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Chapter 14 Careers in Therapeutic Exercise


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Title: Chapter 14 Careers in Therapeutic Exercise

Chapter 14 Careers in Therapeutic Exercise
Careers in Therapeutic Exercise
Chad Starkey
Therapeutic Exercise Defined
  • Systematic and scientific application of exercise
    and movement experiences to develop or restore
    muscular strength, endurance, or flexibility
    neuromuscular coordination cardiovascular
    efficiency and other health and performance
  • Programmed physical activity aimed at improving
    or restoring the quality of life
  • Classified as being rehabilitative or

Therapeutic Exercise Professionals
  • GoalsTo help people restore lost function
    (rehabilitative) or acquire skills functions
    considered normal or expected (habilitative)
  • FocusTo help individuals who are experiencing
    physical dysfunction stemming from traumatic
    injury, congenital defects, or disease to regain
    the use of the affected body part or compensate
    for its disability

Types of Therapeutic Exercise
  • Rehabilitative therapeutic exercise refers to
    processes and treatments that restore skills or
    functions that were previously acquired but have
    been lost because of injury, disease, or
    behavioral traits.
  • Habilitative therapeutic exercise refers to
    processes and treatments leading to the
    acquisition of skills and functions that are
    considered normal and expected for an individual
    of a certain age and status.

Rehabilitative Therapeutic Exercise
  • Exercise therapy for the rehabilitation of
  • Musculoskeletal injuries
  • Athletic injuries
  • Postsurgical trauma
  • Older populations
  • Psychological disorders (mindbody relationship)
  • Cardiopulmonary system

Habilitative Therapeutic Exercise
  • Exercise therapy for habilitation of
  • Obese populations
  • Children with developmental disorders
  • General fitness
  • Specialized performance (meet standards that
    exceed rather than merely meet those of the
    general population such as sport training,
    military boot camp, fire or police academy)

Therapeutic Exercise Settings
  • Inpatient facilities
  • Outpatient clinic settings
  • Sport team settings
  • Private practice

Overviews of Professions in Therapeutic Exercise
  • Credentials for each profession vary, overlap,
    and also change regularly.
  • Pay careful attention to the changing required
    standards for employment for education,
    licensure, and so on.
  • A strong science base and an active clinical
    education component are critical to your
    preparation and success.

Athletic Trainer
  • Responsible for the prevention, evaluation,
    management, treatment, rehabilitation of
    athletic injuries
  • Education and credentials
  • Certification through the Commission on
    Accreditation of Athletic Training Education
    (CAATE) clinical experience required
  • Employment opportunities
  • High schools, colleges and universities, and
    professional sport teams, hospitals, sports
    medicine clinics, industrial rehabilitation
    clinics, and other allied medical environments

Clinical Exercise Physiologist
  • Cardiac, pulmonary, and metabolic disease care
  • Exercise testing and prescription
  • Program administration
  • Education and credentials
  • Recommended undergraduate and graduate degree
  • Specialized courses and certifications (ACSM)
  • Exercise specialist (ES)
  • Registered clinical exercise physiologist (RCEP)
  • Required credentials vary by state
  • Employment opportunities
  • Growth in aging population resulting in growth of
    these types of positions
  • (continued)

Occupational Therapist
  • Helps injured or ill individuals reach their
    maximum level of independence by emphasizing the
    acquisition and retention of functional skills
  • Education and credentials
  • National Board for Certification in Occupational
    Therapy, Inc.
  • State licensure
  • OT masters degree (as of 2007)
  • COTA (certified occupational therapy assistants)
    two-year degree program
  • (continued)

Physical Therapy Specialty Certifications
Physical Therapist
  • Provides rehabilitative care to a diverse patient
    population with a wide range of injuries,
    illnesses, and diseases
  • Education and credentials
  • Physical therapist (plans, directs, implements
    patient care)
  • Accredited masters degree program (doctorate of
    PT required by 2020)
  • State licensure
  • Physical therapist assistant
  • Delivers care under direction of PT
  • Accredited two-year program
  • State licensure
  • (continued)

Physical Therapist (continued)
  • Employment settings
  • Geriatric care
  • Pediatric care
  • Sport physical therapy
  • Employment opportunities
  • Increased survival rates of accident victims
    along with increased support from employers
    indicates growth in job opportunities.

