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United States History

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United States History & The Constitution Unit 5.2: Reconstruction Ch. 12.1 Notes The Politics of Reconstruction – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: United States History


1
United States History The Constitution Unit
5.2 Reconstruction Ch. 12.1 Notes
The Politics of Reconstruction
2
Todays Lesson Standard / Indicator
Standard USHC-3 The student will demonstrate an
understanding of how regional and ideological
differences led to the Civil War an
understanding of the impact of the Civil War and
Reconstruction on democracy in America. USHC-3.3
Analyze the effects of Reconstruction on the
southern states on the role of the federal
government, including the impact of the
thirteenth, fourteenth, fifteenth amendments on
opportunities for African Americans.
3
Ch. 12.1 Notes
  • - Lincolns 10 Plan
  • - Lenient on the South.
  • - Govt pardon all Confederates except
    high-ranking officials those
  • accused of crimes against prisoners of
    war swear allegiance to the
  • Union.
  • - 10 of states eligible voters had to
    vote to re-enter the Union.
  • - form new state government get
    representation in Congress.
  • - Radical Republicans (Goals)
  • - Destroy power of former slaveholders.
  • - Give African-Americans right to vote
  • citizenship rights.
  • Wade-Davis Bill
  • - Proposed Congress, not the president, be
  • responsible for Reconstruction.

Radical Republican Leader Thaddeus Stevens (R.
PA)
4
Ch. 12.1 Notes
  • - Pres. Johnsons Plan (Presidential
    Reconstruction)
  • - Aim to punish ex-confederate leaders
    (military landowners)
  • - Remaining 7 Confederate states had to
  • - 1.) Withdrawal secession, 2.) swear
    allegiance to the Union,
  • 3.) annul Confederate war debts, 4.)
    ratify the 13th Amendment.
  • - Failed (like Lincolns) to help
    ex-slaves land, voting rights, legal
  • protection.
  • - Freedmens Bureau Act
  • - Assisted ex-slaves poor whites
    (clothing food)
  • - Set up 40 hospitals, 4,000 schools,
    61 ind. institutes, 74 teacher-
  • training centers.
  • - Civil Rights Act of 1866
  • - African-Americans citizenship.

5
Ch. 12.1 Notes
  • - Radical Republicans override Johnsons veto.
  • - Reconstruction Amendments
  • - Thirteenth amendment (11.5)
  • - Formally abolished slavery.
  • - Fourteenth Amendment
  • - All persons born/naturalized in
    the U.S. are citizens.
  • - Entitled to equal protection of
    the law.
  • - Constitutional basis for Civil Rights Act of
    1866.
  • - Fifteenth Amendment
  • - Extension of suffrage rights to African
    Americans (males).
  • Reconstruction Act of 1867 (Radical
    Reconstruction)

