The Federal Bureaucracy - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

About This Presentation

The Federal Bureaucracy


The Federal Bureaucracy AP Government Unit 7 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:607
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 59
Provided by: BethB198


Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: The Federal Bureaucracy

The Federal Bureaucracy
  • AP Government
  • Unit 7

Parts of the Executive BranchAKAThe Bureaucracy
The Federal Bureaucracy
  • The bureaucracy is the mechanism that carries out
    the day to day business of government.
  • The bureaucracy was created to carry out a broad
    range of tasks, to provide necessary services,
    and to act as experts in particular areas of
  • The bureaucracy has grown ever larger to number
    2.8 million civilian employees
  • AKAthe Fourth Branch

The Bureaucrats
  • Who They Are and How They Got There
  • Most demographically representative part of
  • Diversity of jobs mirrors the private sector.

The Weberian Model of Bureaucracy
  • Max Webers theory was that the political process
    is controlled by political elites in the
  • These bureaucrats use the following model to make
    government more efficient and run like a
    well-organized machine with lots of working
  • Hierarchical authority structure
  • Task specialization
  • Operate on merit principle
  • Behave with impersonality

The Organization of the Federal Bureaucracy
  • The federal bureaucracy consists of the
  • EOP
  • Cabinet departments
  • Independent agencies
  • Government corporations
  • Includes Independent Executive Agencies
  • Independent regulatory commissions

Executive Office of the PresidentThe EOP
  • The Executive Office of the President is not a
    single office or department, but a collection of
    agencies that are all directly responsible for
    helping the president to deal with Congress and
    manage the larger executive branch.

Parts of the EOPThe White House Staff
  • White House staffers are usually
  • Former campaigners, trusted workers
  • Hired and fired at will of president
  • The most powerful White House Staffer is the
    Chief of Staff
  • Informally, the Chief of Staff is often one of
    the President's closest political advisers, and
    also often a close personal friend.
  • Often nicknamed "the gatekeeper."
  • Is responsible for overseeing the actions of
    other members of White House staff, managing the
    president's timetable, and controlling outsiders'
    access to the president.

Executive Office of the PresidencyEOP Agencies
  • The EOP Agencies are agencies that report
    directly to President
  • Most important agency-
  • The Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
  • Other important EOP agencies
  • National Security Advisors (NSA)
  • Council of Economic Advisors
  • EOP agency heads are hired and fired at will
  • Congress is not involved with their approval

Executive Departments AKA The Cabinet
  • Department heads advise the President on policy
    issues and help execute those policies.
  • Not mentioned in the Constitution
  • Created first by George Washington
  • Cabinet secretaries are appointed by the
    president and need Senate approval
  • The president controls the Cabinet
  • They are considered yes men and women!
  • Dont disagree (in public at least!)

Executive Departments AKA The Cabinet
  • 14 Cabinet Departments
  • 13 Cabinet departments are headed by a secretary
  • The Department of Justice is headed by Attorney
  • Each has its own budget, staff and policy areas
  • Some Republicans (and Libertarians) have been
    trying to eliminate several departments including
    Education and Energy

The Cabinet Departments
  • Agriculture
  • Commerce
  • Defense
  • Education
  • Energy State
  • Heath and Human Services
  • Homeland Security
  • Housing and Urban Development
  • Interior
  • Justice
  • Labor
  • State
  • Transportation
  • Treasury
  • Veterans Affairs

Independent Agenciesand Commissions
  • The independent agencies and commissions are
    government offices that report to the President
    but have a more independence (AKAQuasi-
  • FDIC, Postal Service, CIA, SEC, EPA
  • They make regulations to help implement laws
  • Do not report to the president for instructions
  • Deal with own issues and staff independently
  • President appoints agency heads for fixed terms
  • Agency heads must be approved by Congress
  • Can be removed only for just cause

Independent Regulatory Agencies (IRAs)
  • Independent regulatory agencies are independent
    of the executive departments.
  • Meant to impose and enforce regulation free of
    political influence, and help carry out policy or
    provide special services.
  • Securities and Exchange Commission
  • Consumer Product Safety Commission
  • IRAs are run by a board rather than one person.
  • So even though the President appoints the board
    members, the members serve terms longer than a
    single Presidential term
  • The board members are also appointed at different
    times, so while it is likely that a President
    will appoint to all agencies/commissions, they
    would be unable to stack the Boards or

