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Monday November 11, 2013

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Monday November 11, 2013 OBJ: SWBAT understand redistricting, and the effect that Gerrymandering can have on an election. Drill: What is being represented here? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Monday November 11, 2013


1
Monday November 11, 2013
  • OBJ SWBAT understand redistricting, and the
    effect that Gerrymandering can have on an
    election.
  • Drill What is being represented here? What does
    this say about redistricting.
  • HW Review Questons

2
Census As A Tool For Change
  • Charles Hirschman, scholar of the concept of
    race, studied drastic and seemingly random
    changes to the population of Malaysia over.
  • By looking at the census he saw that as time
    passed the colonial census became predominantly
    racial and less concerned with indigenous
    religion
  • Race categories were did not always contain the
    same choices from census to census
  • They also included choices that were nothing more
    than geographic landmarks. This was all people
    can fall into some category and be administered
    more easily.

3
Racial Quantification
  • Pre-Colonial rulers did take a census but only
    for military and tax purposes.
  • The colonial census used the data to administer
    social services and to enforce a racial hierarchy
  • Habits were marked and mapped so the people could
    be ruled from above.
  • They of course ran into problems when their
    definition of race was at odds with the
    definition of race that had been formed over time
    by the people themselves, not from outsiders.

4
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5
Gerrymandering
  • Modern states use data much like colonial powers
    to administer regions that are not homogenous
  • Gerrymandering is when borders of a district are
    manipulated to form a political advantage.
  • Democracies that use the first past the post
    system to elect a single candidate to represent a
    district are at a greater risk for
    gerrymandering.
  • Many countries avoid this problem by having only
    one district or by having district lines drawn by
    an independent commission

6
Where Did You Get That Name?
  • The term Gerrymandering came from Elbridge Gerry,
    an American politician
  • The term was coined as a result of his creative
    district drawing in Massachusetts in order to
    give his party, the Jefferson Republican party a
    political advantage.

7
Redistricting The Basics
  • Done every ten years as mandated by the U.S.
    Constitution to ensure fair and proper
    representation among the states in Congress, and
    to preserve the one voter-one vote fairness
    principle in the lower house of Congress and the
    state legislatures. (http//www.fraudfactor.com/f
    fgerrymander.html)

8
Basics of Gerrymandering packing cracking
9
Redistricting The Basics
  • State Constitutions and/or Statutes specify
    additional, more detailed requirements for
    reapportionment and redistricting process, which
    are also supposed to preserve the fairness
    principle. (http//www.fraudfactor.com/ffgerryman
    der.html)

10
Redistricting The Basic Criteria
(http//elections.gmu.edu/enhancing.htm)
  • Contiguity
  • Compactness
  • Respect for Communities of Interest/Existing
    Political and Geographical Boundaries
  • Voting Rights Act
  • Competitiveness
  • Incumbent and Partisan Blind
  • Equal Population

11
Gerrymandering
  • when someone in authority changes the borders of
    an area in order to increase the number of people
    within that area who will vote for a particular
    party or person (http//www.freesearch.co.uk/dicti
    onary/gerrymandering)

12
Gerrymandering
  • Apportionment of voters in districts in such a
    way as to give unfair advantage to one political
    party (American Government Freedom and Power,
    Brief Fourth Edition, Lowi and Ginsberg, Norton,
    NY, 1996 A33)

13
Geographical Boundaries
  • Historical Example
  • Contemporary Example

14
Historical Example
  • Massachusetts- 1812

15
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16
Contemporary Example
  • Texas- 2004

17
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18
2000 US Presidential Election Results
  • Actual Electoral College Results
  • Altering Selected State Borders By County to
    produce a Gore Win
  • Altering Selected State Borders By County to
    produce a Bigger Bush Win

19
US Electoral College
  • 48 States have winner take all system whoever
    has the most votes in a state gets all of the
    electoral college votes
  • Each states electoral college votes is equal to
    their total numerical representation in Congress
    (House members plus 2 Senators)

20
Actual Results Bush 271, Gore 266 (one Gore DC
elector did not vote)
21
How Gore Wins Altering State Borders
  • New Hampshire
  • West Virginia
  • Florida
  • Missouri
  • Nevada

22
Actual New Hampshire
23
Add Franklin County from Massachusetts

24
A Different New Hampshire
  • 7,769 Net Shift of Votes to Gore
  • Gore now wins state by 558 votes
  • 4 Electoral votes go to Gore New National Total
    Gore 270, Bush 267

25
Effect on Massachusetts
  • Gore still wins state by 730,216 net votes

26
Actual West Virginia
27
Give Away 14 counties to Virginia, 14 counties to
Ohio, 1 to Kentucky add 1 Pennsylvania county
28
A Different West Virginia
  • 44,718 Net Shift of Votes to Gore
  • Gore now wins state by 3,740 votes
  • 5 Electoral votes go to Gore New National Total
    Gore 271, Bush 266

29
Effect on Various States
  • Gore still wins Pennsylvania by 191,187 net votes
  • Bush still wins Kentucky by 233,541 net votes
  • Bush still wins Virginia by 240,862 net votes
  • Bush still wins Ohio by 188,648 net votes

