devices
Technologies / Designs Technology Transfer Impacts
Efficient smokeless cook stoves Cook stoves 1.55 million HH Bath stoves 3300 Institutional stoves 4000 Fuelwood conservation 0.5 t/yr Improved quality of life for 1.5 million women Entrepreneurship and employment Investment Rs.300 million
Agro-products driers spices, fruits, vegetables Driers 1000 Enhanced economic value of Agro-products Investment Rs.27 mil
8
Bio-Energy Activities Biological Conversion
  • The activity began with use of cow dung as the
    feed material to meet the energy needs.
  • Research at IISc has led to use other
    ligno-celluosic material as feed
  • One reactor for wide biomass composition
  • Low input energy, low biomass processing
  • Wide VFA fluxes, slow methanogenesis,
  • Feed stratification and floating,
  • Create multiphase flow amidst changing form
  • Ferment biomass even when afloat,
  • Corrosion proof civil structure, gas-proofing
  • Major Achievements
  • Leafy biomass and crop wastes up to 1.5 t/d-Over
    15 systems
  • Coffee waste water-75 operational units
  • Municipal Solid Waste- 8 units built in 3 towns

9
Bio-Energy Activities Biological Conversion
10
BIOMETHANATION
Technologies / Designs Technology transfer Impact/ Investment
Community biogas for rural electrification Optimized designs Village electrification 17 villages Home lighting and water supply Reliable electricity in 17 villages No. of HH electrified - 1800 Inv. Rs.10 mil
Bioreactors for Coffee effluent Multi-feed high rate bioreactor process No. of sites 17 Capacity 1700 kg COD/d, 92 removal Gas production for multiple end uses Effluent treatment 504, 000 litres per day Inv. Rs. 5 mil
Municipal solid waste treatment No. of plants 1 Capacity 90m3 Gas for multiple end uses Waste treatment 1 town 50,000 population
Biomass plants for cooking Solid phase and plug flow processes. On going 25 villages Gas for cooking for all HH No. of HH 2000 Inv. Rs. 10 million
11
Thermo chemical conversion of biomass
  • Process that converts solid fuel to gaseous fuel
  • Used in an internal combustion engine for power
    generation to substitute fossil fuel
  • Diesel engine for dual fuel application
  • Gas engine for single fuel
  • Used in heat application
  • Low temperature drying, etc
  • High temperature furnaces, kilns, etc
  • Combination of the above - heat and power

Bio-Energy Activities
12
Bio-Energy Activities, Thermo-chemical Conversion
  • Scientific challenges addressed
  • To ensure that tar and particulates are
    minimized, system elements are robust, multi-fuel
    capability to avoid ash fusion and yet have good
    quality gas
  • Producer gas engines for power generation
  • Typical applications
  • Electricity generation , Village electrification,
    Captive power generation, Grid linked power
    generation
  • Thermal application, Low temperature (drying,
    etc., ), High temperature (furnaces, kilns, etc.,
    )
  • At IISc (Open top down draft technology -
    distinctly different from other designs)
  • Technology package for agro residue as the fuel
  • Power range 5 1000 kWe
  • Both power and high quality thermal applications
  • Over 500,000 hours of operational experience
  • Gas cleaning system for turbo-charged engines
  • High pressure gasification for micro-turbine
  • About 6 MW electrical and 40 MW thermal
  • Saving in excess of 25000 lts of oil per day

13
BIOMASS GASIFICATION
Technologies / Designs Technology transfer Impacts / investments
Biomass gasifiers for power generation Capacity 20 kW to 1000 kWe Village electrification 4 On-going village electrification - 25 Industry captive power and grid connected 20 - Installed capacity Village Elec. 145 kWe 100 HH electrification 2500 HH to be electrified - Captive and grid Power 2500 kW - Inv. Rs. 120 mil
Thermal Gasifiers Upto 5 MWth Industrial application 8 1 MW 500 to 1 MWe rating Improved processing