The Independent Regulatory Agencies
  • Responsible for some sector of the economy making
    rules and judging disputes to protect the public
  • Example Food and Drug Administration and
    Interstate Commerce Commission
  • Headed by a commission of 5-10 people.
  • Rule making is an important function watched by
    interest groups and citizens alike.
  • Concern over capture of the agencies by
    Congress or the President (want to remain

The Government Corporations
  • Similar to Independent Agencies but are more
    Business-like entities
  • They provide a service like private companies and
    typically charges for its services.
  • Postal Service, Amtrak are examples

Government Corporations
  • Government corporations (e.g., the U.S. Postal
    Service and AMTRAK) are designed to run like
    businesses and hopefully generate a profit

Independent Executive Agencies
  • The agencies that dont fit in anywhere else.
  • NASA is an example

What Roles Do Government Bureaucrats Perform?
  • Bureaucrats
  • communicate with each other
  • maintain paper for accountability
  • Enforces/carries out the law
  • and implement the objectives of the organization.
  • Congress has delegated a significant amount of
    authority to the federal bureaucracy by granting
    agencies the power to draft federal regulations
    (rule-making) and to adjudicate conflicts over
    these regulations.

Changes in the Bureaucracy
  • Prior to 1883, bureaucrats were political
    appointeesa result of the spoils system or
  • The assassination of President Garfield in 1881
    led to the passage of the Civil Service Act of
    1883, which created a merit system for the hiring
    of federal bureaucrats.

President Garfield
I am a Stalwart of the Stalwarts... Arthur is
President now.'"
How Do Bureaucrats Get Their Jobs Today?
  • Most must apply with Office of Personnel
  • The federal office in charge of most of the
    governments hiring.
  • Merit System Entrance exams and promotion
    ratings to find people with talent and skill.
  • System of hiring and promotion based on merit and

The TOP Jobs
  • Recruitment for the top bureaucratic jobs is from
    the Plum Book
  • Published by Congress
  • Lists the very top jobs available for
    Presidential appointment.
  • Plum jobs use patronage to find applicants
  • Ambassadorships, top level officials
  • Presidents find capable people to fill the

Bureaucracy Personalities
  • The Bureaus and Agencies tend to take on their
    own personalities
  • This may be from the type of person who applies a
    job as well as the type of work that is done
  • Conservatives dominate the Dept of Defense
  • Liberals dominate the social service departments
  • Other examples
  • Activist bureaus and agencies
  • EPA, FDA, Federal Trade Commission
  • Traditional bureaus and agencies
  • Agriculture, Treasury, and Commerce

Discretionary Authority
  • The real power of the bureaucracy is the ability
    for bureaucrats to choose courses of action and
    make policies that affect all Americans
  • This discretionary authority can carry the
    weight of laws for the general public and
  • Examples
  • Safety features on cars
  • Pollution emission standards
  • Product standards

How Presidents Try to Control the Bureaucracy
  • Appoint the right people.
  • Issue executive orders.
  • Tinker with the agencys budget.
  • Reorganize an agency.

The Executive Branch IMPLEMENTS Laws
  • What Implementation Means
  • It involves the translating the goals and
    objectives of a policy into an operating, ongoing
    program for the chief executive.
  • In other words.making the law work in the real
  • Creating / assigning an agency the policy
  • Turning policy into rules, regulations and forms.
  • Coordinating resources to achieve the goals.

How Congress Tries to Control the Bureaucracy
  • Influence presidential appointments.
  • Tinker with the agencys budget.
  • Hold hearings.
  • Rewrite the legislation or make it more detailed.

The Congressional Connection
  • Congress appropriates funds for the bureaus and
  • Traditionally the Appropriations Committee held
    the majority of this power
  • However, the committee has lost some of its power
    due to
  • Trust funds operate which operate outside the
    regular government budget to assure citizens
    services and benefits
  • Social Security
  • Annual Authorizations which gives the whole
    Congress a chance to voice an opinion yearly on
    appropriations for bureaus and agencies
  • Recent budget deficits have meant that Congress
    is trying to reduce spending

Committee Clearance
  • A committee clearance is an informal way that
    Congress can still control the bureaucracy
  • Congress may obtain the right to void the
    decision of a bureau or agency chief
  • This may be political or personal reasons

Legislative Veto
  • A requirement that an executive decision must lie
    before Congress for a specified period before it
    takes effect
  • Congress could then review and VETO the decision
    if both Houses agreed
  • The Supreme Court was asked to rule on this
    practice in the Chadha case

INS v. Chadha (1983)
  • Mr. Chadha had stayed in the U.S. past his visa
    deadline and was ordered to leave the country.
  • The Immigration Service allowed him to stay
    because of complications and extreme hardship
  • The House of Representatives suspended the INSs
    deportation ruling using what was called the
    Legislative veto.
  • Question of law
  • Did Congress which allowed a legislative veto of
    presidential actions, violate the separation of
    powers doctrine?

