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Criteria and indicators for sustainable production of forest biomass for energy Forest legislation, forest certification standards, and recommendations and guidelines for forest fuel extraction and wood ash recycling Inge Stupak M

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Title: Criteria and indicators for sustainable production of forest biomass for energy Forest legislation, forest certification standards, and recommendations and guidelines for forest fuel extraction and wood ash recycling Inge Stupak M


1
Criteria and indicators for sustainable
production of forest biomass for energy Forest
legislation, forest certification standards, and
recommendations and guidelines for forest fuel
extraction and wood ash recyclingInge Stupak
MøllerForest Landscape, DenmarkIEA BIOENERGY
EXCO58 MEETINGSTOCKHOLM, SWEDEN, 3-5 OCTOBER
2006
2
WOOD-EN-MAN EU-FP5
  • Forest Landscape Denmark Karsten
    Raulund-Rasmussen, Morten Ingerslev, Inge Stupak
    Møller, Ingeborg Callesen, Hans Peter Ravn, Kjeld
    Suadicani.
  • Finnish Forest Research Institute Antti
    Asikainen, Karri Pasanen, Dominik Röser,
    Heljä-Sisko Helmisaari, Anna Saarsalmi, Mikko
    Kukkola, Pekka Tamminen.
  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Erik
    Karltun, Mats Jonsell, Martin Schrøder, Caroline
    Rothpfeffer.
  • Skogforsk, Norway Anders Lunnan, Nicholas
    Clarke, Jørn Lileng.
  • Lithuanian Forest Research Institute Remigijus
    Ozolincius, Diana Mizaraite, Iveta Varnagiryte,
    Kestutis Armolaitis, Leonardas Kairiukstis.
  • Estonian University of Life Sciences Malle
    Mandre, Henn Pärn, Katri Ots.
  • Latvian Forestry Research Institute SILAVA,
    Talis Gaitnieks, Lelde Vilkriste, Aigars
    Indriksons.
  • BOKU, Austria Klaus Katzensteiner.

3
  • How to ensure that the production of forest
    biomass for energy purposes is in line with
    sustainable development?
  • What has been done?

4
Contents
  • Material
  • Photos Main debated environmental problems
  • Current criteria and indicators (CI)
  • legislation
  • forest certification
  • Recommendations, guidelines, information material
  • Do present CI meet the needs for a sustainable
    production of forest biomass for energy?

5
Material
  • Forest laws and regulations in the Nordic and
    Baltic countries
  • PEFC forest certification standards in Europe
  • FSC forest certification standards in the Nordic
    and Baltic countries
  • Recommendations and guidelines for sustainable
    extraction of forest fuel and wood ash recycling
    (International, Nordic and Baltic countries, UK)
  • RecAsh seminar in Karlstad, Sweden, 25-28 Sept.
    2006

6
Photo Pekka Tamminen
7
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8
Compensation or preservationWood ash recycling
  • Wood ash compensates for
  • Mineral nutrient removals
  • Acidification effects
  • Not practically possible to compensate with wood
    ash
  • Remote places?
  • Wood ash do not compensate for
  • Nitrogen
  • Organic matter
  • Effects of stump harvesting
  • Biodiversity, insect pests etc.

9
Legislative criteria
  • Notification to authorities
  • Sweden Forestry act (14)
  • Compensation measures
  • wood ash recycling and fertilisation
  • Prevention of damages by insect pests in stored
    residues

Separate regulation for wood ash recycling to the
forest (Denmark)
Fertilisation with direct effective mineral
fertilisers is prohibited (21, Estonia)
The forest owner or lawful possessor shall obtain
a confirmation from the State Forest Service for
use of artificial fertilisers in forestland (39,
Latvia)
Fertilisation must not contradict the Law on
Environmental Protection and the appropriate
standard acts (14, Lithuania)
Possibility for the Ministry to issue further
regulations concerning fertilisation of forest,
and furthermore, the municipality may refuse
forest owners permission to fertilise if they
find it necessary to prevent major negative
effects on the environmental values (6, Norway).
Common advice to the Forestry Act 30 on
preservation of the nutrient balance and
compensation with wood ash and nitrogen (Sweden).
10
Prevention of damages by insect pests- Sweden,
Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, (Norway)
Stored Amounts
Dimensions of stored amounts
Distance to living stands
Storage season
Length of storage period
Treatment of the stored material
Coverage of the stored material
11
Forest certification documents
  • PEFC forest standards (http//www.pefc.org)
  • Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark,
    Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Holland,
    Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Norway,
    Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain,
    Sweden, Switzerland, UK (not all endorsed).
  • FSC forest standards
  • Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania,
    (Norway), Sweden