14
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15
Green and Sustainable Buildings
  • 1. Motivation for development for technology
  • Excessive contribution of the building sector
    towards GHG emissions
  • Indiscriminate adoption of energy-intensive
    materials and practices
  • Climatically unsuited designs reliance on
    active (energy intensive) mechanisms to maintain
    thermal comfort
  • Inadequately harnessed and building-integrated
    solar energy
  • 2. S T component
  • Scientifically validated guidelines for design
    and evaluation of thermal performance of
    buildings in tropical and sub-tropical regions
  • Extensive study into passive mechanisms of
    providing thermal comfort
  • Building physics in Building/Façade integrated
    Photovoltaics
  • 3. Technology Dissemination
  • Prototype demonstration
  • Training and/or advanced diploma in Sustainable
    Buildings
  • Publication of guidelines/monographs
  • 4. Bottlenecks
  • Inertia to accept change towards green building
    concepts
  • Inadequate guidelines on design and material use
  • Heavy dependence on energy intensive building
    materials and techniques

16
Green Building Technologies
Technologies/ designs Technology transfer Impact/ Investment
-Stabilized mud blocks -Lime-Pozzolana Cements -Composite mortars -Pre-cast and prefab roofs -Ferro-cement roofs -Masonry vaults and domes -Filler slab roofs -Earthquake resistant buildings -Solar passive architecture gt12,000 buildings nationally gt4000 buildings in Gujarat after the Bhuj earthquake Training technology carriers Energy efficient improved buildings Homes for earth quake victims Energy conservation Environment conservation Trained entrepreneurs, employment generation
17
Appropriate Sanitation
  • 1. Motivation for development for technology
  • Inadequate understanding of a societal sanitation
    approach
  • Community acceptable designs
  • Designs or technologies to suit diverse
    conditions of habitations and environment
  • Sanitation designs/technologies in response to
    climate change and its consequent impacts
  • Construction adopting local skills and materials
  • 2. S T component
  • Systemic evaluation of a communitys sanitation
    approach
  • Guidelines for structuring and organizing social
    issues determining appropriate sanitation
  • Sanitation technologies adopting minimum water
    and effective neutralization of pathogens
  • Compact designs for dense congested habitations
    such as slums
  • 3. Technology Dissemination
  • NGOs and SHGs
  • Training and awareness programmers (institutional
    and community level)
  • Enhance community participatory approach in
    identifying appropriate sanitation
  • Publication of guidelines/monographs

18
Water Quality
Areas endemic to fluorosis in India
19
Precipitation reaction MgO H2O F- ?
Mg(OH)2-yFy (1)
20
Defluoridation Rural Sanitation
Technologies / Designs Technology Transfer Impacts
Domestic Defluoridation Technology 15 liters domestic defluoridation units 100 liters defluoridation units Health benefits for rural people drinking fluoride-contaminated water Improved life quality
Rural sanitation program Under progress Improved sanitation hygiene conditions
21
Climate Change and Forest Sector Contributions
to Science and Policy
Climate change is emerging as one of the most
important scientific, technological and policy
challenges, globally and nationally. Pioneering
work has been done in the following areas of
science and policy aspects of climate change and
forests at CST Greenhouse gas inventory
methodology for forest and land use sectors
Forest sector contributes to nearly 20 of the
global CO2 emissions. Faculty of CST has
contributed to the development of IPCC
methodology for GHG Inventory for Land use,
Land-use change and forest sector (IPCC, 2003)
and for GHG Inventory for Agriculture, Forest,
Grassland and other land categories (IPCC,
2006). The methods and guidelines developed are
being used by all the countries for estimation of
GHG Inventory. CST has also estimated the GHG
Inventory for forest and land use sectors for
India for submission to UN Climate Convention.
Carbon sequestration potential of forest sector
CST has estimated the mitigation potential of
forest and land use sectors for India. The
mitigation potential estimates made by CST have
been used in preparing the National Climate
Change Action Plan of Govt. of India. According
to the estimates made, the forest carbon sink in
India will continue to increase till 2030. CST
has also contributed to the estimates of
mitigation potential in the forest sector at the
global level, for the IPCC 2007 assessment.
22
Climate Change and Forest Sector Contributions
to Science and Policy
Impact of Climate change on forest sector CST
has made an assessment of the likely impacts of
climate change on forest ecosystems and
biodiversity. Studies have shown that 68-77 of
the currently forested area is likely to undergo
change in vegetation type by 2085, adversely
affecting the biodiversity and forest ecological
functions. The studies further showed that the
Net Primary Productivity of forest ecosystems is
projected to increase by 70-100 due to CO2
fertilization, during the initial decades of the
current century. The findings of the CST studies
are used in preparing the National Greening
Mission, under the National Climate Change Action
Plan.
23
Forestry, Biomass Production, Climate Change
  • Developed and promoted mixed-spices forestry for
    biodiversity conservation sustained yields
  • Developed Nursery practices manual for 100 tree
    species
  • Estimated Sustainable biomass production
    potential for energy for India
  • ---------------------------------------------
    --------------
  • Climate change mitigation technologies,
    potential, costs and projects
  • Forestry
  • Bioenergy technologies
  • Renewable energy technologies
  • Bioenergy for Rural India and Climate Change
    Mitigation A large project prepared by ASTRA,
  • Funded by UNDP-GEF
  • Implemented by Govt. of Karnataka
  • Climate change science and policy making