  • The Court said Yes!
  • The Court ruled that the Act violated the
  • Chief Justice Burger concluded that even though
    the Act would have enhanced governmental
    efficiency, it violated the "explicit
    constitutional standards" regarding lawmaking and
    congressional authority.
  • The legislative veto was declared

Fun with Bureaucracy 2The Peter Principle
  • In a hierarchy every employee tends to rise to
    his level of incompetence."
  • Formulated by Dr. Laurence J. Peter in his 1968
    book of the same name, the Peter principle
    pertains to the level of competence of the human
    resources in a hierarchical organization.
  • The principle explains the upward, downward, and
    lateral movement of personnel within a
    hierarchically organized system of ranks.

Understanding Bureaucracies
  • Iron Triangles and Issue Networks
  • An iron triangle is a mutually dependent
    relationship between bureaucratic agencies,
    interest groups, and congressional committees or
  • Exist independently of each other.
  • They are tough, but not impossible, to get rid
  • Some argue iron triangles are being replaced by
    wider issue networks that focus on more policies.

The Iron Triangle
  • An iron triangle describes the cozy
    relationships in US politics between these three
  • the Legislative Branch (especially subcommittees)
  • the Bureaucracy
  • Lobbyists and interest groups

The Legislative Branch (especially
Iron Triangle
Lobbyists and Interest groups
The Bureaucracy
(No Transcript)
Who Benefits from the Iron Triangle?
  • Powerful interest groups
  • Members of Congress
  • Federal employees
  • Consumers are often left out in the cold by this
  • Iron triangles result in the passing of very
    narrow, pork barrel policies also known as
    earmarks that benefit only one small segment of
    the population

A Divided Government Kills Iron Triangles (or
maybe only maims them!)
  • Only when Congress and the White House are both
    controlled by the same party can strong alliances
    between the branches form
  • A divided government can stop these alliances
  • When the legislative branch and the executive
    branch conflicting political agendas make cozy
    relationships nearly impossible.
  • Is that a good thing.or a bad thing??

The 21st Century Iron TriangleIssue Networks
  • The term iron triangle has fallen out of favor
    among political scientists because it was no
    longer an accurate description of changed
    political dynamics.
  • The nature of political alliances has also
    changed they are rarely permanent anymore.
  • Issue networks is a new term to describe the
    looser and broader coalitions of today
  • You rarely find just two competing sides to an
    issue anymore

Issue Networks
  • Agency Officials
  • Members of Congress
  • Interest Groups
  • Lawyers
  • Consultants
  • Public Relations Experts
  • The Courts
  • These groups are constantly changing/adapting in
    Issue Networks unlike the Iron Triangle which
    generally stayed static

INS v. Chadha (1983)
  • In one section of the Immigration and Nationality
    Act, Congress authorized either House of Congress
    to invalidate and suspend deportation rulings of
    the United States Attorney General.
  • Mr. Chadha had stayed in the U.S. past his visa
    deadline and was ordered to leave the country.
    The House of Representatives suspended the
    Immigration judge's deportation ruling.
  • Question of law
  • Did Congress which allowed a legislative veto of
    presidential actions, violate the separation of
    powers doctrine?

  • The Court said Yes!
  • The Court ruled that the Act violated the
  • Chief Justice Burger concluded that even though
    the Act would have enhanced governmental
    efficiency, it violated the "explicit
    constitutional standards" regarding lawmaking and
    congressional authority.
  • The legislative veto was declared

Important Bureaucratic Regulatory Acts
  1. Privacy Act (1974)
  2. Open Meeting Law (1977)
  3. Civil Service Reform Act (1978)
  4. Whistle Blower Act Protection Act (1989, 93-01)
  5. National Performance Review (1993)
  6. Federal Employees Political Activities Act (1993)
  • Pendleton Act (1883)
  • Hatch Act (1939)
  • Administrative Procedure Act (1946)
  • Freedom of Information Act (1966)
  • National Environmental Policy Act (1969)
  • Rehabilitation Act (1973)
  • Budget Reform Act (1974)

Pendleton Civil ServiceReform Act (1883)
  • This established the United States Civil Service
    Commission which placed most federal employees on
    the merit system and marked the end of the
    so-called spoils system.

