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Chapter 1-People and Government


Chapter 1-People and Government Principles of Government The State Aristotle-Greek scholar in ancient (you guessed it) Greece-one of 1st students of government He ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 1-People and Government

Chapter 1-People and Government
  • Principles of Government

The State
  • Aristotle-Greek scholar in ancient (you guessed
    it) Greece-one of 1st students of government
  • He studied polis (ancient Greek city-state)
  • State identifies political community that
    occupies definite territory with organized
    government-has power to make enforce laws

Section 1 continued
  • US is one of 200 states in world today
  • Nation-any sizable group of people who are united
    by common bonds of race, language, custom,
    tradition, sometimes religion
  • Nation-state-country in which territory of a
    place and the state coincide

Characteristics of State
  • Population
  • Territory
  • Sovereignty-state has supreme absolute
    authority within its territorial boundary
  • Government

Theories of the Origin of the State
  • Evolutionary Theory-
  • Force Theory-
  • Divine Right Theory-
  • Social Contract Theory-

Purposes of Government
  • Maintaining social order
  • Providing public services
  • Providing national security
  • Making economic decisions

Section 2-Formation of Government
  • Unitary system-gives all key power to the
    national or central government
  • Federal system-divides powers of government
    between national government and state or
    provincial governments (sound familiar?)
  • Confederacy-loose union of independent states
    (should also sound familiar-blast from the past!)

Section 2
  • Constitution-plan that provides the rules for
    government does several things-1)sets out ideals
    that people bound by constitution believe in
    share 2)establishes basic structure of
    government-defines governments powers duties
    3)provides supreme law for country

Section 2
  • Constitutional government-government in which a
    constitution has authority to place clearly
    recognized limits on powers of those who govern
  • Preamble-intro to Constitution states major
    goals of American government
  • Look at page 14 starting with quotations-Break
    down the preamble line by line without using
    their words! Put this in your notebook! We will
    discuss together.

Section 2
  • Constitutional law-interpretation and application
    of the constitution
  • Politics-conduct and policies of government
  • Industrialized nations-page 14
  • Developing nations-page 14

Types of Government-Section 3
  • Autocracy-oldest, most common forms of
    government power and authority to rule in hands
    of single individual
  • Totalitarian dictatorship-type of autocracy
    ideas of single leader maintaining power

Section 3
  • Monarchy-autocratic government where king, queen,
    or emperor exercises supreme powers of government
  • Absolute monarchs-complete unlimited power to
    rule people (King of Saudi Arabia)

Section 3
  • Constitutional monarchs-share governmental powers
    with elected legislatures (Great Britain, Sweden,
    Japan, Netherlands)
  • Oligarchy-system of government in which a small
    group holds power (hint Think about oligopoly
    in econ!)

Section 3
  • Democracy-system of government in which rule is
    by the people
  • Term democracy comes from Greek demos-the
    people kratia-rule
  • People rule key idea is that the people hold
    sovereign power (think back to honest Abe what
    he described democracy as government of the
    people, by the people, for the people.

Section 3
  • Direct democracy-people govern themselves by
    voting on issues individually as citizens (exists
    only in very small societies where citizens are
    able to meet regularly to discuss issues New
    England town meetings cantons of Switzerland)

Section 3
  • Representative democracy-people elect
    representatives and give them responsibility
    power to make laws and conduct government
  • Republic-voters are source of govt. authority

Characteristics of Democracy
  • Individual liberty
  • Majority rule with minority rights
  • Free elections
  • Competing political parties

Soil of Democracy
  • Active citizen participation
  • Favorable economy
  • Widespread education
  • Strong civil society
  • Social consensus

Create a Preamble for the Class
  • Have fun creating a class preamble