Dog Breeds - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Dog Breeds PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 77df2e-MTVmZ



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Dog Breeds

Description:

Title: Chapter 7: Human Inheritance Author: Bryan Last modified by: Bryan Rescigno Created Date: 5/23/2006 1:18:28 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:40
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 48
Provided by: Brya1201
Learn more at: http://hs.pequannock.org
Category:
Tags: blood | breeds | cell | dog | malaria

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Dog Breeds


1
Dog Breeds
2
Question of the Day Feb 11
  • Normal human zygote cells contain
  • A. 23 chromosomes
  • B. 44 chromosomes and an X and Y
  • C. 46 chromosomes
  • D. 44 chromosomes

3
AGENDA Feb 11
  • Big Question What is a karyotype?
  • 1. Question of the Day
  • 2. Introduction to Chapter 14
  • 3. Karyotyping
  • 4. Review and Homework
  • Complete Lab and Discussion Questions

4
  • Chapter 14
  • The Human
  • Genome

5
14-1 Human Heredity
  • How many chromosomes does an adult human cell
    contain?
  • Autosomes any chromosomes that are not sex
    chromosomes.
  • Sex Chromosomes X and Y chromosomes that
    determine sex of individual.
  • Normal Individuals represented as
  • Males ? 46, XY
  • Females ? 46, XX
  • Solve a Punnett Square to predict sex of offspring

6
Human Cell
  • 22 pairs of homologous chromosomes
  • called autosomes
  • 1 pair of sex chromosomes
  • 23rd pair
  • egg, sperm
  • half the number of chromosomes
  • egg carries an x, sperm carries a y or x

7
Karyotype
  • a picture of chromosomes that is laid out with
    homologous chromosomes paired.
  • Numbered 1-23 in order of size
  • What does the size of the chromosome indicate?

8
Question of the DAY Feb 12
  • Which statement is not true regarding homologous
    chromosomes?
  • A. Specific genes are found at the same locus
  • B. They have the same size
  • C. Genes will express identical traits
  • D. They are joined at the same centromere
    locations

9
AGENDA Feb 12
  • Big Question How is a pedigree used to predict
    the occurrence of genetic disorders?
  • 1. Question of the Day
  • 2. 14-1 Notes
  • 3. Pedigree Practice Problems
  • 4. Review and Homework
  • Complete Lab and Discussion Questions
  • DUE THURSDAY (YES we will be here).

10
Genes and the Environment
  • All of our inherited characteristics are governed
    by our genes.
  • Many traits are polygenic.
  • Other factors influence our phenotypes.
  • Nutrition and Exercise
  • Average height has increased 10 cm in the last
    200 years ? 3.93 inches
  • U.S. and Europe

11
Blood Group Genes
  • How many different alleles control blood type?
  • How is blood type expressed?
  • How many different blood types are there?

12
Blood Group Genes
  • Rh blood groups
  • Positive () Negative (-)
  • Rh/Rh or Rh/Rh- Rh-/Rh-
  • Blood Type AB-
  • A allele and B allele 2 Rh- alleles

13
Alleles Figure 14-6
  • Dominant Some genetic disorders are expressed
    through these alleles
  • Only requires one allele
  • Recessive Most genetic disorders are
    transmitted through these alleles
  • Codominant Sickle Cell Disease

14
Pedigree Analysis
  • rely on family histories and medical records to
    study humans
  • pedigree diagram that follows the inheritance of
    a single trait through several generations

15
AGENDA Feb 14
  • Big Question How is a pedigree used to predict
    the occurrence of genetic disorders?
  • 1. Question of the Day
  • 2. Pedigree Practice Problems
  • 3. Review and Homework
  • HAND IN LABS

16
Pedigrees record and trace the occurrences of
traits within a family.
17
British Royal Family
18
The Story of Anastasia
19
DO NOW
  • Explain why males cannot be carriers for
    sex-linked disorders.

20
DO NOW Feb 18
  • A mother (type AB blood) and a father (type A
    blood) have two children. What are the possible
    genotypes of the children. Show all possible
    combinations. Solve Punnett Squares to support
    your answer.

21
DO NOW ANSWERED
  • Sex-linked inheritance is directly connected to
    the X-chromosome. Males only have one
    X-chromosome and will always express this type of
    trait/disorder.
  • Females have two X-chromosomes. Women only
    carrying one allele for the trait/disorder are
    carriers. Recessive traits/disorders will not be
    expressed unless both X-chromosomes carry the
    allele.

22
AGENDA Feb 18
  • Big Question What is Sex-linked Inheritance?
  • 1. DO NOW
  • 2. Chapter 13 Tests
  • 3. Sex-linked Inheritance
  • 4. Review and Homework

23
14-2 Sex-linked Inheritance
  • sex determination
  • XX female
  • XY male
  • sex-linked genes genes located on the sex
    chromosomes
  • almost always on the X chromosome
  • Y chromosome contains a few genes for male
    development

24
Sex-linked Inheritance
  • any X chromosome-linked gene a male inherits is
    expressed, since they only have one
  • gets passed from father to daughters, then
    daughters to their sons
  • examples are hemophilia, colorblindness,
    Duchennes muscular dystrophy

25
Human Genetic Disorders
  • autosomal genetic disorders
  • albinism
  • recessive allele on chromosome 11
  • cant produce melanin
  • cystic fibrosis
  • recessive allele on chromosome 7
  • heavy mucus clogs lungs and breathing passageways

26
DO NOW Feb 19
  • Perform the following dihybrid cross.
  • A homozygous long mane lion that is heterozygous
    for a loud roar mates with a lioness with a
    heterozygous long mane and a soft roar.
  • What are the chances that one of the cubs will
    have a homozygous long mane and a soft roar?
  • List all of the possible genotype and phenotype
    ratios.