12
PEFC criteria (MCPFE Lisbon)
  • Criterion 1 Maintenance and Appropriate
    Enhancement of Forest Resources and their
    Contribution to Global Carbon Cycles
  • Criterion 2 Maintenance of Forest Ecosystem
    Health and Vitality (damages caused by biotic and
    abiotic agents, changes in soil nutrient balance
    and acidity)
  • Criterion 3 Maintenance and Encouragement of
    Productive Functions of Forests (wood and
    non-wood)
  • Criterion 4 Maintenance, Conservation and
    Appropriate Enhancement of Biological Diversity
    in Forest Ecosystems
  • Criterion 5 Maintenance and appropriate
    enhancement of protective functions in forest
    management (notably soil and water)
  • Criterion 6 Maintenance of other Socio-Economic
    Functions and Conditions
  • Survey of soil parameters related to soil
    fertility (general)
  • Extraction of nutrients and degradation of site
    fertility
  • removal of crown material only with a certain
    frequency (Austria, Sweden)
  • or when it cannot be avoided (Italy)
  • the removal should be considered in relation to
    soil fertility, leaching and deposition (Denmark)
  • actions diminishing the growth potential are
    prohibited (Slovenia)
  • whole-tree harvesting should not be practiced
    where it is likely to have negative effects
    (United Kingdom).
  • national guidelines should be followed (Sweden
    and UK)

13
Criterion 2 continuedHealth and vitality
  • Fertilisation
  • omission if the only purpose is increasing timber
    increment (general)
  • accepted in specific situations, e.g.
    restoration, enable regeneration, increase
    vitality in case of a nutritional need documented
    by soil or foliar analyses (Austria, Denmark,
    Germany, Latvia, Luxembourg, Spain, Sweden),
  • accepted when all aspects of environment
    protection are taken into account (Czech
    Republic).
  • wood ash recycling is allowed when performed in
    agreement with national recommendations (Sweden
    and Austria)
  • sludge is allowed with certain restrictions
    (Latvia)
  • Root rot
  • Stump harvesting as a control measure against the
    spreading the infection of fungal diseases from a
    regeneration area (Finland)

14
Criterion 3Productive functions
  • Intensified harvesting
  • the usage levels of products should take proper
    account of the removal of nutrients (Belgium)
  • The usage level should not exceed a sustainable
    level (Czech Republic)
  • whole-tree harvesting is completely or partly
    prohibited (Germany, Italy, Luxembourg)
  • the removal of tops and branches and rotten wood
    for energy purposes as a supplementary harvest
    with considerable environmental benefit due to
    replacement of fossil fuels (Sweden)
  • in tending operations, dead wood should be left
    if there is no comprehensive danger (Austria)

15
Criterion 4Biodiversity
  • Preservation of dead wood
  • dead wood of larger dimensions should be left in
    the forest (general)
  • also removal of residues should be avoided -
    provided that it is legally permitted to leave
    them due to biotic threats as insect pests
    (Austria and Luxembourg)
  • branches left after harvesting should not be
    burned (Switzerland)
  • all deadwood should be left untouched - unless
    there is a documented risk of a mass propagation
    of insect pests - with small-size logging residue
    however being excepted (Sweden)

16
Criterion 5Protective functions (soil and water)
  • Limiting soil preparation (relevant for stump
    harvesting?)
  • omit or limit the use of soil preparation
    (Denmark, Germany, Luxembourg, Sweden)
  • large-scale interventions in the forest soil
    should be avoided (Austria)

17
Criterion 6Socio-economics
  • Importance of the forest sector in economics
  • Proportion of renewable resources (wood, bark,
    etc.) in energy supply as an indicator (Austria)
  • .the use of lower-value wood for energy
    purposes should be promoted at the regional
    level as sub-criteria at regional level
    (Slovenia)

18
FSC principles
  • 1. Compliance with laws and FSC Principles
  • 2. Tenure and use rights and responsibilities
  • 3. Indigenous peoples' rights
  • 4. Community relations and worker's rights
  • 5. Benefits from the forest
  • 6. Environmental impact
  • 7. Management plan
  • 8. Monitoring and assessment
  • 9. Maintenance of high conservation value forests
  • 10. Plantations