Hatch Act (1939)
  • The main provision of the Hatch Act of 1939 is to
    prohibit federal employees (Civil Servants) from
    engaging in partisan political activity.
  • Bureaucrats may NOT become involved in political
  • Named after Senator Carl Hatch of New Mexico, the
    law was officially known as An Act to Prevent
    Pernicious Political Activities.

Administrative Procedure Act (1946)
  • The federal Administrative Procedure Act (APA) of
    1946 governs the way in which agencies propose
    and establish regulations

Freedom of Information Act (1966)
  • This Act assures the media and private citizens a
    legal right to government information
  • Also known as Open Records Laws or Sunshine
  • The requester does not usually have to give an
    explanation for their request, but if the
    information is not disclosed a valid reason has
    to be given.

The National Environmental Policy Act (1969)
  • Requires federal agencies to integrate
    environmental values into their decision making
    processes by considering the environmental
    impacts of their proposed actions and reasonable
    alternatives to those actions
  • The popularity of Rachel Carsons book, Silent
    Spring, was instrumental in the continued support
    of the NEPA

Rehabilitation Act (1973)
  • The Act includes a variety of provisions focused
    on rights, advocacy and protections for
    individuals with disabilities.
  • "Handicapped" if he or she
  • Has a mental or physical impairment which
    substantially limits one or more of such person's
    major life activities
  • Has a record of such impairment or is regarded as
    having such impairment.

Budget Reform Act of 1974
  • A congressional effort to control presidential
  • It requires, among other things, that the
    president spend all appropriated funds. However,
    if Congress is notified of which funds will not
    be spent and, within forty-five days, agrees to
    delete the items, the money can be saved.
  • If the president wishes simply to delay spending
    money, Congress must be informed and may refuse
    the delay by passing a resolution requiring
    immediate release of the funds.

The Privacy Act (1974)
  • Protects citizens from obtrusive searches into
    their private lives
  • The Privacy Act states in part
  • No agency shall disclose any record which is
    contained in a system of records by any means of
    communication to any person, or to another
    agency, except pursuant to a written request by,
    or with the prior written consent of, the
    individual to whom the record pertains....
  • There are specific exceptions for the record
    allowing the use of personal records
  • The Federal Census
  • Department of Labor Statistics
  • For routine uses within a U.S. government agency
  • For archival purposes "as a record which has
    sufficient historical or other value to warrant
    its continued preservation by the United States
  • For law enforcement purposes
  • For Congressional investigations
  • Other administrative purposes (Patriot Act- 2002
    and 2006)

Federal Open Meeting Law (1977)
  • The law opened the doors for the media and
    private citizens to more than 50 federal boards
    and agencies.
  • All agencies under the act must announce their
    meetings at least a week in advance.
  • Closed session are allowed under specific
    circumstances, but the reason for the closed
    meeting must be certified by the legal officer of
    the agency.

Civil Service Reform Act of 1978
  • Attempted to reform the civil service of the
    federal government
  • Addressed incompetent workers, automatic pay
    increases, and the lack of incentive for good
  • Was not successful in any of these areas. ?

The Whistleblowers Protection Act (1989, 1993,
  • The Whistleblowers Protection Act was designed to
    protect people who come forward with a disclosure
    about improper conduct by public bodies or public
    sector employees.
  • Thusthe name whistleblower

National Performance Review 1993
  • The National Performance Review was created
    during the Clinton Administration by Vice-
    President Al Gore.
  • Often called Reinventing government
  • From red tape to results creating a government
    that works better and costs less.
  • It encouraged agencies to find more effective
    means of doing government business.
  • Mildly effective

Federal Employees Political Activities Act- 1993
  • Allows federal employees to run for public office
    in non-partisan elections or donate funds to
    political campaigns
  • They are still prohibited from engaging in
    partisan political activity or soliciting funds
    for partisan candidates
  • Created because of fears that the Hatch Act was
    too restrictive

Read Chapter 8-9!!!
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)