6
Reconstruction Military Districts
7
Daily Bell Ringer Warm Up 2nd Nine Weeks
Bell Ringer 6 (5 7 Dec) 6.) Despite the
passage of the Reconstruction Amendments (13th,
14th, 15th), why did African Americans
experience continued discrimination? a.)
Southern governors declared the amendments null
void. b.) Southern state legislatures passed a
series of Jim Crow Laws.. c.) State governments
were now aware these amendments were
ratified. d.) The amendments did not address
political rights. CORRECT ANSWER B
8
Todays Lesson Standard / Indicator
Standard USHC-3 The student will demonstrate an
understanding of how regional and ideological
differences led to the Civil War an
understanding of the impact of the Civil War and
Reconstruction on democracy in America. USHC-3.4
Summarize the end of Reconstruction, including
the role of antiAfrican American factions
competing national interests in undermining
support for Reconstruction the impact of the
removal of federal protection for freedmen the
impact of Jim Crow laws voter restrictions on
African American rights in the post-Reconstruction
era.
9
United States History The Constitution Unit
5.2 Reconstruction Ch. 12.2 12.3 Notes
Reconstructing Society The Collapse of
Reconstruction
10
Political Terms
- Republicans in the South a.) Carpetbaggers
northern Republican missionaries, teachers, or
entrepreneurs whom had moved to the South
following the war. b.) Scalawags white
southerners who did not participate in the
Confederacy whom supported the Republicans
views on economic growth public
schools. c.) Freedmen former slaves. -
Democrats in the South a.) Redeemers
(redemption) ex- planters/
ex-confederates) who redeemed the
South by removing the Republicans
returning home rule.
11
African Americans in Congress
First black Senator Representatives Sen.
Hiram Revels (R-MS), Rep. Benjamin S. Turner
(R-AL), Robert DeLarge (R-SC), Josiah Walls
(R-FL), Jefferson Long (R-GA), Joseph Rainey and
Robert B. Elliott (R-SC)
Sen. Hiram Revels, First African American
Congressman (Republican Mississippi)
12
The Rise of Vigilante Groups
The Goals of the Ku Klux Klan, the Riflemen,
the Red Shirts - Intimidate Republican
carpetbaggers freedmen force them away from
the voting polls southern politics in the hope
to go back to the North. - Forced the closing of
freedmens schools through intimidation
violent tactics. - Lynching, beatings,
cross-burnings were not uncommon means used
to achieve the Klans objectives. - Federal
government passed the Ku Klux Klan Act sent
troops to South to protect the freedmen. (weakly
enforced).
13
Freedmen Reconstruction
Freedmen in the Post-War South - Around 2.3
million slaves were freed with the ratification
of the 13th Amendment in Dec 1865 (both displaced
liberated). - Most freedmen (former slaves)
could not read or write jobs were scarce. -
Thousands left the plantations to start fresh in
places like Charleston, look for former family
members. - Hunger, disease, lack of shelter
were problems. - Some chose to remain on
the plantations to work for wages
Freedmen in Post-Civil War Richmond, VA
14
Freedmen Reconstruction
Creation of the Freedmens Bureau - Set up by
federal government in 1865 operated by the US
Army. - Provided food, clothing, medical
supplies to needy blacks. - Supervised work
contracts helped freedmen find jobs. -
Established schools military courts, as needed.
Freedmens Bureau
15
The Freedmens Bureau Cont.
Failures of the Freedmens Bureau - Over 2
million freed blacks in the South needed help,
but resources were very limited. - Working
with resentful cash-poor planters proved
challenging. - Forty Acres a Mule - The
Bureau promised more than it could deliver.
Freedmens Bureau
16
Economic Changes in the South
Sharecropping became the dominant job
lifestyle for poor whites blacks throughout the
South.
- Allowed former planters to reestablish their
former position as master through a new means.
- Poor blacks whites were economically
dependent on the land owner cycle of debt. -
Sharecroppers worked the land in exchange for a
share of the crop (landowner supplied land, tools
seeds).
- Some poor farmers relied on crop liens.
17
Post-Reconstruction Era Sharecropping in the South
18
Exodusters Leaving the South
19
Election of 1876 Compromise of 1877
- Rutherford B. Hayes (Rep) v. Samuel Tilden
(Dem) - Compromise of 1877 Deal is struck over
20 contested electoral votes. - Democrats cede
the election to Hayes, in exchange the last
federal troops pulled out of the southern
states in 1877 the era of Reconstruction
ended (1865-1877) - Power is returned to the
Southern Democrats (redeemers).
20
(No Transcript)
21
Successes Failures of Reconstruction
Successes Failures

- Blacks were allowed to play a role in
government politics through the end of
Reconstruction. - Public schools established by
the Freedmens Bureau were open to all. -
Thousands of free blacks learned to read
write.
- Race relations did not improve. (increased)
black/white tensions. - The Ku Klux Klan
grew. - Race riots took place across
the South. - Government corruption
increased during the period. - Redeemers
(Ex-Confederate Democrats) regained control)
22
Beginnings of Jim Crow
- 1877 Conservative-Democrats take control of
the South. - Moved to disfranchise (take
away) the black vote. - Eight Box Law (1881)
had to put your vote in the right ballot box. -
Poll Taxes had to pay a tax to vote. - Literacy
Tests had to read part of the SC Constitution
out-loud.
Poll Tax Receipt
23
Jim Crow Cont.
- These tactics were designed to stop poor
illiterate blacks whites from voting. - 1876
90,000 people in SC voted Republican. - 1888
less than 14,000 voted Republican. - Some
states made you own land in order to vote (kept
away the poor).
24
Jim Crow Cont.
- Grandfather Clause If your grandfather could
vote before the Civil War, then you could. -
Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896) Supreme Court case
which established the principle of separate but
equal facilities for blacks whites (rarely
equal). - All of these actions led to de jure
segregation.
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