19
FSC criteria
  • 2. Tenure and use rights and responsibilities
  • Criteria 2.2 Local communities should maintain
    control over forest operations
  • 5. Benefits from the forest
  • Criteria 5.2 Optimal use and local processing
  • Criteria 5.3 Minimize waste associated with
    harvesting
  • 6. Environmental impact
  • Criteria 6.3 Ecological functions (biodiversity
    and natural cycles that affect the productivity)
  • Criteria 6.5 Written guidelines (control
    erosion, minimize forest damage, and protect
    water resources)
  • Criteria 6.6 Environmentally friendly
    non-chemical methods of pest management

20
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21
Recommendations guidelinesTopics
  • Working environment, health and safety
  • Landscape, culture, archaeology, leisure,
    non-wood goods
  • Social values, regional development, employment,
    gender
  • Production costs and economy
  • Markets, sales, competitiveness
  • Public participation
  • Establishment of energy plants
  • Wood firing, combustion, gasification, plant
    operation
  • Energy distribution
  • Plant emissions, waste production, noise, dust,
    smell etc.
  • Wood ash recycling
  • Policy, legislation, subsidies, institutional
    frameworks
  • Nutrient balances, site fertility and wood
    production
  • Acidification
  • Organic matter and carbon
  • Biodiversity and wildlife
  • Pest insects
  • Hydrology, water quality, water courses
  • Damages by vehicles, soil erosion
  • Silviculture
  • Harvesting methods and technology, transport,
    logistics
  • Processing, handling, storage
  • Fuel quality, characteristics, standardisation

22
Nutrients and acidification
  1. Site classification according to sensitivity to
    forest fuel extraction
  2. Share of nutrients left in the single harvesting
    operation
  3. Type and number of extractions during the
    rotation
  4. Use of compensation fertilisation
  5. Spatial distribution of the left residues
  6. Time for the nutrient removal and fertiliser
    addition in relation to the season and stand
    development stage
  7. Documentation

23
Wood ash recycling
  1. Purpose of the fertilisation
  2. Classification of sites according to suitability
    for wood ash application, including demands on
    soil quality
  3. Requirements for wood ash quality
  4. Methods for documentation of the wood ash
    quality sampling, chemical analysis, and
    frequency of sampling.
  5. Hardening methods
  6. Dosage and rate of application
  7. Work method, time of application in relation to
    stand development stage and season
  8. Need for nitrogen fertilisation
  9. Documentation

24
Biodiversity
Spare elements important for biodiversity at
various hierarchical levels
  1. Nature conservation areas and valuable nature
    types
  2. Rare tree species, species especially valuable
    for biodiversity
  3. Other tree and bushes left for nature
    conservation purposes, e.g. old trees
  4. Standing or lying dead wood and decaying wood in
    different stages of decomposition
  5. Harvesting residues
  6. Other nature objects as bird nests, anthills, fox
    earths etc.

25
Pest insect
  1. Recognising exceptional weather conditions
  2. Amount and type of material left
  3. Location of stored material in relation to living
    trees
  4. Storage time and season in relation to swarming
    periods
  5. Separate handling of material with different risk
    potentials
  6. Coverage the of stored material

26
Damage by vehicles
Avoid damages on soil, tree roots, water courses,
and paths by
  • Using best possible technology
  • Driving when the soil carrying capacity is
    highest
  • Using brush mats to increase soil carrying
    capacity
  • Restrictions on movements in landscape, terrain,
    and stand
  • Use of specialized equipment
  • Planning considering the site constraints on
    harvesting at an early stage
  • Developing codes of practice for specific sites
    and regions (soil erosion)

27
Organic matter
  • Preservation - minimizing disturbance
  • Herbicides rather than fire and mechanical weed
    control
  • Increasing site fertility
  • Fertilisation

28
Hydrology
  • Removal of nitrogen
  • Fertilisation to avoid acidification
  • Zones around ditches and water courses
    (harvesting, especially stumps, and storage)
  • Avoiding stump harvesting in water catchments
  • Avoid blocking of drains, minimization of drain
    and stream crossings

