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Interactions of Living Things

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Chapter 18 Interactions of Living Things – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Interactions of Living Things


1
Chapter 18
  • Interactions of Living Things

2
What is Ecology?
  • The study of the interactions between organisms
    and their environment
  • Interactions between organisms is not simply who
    eats who but varied, some good some bad

3
2 parts of ecology
  • Biotic aspect
  • The living part of the environment
  • Animals, plants, insects, humans
  • Abiotic aspect
  • The non-living part of the environment
  • Physical factors
  • Rocks, water, soil, light, temperature

4
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5
Organization in the Environment
  • Organism
  • Populations
  • Communities
  • Ecosystems
  • Biosphere
  • Single animal
  • Group of the same animal
  • Different populations in the same area
  • Includes the abiotic factors
  • Earth where life exists

6
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7
The Energy Connection
  • All living things need energy to survive
  • Organisms are divided into groups based on how
    they get energy
  • Producers
  • Consumers
  • Scavengers
  • Decomposers

8
Producers
  • Make their own food/energy
  • Use the sun to go through the process of
    photosynthesis
  • Includes plants, algae and some bacteria

9
Consumers
  • Cant make their own energy, get it by eating
    producers or other consumers
  • Primary consumer eats the producer
  • Secondary consumer eats a consumer
  • Herbivore eats only plants
  • Carnivore eats only animals
  • Omnivores eats both plants and animals

10
Scavenger vs. Decomposer
  • Scavengers eat dead animals for energy
  • Examples include turkey vultures
  • Decomposers get energy by breaking down the
    remains of dead organisms
  • Recyclers, bacteria and fungi

11
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12
Food Chains and Webs
  • Food chains represent how energy flows from one
    organism to the next
  • Rare in nature because animals usually eat more
    than one organism
  • Food webs represent many pathways that energy
    flows in an ecosystem

13
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14
Energy Pyramids
  • Represents the loss of energy by each organism in
    a food chain or web

15
Habitat vs. Niche
  • Habitat the environment in which an organism
    lives
  • When things like deforestation, building of roads
    and buildings occur, habitats are being destroyed
  • Niche organisms way of life in the ecosystem
  • Includes its habitat, food, predators,
    competitors and abiotic factors

16
Niche of the Gray Wolf
  • Consumers
  • Carnivores, eating moose, deer, reindeer, sheep
    and small animals such as birds and snakes
  • Social Structure hunt in packs
  • Nurture and teach their young
  • Important in population control

17
Interactions
  • Most living things produce more offspring than
    will survive but abiotic and biotic factors will
    control the population size
  • Example frogs

18
Limiting factors
  • Populations cannot grow indefinitely because the
    environment contains only so much food, water,
    living space and other resources
  • When one or more becomes scarce, it becomes a
    limiting factor

19
Carrying Capacity
  • The largest population that a given environment
    can support over a long period of time
  • When the population gets larger than carrying
    capacity, limiting factors will cause the
    population to get smaller

20
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21
Competition
  • Can occur among individuals within a population
    or between populations
  • Competition for resources, mates, space

22
Predator and Prey
  • Prey the organism that is eaten
  • Predator the organism doing the eating
  • Adaptations
  • Predator speed or ambush prey
  • Prey run away, camouflage, poisonous, bright
    colors, groups

23
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24
Symbiosis
  • Long term, association between two or more
    species
  • 3 types
  • Mutualism
  • Commensalism
  • Parasitism

25
Mutualism
  • Both organisms benefit
  • Insects pollinating flowers

26
Commensalism
  • One organism is benefiting and the other is
    unaffected
  • Clown fish and sea anemone

27
Parasitism
  • One organism is harmed and the other is
    benefiting
  • Parasite- benefits
  • Host - harmed

28
Coevolution
  • Long term change that takes place in two species
    because of their close interactions with each
    other
  • Herbivores evolving with the plants they eat
  • Flowers and their pollinators
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