30
Actual Florida
31
Give Away Escambia County to Alabama
32
A Different Florida
  • 32,181 Net Shift of Votes to Gore
  • Gore now wins state by 31,644 votes
  • 25 Electoral Votes go to Gore New National
    Total Gore 291, Bush 246

33
Effect on Alabama
  • Bush still wins Alabama by 280,743 votes

34
Actual Missouri
35
Give Away 11 counties to Arkansas and 1 county to
Illinois
36
A Different Missouri
  • 79,544 Net Shift Votes to Gore
  • Gore now wins state by 758 votes
  • 11 Electoral Votes go to Gore New National
    Total Gore 277, Bush 260

37
Effect on Arkansas and Illinois
  • Bush still wins Arkansas by 119,218 votes
  • Gore still wins Illinois by 559,107 votes

38
Actual Nevada
39
California Gives Away 4 counties to Nevada
40
A Different Nevada
  • 24,987 Net Shift Votes to Gore
  • Gore now wins state by 3,390 votes
  • 4 Electoral Votes go to Gore New National Total
    Gore 270, Bush 267

41
Effect on California
  • Gore still wins state by 1,268,787 votes

42
How Bush Wins Bigger Altering State Borders
  • New Mexico
  • Wisconsin
  • Iowa
  • Oregon
  • Michigan

43
Actual New Mexico
44
Texas Gives Away 1 county to New Mexico and New
Mexico Gives Away 1 county to Texas
45
A Different New Mexico
  • 447 Net Shift Votes to Bush
  • Bush now wins state by 81 votes
  • 5 Electoral Votes go to Bush New National Total
    Bush 276, Gore 262

46
Effect on Texas
  • Bush still wins Texas by 1,365,446 votes

47
Actual Wisconsin
48
Add 3 Counties from Michigan and 2 Counties from
Illinois
49
A Different Wisconsin
  • 6,604 Net Shift Votes to Bush
  • Bush now wins state by 896 votes
  • 11 Electoral Votes go to Bush New National
    Total Bush 282, Gore 256

50
Effect on Michigan and Illinois
  • Gore still wins Michigan by 220,511 votes
  • Gore still wins Illinois by 572,977 votes

51
Actual Iowa
52
Add 3 counties from Minnesota and take away 2
counties from Iowa
53
A Different Iowa
  • 6,272 Net Shift Votes to Bush
  • Bush now wins by 2,128 votes
  • 7 Electoral Votes go to Bush New National Total
    Bush 278, Gore 260

54
Effect on Minnesota
  • Gore still wins state by 52,335 votes

55
Actual Oregon
56
Add 3 counties from Idaho
57
A Different Oregon
  • 8,267 Net Shift Votes to Bush
  • Bush now wins state by 1,502 votes
  • 7 Electoral Votes go to Bush New National Total
    Bush 278, Gore 260

58
Effect on Idaho
  • Bush still wins state by 190,033 votes

59
Actual Michigan
60
Give Away 5 counties to Indiana and 2 counties to
Ohio
61
A Different Michigan
  • 328,702 Net Shift Votes to Bush
  • Bush now wins state by 111,423 votes
  • 18 Electoral Votes go to Bush New National
    Total Bush 289, Gore 249

62
Effect on Indiana and Ohio
  • Bush still wins Indiana by 12,221 votes
  • Bush still wins Ohio by 166,436 votes

63
Political Power
  • US Presidency determined by where the votes are,
    not necessarily who gets the majority
  • Gore received 543,816 more votes than Bush
  • Federalism (power of the states) remains a
    critical component of how national political
    power is created

64
The subcomponents of states the 2000
Presidential Election, County by County
65
Credits
  • Thanks to Dave Leips Atlas of US Presidential
    Elections for actual national and state maps
    (http//uselectionatlas.org)
  • Thanks to John Wilson, Department of Graphic Arts
    (Central Maine Community College) for assistance
    in creating new states

66
How and Where Does It Happen?
  • Mostly occurs in the United States
  • 36 states have their dirstict borders drawn by
    state legislature
  • 7 states have an indipendat commission
  • 7 states only have one district
  • Under normal circumstances redistricting takes
    place after the US census is taken which is every
    10 years
  • Borders are drawn by drawn by and approved by
    elected state politicians
  • Both parties take part in the practice of
    gerrymandering

67
Example of a Gerrymandered District
68
It does not just happen in the US
  • Iraq was gerrymandered significantly after the
    Iran-Iraq war and during the US occupation
  • The mostly Shia province of Karbala was reduced
    in size and its remnants were incorporated into
    the mostly Sunni Anbar province

69
What Are The Effects?
  • Less accurate representation
  • Less incentive to vote
  • Can erase the political impact of certain groups

70
Redistricting Game
  • In pairs, play the redistricting game.
  • For each mission you need to describe the
    scenario, what your strategy was and what the
    outcome was.
  • When you go to www.redistrictinggame.org you need
    to click on the link that says open in new window

71
Disscussion Questions
  • What are the potential changes that can happen to
    a community as a result of gerrymandering in the
    United States?
  • How can communities that are gerrymandered to
    insignificance overcome become represented?
  • How is gerrymandering different than census
    techniques used by colonizers to manage
    populations?
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