29
Do CI meet the need for sustainable forest fuel
extraction and wood ash recycling?Recommendations
and guidelines
  • Policy, legislation, subsidies, institutional
    frameworks
  • Nutrient balances, site fertility and wood
    production
  • Acidification
  • Organic matter and carbon
  • Biodiversity and wildlife
  • Pest insects
  • Hydrology, water quality, water courses
  • Damages by vehicles, soil erosion
  • Silviculture
  • Harvesting methods and technology, transport,
    logistics
  • Processing, handling, storage
  • Fuel quality, characteristics, standardisation
  • Working environment, health and safety
  • Landscape, culture, archaeology, leisure,
    non-wood goods
  • Social values, regional development, employment,
    gender
  • Production costs and economy
  • Markets, sales, competitiveness
  • Public participation
  • Establishment of energy plants
  1. Largely, all relevant generic criteria can be
    found in existing recommendations, guidelines,
    information materials, and certification
    standards
  2. Indicators and verifiers are needed for some
    criteria
  3. Clarification
  1. Reference to other legislation
  2. Mapping or local consultation
  3. Development of standards, setting threshold
    values
  4. Education and information
  5. Best available technology, technological
    developments
  6. More research as support for political ordering
    of priorities and development of standards
  7. Forest-energy policy

30
Do CI meet the need for sustainable forest fuel
extraction and wood ash recycling?Recommendations
and guidelines
  • Sweden and Finland Criteria and indicators are
    up-to-date. Continuous updates will take place.
  • Denmark Criteria and thresholds of
    recommendations and wood ash regulation could be
    updated. Regulation for wood ash recycling is
    currently being updated.
  • Lithuania Criteria and thresholds of
    recommendations for wood ash recycling are
    up-to-date. Criteria and thresholds of
    recommendations for forest fuel extraction have
    not been elaborated.
  • Other countries First generation recommendations
    and regulations have not been elaborated.

Very variable among countries.
31
Do CI meet the need for sustainable forest fuel
extraction and wood ash recycling?Forest
certification
  • Criteria and indicators
  • more operational
  • more systematically incorporated
  • Auditing
  • more focus on indicators related to forest fuel
    harvesting, cf. UPM Kymmene

32
Do CI meet the need for sustainable forest fuel
extraction and wood ash recycling?Policy
Decisions in case of trade-off Forest energy
policy
Negative environmental effect in the forest
Positive environmental effect globally Intensity
of the utilisation
33
Do CI meet the need for sustainable forest fuel
extraction and wood ash recycling?Policy
  • Implementation at the appropriate level
  • Recommendations as in Sweden and Finland?
  • Forest certification as suggested by CLEAN-E
    project?
  • Other certification (e.g. ISO, EMAS)?
  • Legislation and regulations? (e.g.
    uncontaminated wood ash should not be defined as
    hazardous waste, but as a product)

34
Recommendations guidelinesReferences
  • Sweden
  • Egnell G, Nohrstedt H-Ö, Weslien J, Westling O,
    Örlander G. Description of Environmental
    Consequences of forest fuel extraction, wood ash
    amendment and other nutrient compensation. 1998
  • Swedish Forest Agency. Forest fuel, threat or
    possibility guidance to an environmentally
    friendly removal of forest fuel. 2001
  • Swedish Forest Agency. Recommendations for the
    extraction of forest fuel and compensation
    fertilizing. 2002
  • Finland
  • Forestry Development Centre Tapio. Extraction of
    energy wood. 2005
  • Nurmi J, Kokko A, editors. The effects of
    intensified biomass harvesting in Forest. 2001
  • Denmark
  • The Forest Agency. Ecological consequences of
    increased biomass utilisation in forests. 1985
  • Pedersen LR, Hald S. Wood for energy, wood chips
    and fire wood. 1996
  • Centre for Biomass Technology. Wood for Energy
    Production. Technology - Environment Economy.
    2002
  • Lithuania
  • Ozolincius R, Armolaitis K, Mikšys V, Varnagiryte
    I. Recommendations for wood ash compensation
    fertilizing. 2005
  • UK
  • Nisbeth T, Dutch J, Moffat A. Whole-tree
    Harvesting A guide to Good Practice. 1997
  • British Biogen. Wood Fuel from Forestry and
    Arboriculture the development of a sustainable
    energy production industry. 1999
  • Austria
  • Splechtna B, Glatzel G. The option to supply
    biomass from forests and energy plantations for
    energy use. Scenarios, ecological effects, and
    research need. 2005
  • International
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