27
AGENDA Feb 19
  • Big Question What is Sex-linked Inheritance?
  • 1. DO NOW
  • 2. Review selected HW problems
  • 3. Chapter 13 Tests
  • 4. More Genetic Disorders
  • 5. The Human Genome Project
  • 6. Review and Homework
  • Read Section 14-2 Details of Genetics Disorders

28
  • tay sachs
  • recessive allele on chromosome 15
  • suffer from breakdown of the nervous system
  • sickle cell disease
  • recessive allele on chromosome 11
  • produces an alternate form of hemoglobin that
    causes the red blood cells to become a sickle
    shape
  • one DNA base changed
  • Glutamic acid for Valine

29
Sickle Cell Disease
  • Allele very prominent in African Americans
  • Carried by many individuals
  • Connected to malaria a parasitic disease that
    affects red blood cells
  • Individuals who are heterozygous for sickle cell
    are resistant to malaria
  • When body destroys sickled cells, parasite
    causing malaria also destroyed.
  • Low oxygen sickle shape cells clump together

30
  • PKU phenylketonuria
  • recessive allele on chromosome 12
  • causes mental retardation
  • Huntingtons disease
  • dominant allele on chromosome 4
  • lose muscle control and nervous system breaks
    down

31
AGENDA
  • Big Question What is Sex-linked Inheritance?
  • 1. DO NOW
  • 2. Sex-linked Inheritance Section 7-2
  • 3. Pedigree Practice
  • 4. Closing Thoughts
  • HAND IN YOUR KARYOTYPE LABS

32
Chromosome Number Disorders
  • occurs by nondisjunction when abnormal number of
    chromosomes are produced in the sex cells due to
    them not separating correctly

33
Turners Syndrome
  • either a sperm or an egg is produced without a
    sex chromosome
  • XO genotype
  • O means sex chromosome is missing
  • sex organs are not fully developed
  • can not have children
  • only in females

34
Klinefelter Syndrome
  • have an extra X chromosome
  • XXY genotype
  • causes mental retardation
  • can not reproduce
  • only in males

35
Down Syndrome
  • trisomy 21
  • means 3 copies of chromosome 21
  • causes heart and circulatory problems, mental
    retardation, and a weakened immune system

36
Other Causes of Disorders
  • deletions can occur from pieces of chromosomes
    breaking off and getting lost in meiosis
  • translocation when pieces of chromosomes break
    off and become reattached to another

37
Prenatal Diagnosis
  • want to detect if unborn child will have a
    disorder
  • two ways
  • amniocentesis withdraw fluid from sac around
    fetus
  • chorionic villus sampling tissue surrounding
    fetus is removed and examined

38
Special Topics in Human Genetics
  • barr body dense region in the nucleus of most
    cells in human females
  • condensed turned-off X chromosome
  • not found in males because their one X chromosome
    is active
  • happens in some tissues and in some cells

39
AGENDA Feb 21
  • Big Question What is the Human Genome Project?
  • 1. CHAPTER 14 Problem Solving Test
  • 2. Complete Chapter 14-3 Notes
  • 3. Begin to Study for T2 Exam

40
14-3 Testing for Alleles
  • DNA probes specific DNA base sequences that
    detect the complementary base sequences found in
    disease causing alleles
  • Cystic Fibrosis and Tay Sachs are examples that
    use DNA probes.

41
DNA Fingerprinting
  • Repeats are specific sequences of DNA unique to
    every individual
  • Do not code for proteins
  • Repeats cut with restriction enzymes
  • Gel electrophoresis separates fragments
  • Labeled with radioactive probes
  • Forensics, detection of inherited diseases, and
    paternity cases

42
(No Transcript)
43
Human Genome Project
  • Human genome sequencing completed in 2003.
  • Included sequencing of other organisms including
    E. coli, multiple strains of yeast, the fruit
    fly, the mosquito, the honey bee, the cow, the
    dog, the horse, and the rat.
  • At least 18 countries have established human
    genome research programs.
  • Australia, China, Germany, Italy, Russia, Sweden,
    and the United Kingdom are among the nations
    involved in the Human Genome Organization which
    coordinates international collaboration.

44
Gene Therapy
  • Replacement of an absent or faulty gene with a
    normal working gene.

45
Gene Therapy
46
DO NOW Feb 19
  • Explain how autosomal recessive disorders are
    passed down from parent to offspring.

47
DO NOW ANSWERED
  • Autosomal recessive disorders require both
    parents to have at least one allele for the
    disorder. Each parent must then pass this
    recessive allele on to their child.
  • The genotype for a child with a recessive
    disorder of this type is aa, ee, tt, etc.
  • Both alleles are recessive (lower-case)
About PowerShow.com