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Dental Biochemistry 2015 Lecture 1

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Title: Dental Biochemistry 2012 Lecture 1 Author: Suriender Kumar Last modified by: suriender kumar Created Date: 11/30/2011 3:56:54 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Dental Biochemistry 2015 Lecture 1


1
Dental Biochemistry 2015Lecture 1
  • Dr. Kumar, MSB E-639, x-4750
  • E-mailkumarsu_at_njms.rutgers.edu
  • Web site http//njms2.umdnj.edu/biochweb/educatio
    n/bioweb/

2
Dental Biochemistry
  • Examinations
  • There will be three unit examinations and a final
    comprehensive examination. Students must sign in
    and sign out before leaving the examination room.
    Grading policy is described in the handout.
  • Any student who is late by more than 30 min will
    not be given the examination.
  • If a student can not take a unit examination due
    to unavoidable circumstances, the student may be
    re-examined.
  • A student discovered cheating on the examinations
    is subject to disciplinary action by the dental
    school.
  • The course director will try to get tutorial help
    for students in academic difficulty following
    first unit exam. Please see the course director
    if you need assistance.

3
  • An all class session is held to review each
    examination at which time student concerns about
    individual questions are addressed.
  • Individual students may challenge one or more
    questions through the class representative.
  • PBL
  • There are three problem based learning sessions
    of two hours each. Attendance at these sessions
    is mandatory.
  • Textbook
  • Lippincotts Illustrated Reviews in Biochemistry,
    Lippincott Williams and Wilkins 6th North
    American Edition. ISBN-13 978-1451175622
  • RECOMMENDED TEXT(s)
  • Medical Biochemistry by Gerhard Meisenberg and
    William Simmons, Elsevier Publishers, 3rd Edition
  • Students may consult other books for content
    and/or explanations

4
GRADING POLICY
  • Grades in the course will be based on three unit
    examinations and a final comprehensive
    examination. Each unit exam will constitute 21
    of the grade. The final exam will constitute 32
    of the grade.
  • Final grades will be adjusted to give a class
    mean average of not less than 79.
  • There will be three PBL sessions of 2 hours
    each. Five percent of the overall grade will be
    given to a student based on his/her performance
    in PBL sessions as assessed by the instructor.
    Attendance at PBL sessions is compulsory.
    Students will lose additional 1.0 of the grade
    for every missed PBL session. PBL session grades
    will be disclosed after all the PBL sessions are
    completed.
  • Requests for correction or re-evaluation of
    graded examinations must be presented to Dr.
    Kumar, the Course Director, within three (3)
    working days after the examination key has been
    posted. All requests must be typed.

5
Final Grades
  • Letter grades will be assigned on the following
    basis
  • 89.5 and above A
  • 84.5 -- 89.49 B
  • 79.5 84.49 B
  • 74.5 79.49 C
  • 69.5 74.49 C
  • 65-69.49 D
  • lt65 F

6
The components of an idealized eukaryotic cell. A
cell such as this probably does not exist, but
the diagram shows the relative sizes and
locations of the cell parts
7
Anabolism and Catabolism
  • Anabolism is the phase of intermediary metabolism
    that encompasses the biosynthetic and energy
    requiring reactions.
  • The cellular synthesis of complex substances and
    macromolecules from low molecular weight
    precursors.
  • In general, the reactions of anabolic pathways
    are reductive and consume reducing potential
    (energy) (ATP)
  • Catabolism refers to reactions that are energy
    producing, are oxidative and produce reducing
    cofactors (NADH, NADPH etc)

8
Regulation of the degradation and synthesis
depends on the energy state of the cell (ATP)
High NADH is indirectly equivalent to
highATP. This means that the cell is high in
energy. High NAD or ADP or AMP means that
the cell is low in energy.
ATP ½ ADP Energy Charge ATP ADP
AMP The energy charge can have a value of 0 (all
AMP) to 1 (all ATP).
9
Synthetic and degradative pathways are distinct.
If ATP is low, degradative pathways are
stimulated. If ATP is high, degradative
pathways are inhibited and synthetic pathways are
stimulated
Degradation
Synthesis
10
Energy Charge Fluctuations
  • The energy charge can have a value ranging from 0
    (all AMP) to 1(all ATP). It has been shown that
    ATP-generating (catabolic) pathways are inhibited
    by a high energy charge. In plots of the reaction
    rates of such pathways versus the energy charge,
    the curves are steep near an energy charge of
    0.9, where they usually intersect. It is evident
    that control of these pathways has evolved to
    maintain the energy charge within rather narrow
    limits. In other words the energy charge like the
    pH of a cell is buffered. The energy charge of
    most cells range from 0.8 to 0.95."
  • A high Energy Charge signals the down regulation
    of metabolism. A low Energy Charge signals up
    regulation of metabolism

11
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14
A few reaction types are repeatedly observed in
biochemistry
15
Oxidation-reduction
Succinate DH
Malate DH
16
Ligation
Formation of carbon-carbon bond.
Pyruvate carboxylase
17
Isomerization
Aconitase
18
Group transfer
Hexokinase
19
Hydrolytic reactions
Peptidases
20
Lyases
a lyase is an enzyme that catalyzes the breaking
(an "elimination" reaction) of various chemical
bonds by means other than hydrolysis (a
"substitution" reaction) and oxidation, often
forming a new double bond or a new ring
structure.
21
Dehydration
Enolase
Removal of H2O (group) to form a double bond
22
Learning objectives lecture 1
  • Know general structure of eukaryotic cell and
    general functions of various structures.
  • Know about the energy charge of a cell and
    conditions under which it will go up or down.
    Does the energy charge always stay constant?
  • Understand general type of reactions observed in
    biochemistry.
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