Therapeutic Recreation Specialist
  • Treats people with physical, cognitive,
    emotional, or behavioral disabilities to restore
    function reduce or eliminate the effects of
    disability develop independence.
  • Recreation therapists utilize leisure activities
    to restore function.
  • Education and credentials
  • Bachelor's degree in therapeutic recreation
  • Internship under a certified recreation
  • National certification exam Certified
    therapeutic recreation specialists (CTRS)
  • Employment opportunities
  • Limited growth because of cuts in hospital
  • (continued)

Strength and Conditioning Specialist
  • Maximizes physical performance, reduces the
    frequency of injury, and decreases the
    possibility of cardiovascular disease by
    designing programs for the specific needs of the
    individual (sport and activity specific)
  • Education and credentials
  • Bachelors degree in kinesiology preferred,
    required for some certifications
  • Certifications recommended (such as National
    Strength and Conditioning Association Certified
    Strength and Conditioning Specialist)
  • Current CPR certification
  • Employment opportunities

Careers in Therapeutic Exercise
  • Fulfill a societal need
  • Assist in attaining desired levels of fitness
  • Assist in regaining lost function
  • Cover a wide range of populations
  • Newborns to geriatrics
  • Athletes to unskilled performers

Chapter 15 Careers in Teaching Physical Education
Careers in Teaching Physical Education
Kim C. Graber and Thomas J. Templin
Why Study Pedagogyof Physical Activity?
  • Pedagogy (sport pedagogy) of physical activity is
    the study of teaching physical activity.
  • Effective instructors understand their subject
    and know how to convey it in a manner that will
    lead to success for all students at levels that
    meet their individual needs.

Importance of Pedagogical Knowledge
  • A person with a background in pedagogy should be
    able to answer these questions
  • How will you get and keep the students
  • How much time should you spend talking, and how
    much time should students spend practicing?
  • (continued)

Importance of Pedagogical Knowledge (continued)
  • Will your methods work?
  • How will you structure class to ensure that
    students have adequate time during class to
    improve their fitness levels?
  • How will you motivate students to engage in
    physical activity outside of the school setting
    and make appropriate nutritional selections?

What Do Physical Activity Pedagogues Do?
  • Teach in public and private schools (PE adapted
    physical education curriculum specialist)
  • Coach
  • Recreation leaders
  • Instructors at corporate fitness centers or
    community recreation centers
  • Specialists or skill instructors
  • Professors and/ or Researchers
  • (continued)
  • (continued)

Certification and Continuing Education
  • Degree from accredited teacher education program
  • Passing Praxis I and Praxis II tests as required
    by individual states
  • State license requirement
  • Continuing education requirements (vary by state)
  • Additional certifications (may be required for
    coaching and other specializations)

Key Pedagogical Principles Based on Research
  • Begin to develop expertise by acquiring
    experience and new knowledge.
  • Provide appropriate practice.
  • Provide a high amount of academic learning time.
  • Always be concerned about class management and
  • Assess for student learning.
  • (continued)

Key Pedagogical Principles Based on Research
  1. Provide clear, specific feedback.
  2. Develop knowledge about alternative curricular
  3. Ensure an equitable learning environment that
    addresses the individual needs of all learners.
    Consider how your expectations influence
  4. Be mindful of teachercoach role conflict.

Teaching Expertise
  • Requires ongoing education (Reading and attending
    professional conferences are critical).
  • Teaching experience alone does not guarantee
    expertise (burnout and boredom are potential
  • Requires implementation of research-based best
    practices into instruction.

Appropriate Practice Experiences for Students
  • For students to succeed at any skill, they must
    be exposed to appropriate practice.
  • (The principle of quality and the principle of
    quantity are discussed in chapter 3.)

Active Learning Time
  • Time on task, also called engaged time, is
    defined as the time students spend actually doing
    physical activity or sport.
  • Students should spend at least 50 of the time
    appropriately engaged (performing correctly with
    frequent success) this is called academic or
    functional learning or learning time.