24
CST Technologies in Rural Development Programs
25
Rural Housing Rural housing shortage figure in
India at around 2.31 million (2002
estimate). There are 10.31 million unserviceable
kutcha houses requiring up-gradation in the rural
areas.
  • Drinking Water
  • Out of total of 15,07,349 rural habitations in
    the country, 74.39 (11,21,366 habitations) are
    fully covered, 55,067 villages (2,20,165
    habitations) remain uncovered. Slippages 2.8
    lakh habitations due to
  • Sources going dry or lowering of the ground water
    table, Sources becoming quality affected
  • 2,16,968 habitations are affected due to a
    variety of water quality problems
  • excess fluoride, arsenic, salinity, iron, nitrate
    and multiple quality problems

Sanitation In rural areas, only 21.9 percent of
population has latrines within/attached to their
houses. Open defecation continue to remain
predominant form of sanitation for majority of
population in rural areas.
26
Current Government Initiatives
Ministry of Rural Development (Govt of
India) Rural Housing Indira Awaas Yojana Rural
Roads Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY)
Accelerated Rural Water Suppy Program Central
Rural Sanitation Program  (Total sanitation
campaign) Nirmal Gram Puraskar     Bharat
Nirman step taken towards strengthening the
infrastructure in six areas viz. Housing, Roads,
Electrification, communication(Telephone),
Drinking Water and Irrigation, with the help of a
plan to be implemented in four years, from
2005-06 to 2008-09.
27
Why has Technologies from CST/Academic
Institutions not been significantly adopted in
Rural Development Programs at National Level Are
the Technologies Sound- The answer is YES as they
have gone through the rigorous process of
Sustained R D in laboratory, Peer Review In
Journals/Conferences and Technical Committee
meetings, Extensive Field trials and especially
in case of building materials, Bio-Gas
Technologies widely used by private/semi-governmen
t players Are the Technologies Scalable- Yes
Wide use of SMB Technology (12,000 buildings),1.5
million rural households are using the ASTRA wood
burning devices for cooking needs, adoption of
biomass gasifiers for village electrification and
industries is resulting in a daily savings of
about 30 tons of fossil fuel, thirty-five
biomethanation plants are converting bio-waste
into useful biogas Perhaps a dis-connect between
S T Fund Mangers, Academics and Policy Makers
in Government Inadequate Awareness of the
Technology Packages from Academic Institutions
28
How can the outputs of research in
Sustainable/Rural Development made relevant to
Rural Development Programs
  • Academic Institutions, S T Fund Managers, be an
    integral part, at the drawing board and
    implementation levels
  • Use ICT to create link between Academic
    Institutions, Government Stakeholders
  • If all players are together, Rural Society will
    behave like a sponge to R D outputs from
    academic Institutions

29
CST-NABARD Collaboration (Some Thoughts for
Micro-Enterprise model) Steps Envisaged Create
extensive awareness of technologies developed by
CST in rural areas through discussions, exhibits,
demonstrations at grama panchayat level. Provide
technical training for skill development in CST
technologies to motivated groups at CST field
station, Ungra village. The participants shall
also be trained in need assessment and
identification, construction, operation
maintenance, problem solving, market development
etc. Select candidates (resource persons) shall
be supported to establish their business centres
at panchayat/villae level with necessary
technical support and hand holding in business
development, market building, etc Monitoring
these resource persons to deliver best
performance and meet peoples needs and in the
process make their enterprise economically
sustainable.
30
CST Technologies that could be disseminated Fuel-
efficient wood burning stoves for domestic and
other applications Agro-processing
Driers Stabilized Mud Block (SMB) and allied
building products Biomass-based Bio-gas
plants Defluoridation water filters for treating
fluoride contaminated drinking water. Biomass
Gasifiers for thermal applications and
electricity generation Appropriate and improved
sanitation approach and technologies.
31
Thank you
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