Effective Class Management and Discipline
  • Class management means proper organization is
    critical for teaching effectiveness and maximal
    student engagement and learning.
  • Discipline means teaching rules, enforcing them
    when they are broken, and rewarding exceptional
  • (continued)

Effective Class Management and Discipline
  • Instructors can best assist students as they
    learn rules and routines by
  • having high expectations,
  • being firm but warm,
  • developing clear rules, and
  • describing how rules will be enforced.

  • Students learn accountability through clearly
    stated and consistently enforced expectations.
  • Instructors demonstrate with-it-ness by knowing
    whats happening in the learning environment and
    by displaying this awareness through oral or
    other communication with students.
  • Educators who ignore off-task behavior encourage
    further manipulation by students.
  • Additional students engaging in off-task behavior
  • Increased numbers of competent bystanders
    (well-behaved students who consistently avoid
    participation without attracting notice)

Specific Feedback
  • Common instructor mistakes when providing
  • Feedback is often incorrect.
  • Teachers sometimes focus on an aspect of
    performance that does not require feedback while
    neglecting an area that does require feedback.
  • Teachers provide less feedback during game play.
    Feedback provided during game play can be
    valuable it gives all students information about
    ways to improve.
  • Teachers can increase the probability that
    instruction will be effective by providing
    appropriate learning activities maximal active
    learning time and correct, prompt, and specific

Alternative Curriculums
  • The elective curriculum
  • The fitness curriculum
  • The sport education model
  • The wilderness and adventure education curriculum
  • The social development model
  • The teaching games for understanding model
  • Effective teachers are concerned with
    implementing curricular models that are
    interesting to students and produce the greatest
    opportunity for student learning.

Equity Issues and Student Needs
  • Common forms of discrimination
  • Having a bias against students with less ability
    (such as using elimination games)
  • Singling out obese and out-of-shape students in
    negative ways
  • Allowing other students to ridicule or embarrass
    low-skilled or obese students
  • Neglecting to adjust the teaching approach for
    students who carry personal problems into the
    learning environment

TeacherCoach Role Conflict
  • Role conflict is defined as two or more
    incompatible roles that are difficult to perform
  • Role withdrawal or retreatism occurs when one
    role is selected over another and results in one
    role suffering.
  • Both teaching and coaching are satisfying career
    choices, but people must be careful to fulfill
    the obligations of each role if they elect to
    engage in both simultaneously.

Teaching Settings Workplace Conditions
  • The instructors enjoyment is influenced by many
    factors, including the work environment (teaching
  • Workplace conditions have the potential to
    facilitate or constrain the physical activity
  • Gymnasiums that are cheerful and well equipped
    also send a message to students about the
    importance of the subject matter.

NASPE Standards for Initial Physical Education
  • Standard 1 Scientific and Theoretical Knowledge
  • Standard 2 Skill-Based and Fitness-Based
  • Standard 3 Planning and Implementation
  • Standard 4 Instructional Delivery and Management
  • Standard 5 Impact on Student Learning
  • Standard 6 Professionalism

Growing Support for Physical Education in Schools
  • Teachers now assume a major role in leading the
    school initiative to improve the health and
    fitness levels of students.
  • New public laws recognize the value of
    maintaining physical education and health in the
    school setting (for instance, Public Law 108-265,
    National School Lunch Act, requires a school-wide
    plan addressing physical activity and nutrition).

Successful Physical Education Teachers
  • Utilize innovative instructional strategies and
    novel curriculums
  • Integrate physical education with other subject
  • Utilize unique ways to promote learning
  • Promote their programs (public relations)
  • Have supportive colleagues and administrators

Successful Physical Education Teachers
  • Have adequate funding (grants, fundraisers, etc.)
  • Display exemplary classroom management strategies
  • Engage in professional development activities
  • Offer after-school programs for students adults
  • Model athletic skill and fitness
  • Promote equitable learning settings

Advice for Future Teachers
  • Never stop learning to teach (embrace belief that
    learning is a lifelong process).
  • Join professional associations (start now with
    student membership).
  • Remain current on research literature (put
    research-based best practices into action).
  • Strive to be your best (become the next Teacher
    of the Year local, state, national honors).

Make a Commitment to Sport Pedagogy
  • Remain committed to
  • student learning,
  • effective teaching practices,
  • ongoing development of subject matter expertise,
  • professional involvement, and
  • believing you can make a difference in the lives
    of children.