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Ecosystem Health


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Title: Ecosystem Health

Ecosystem Health Sustainable Agriculture EHSA
  • CBSS Round table discussion seminar
  • The Environmental standing of the Baltic Sea
    from political proposal to practical project
  • 17 March, 2008
  • Christine Jakobsson
  • Director
  • Baltic University Programme
  • Uppsala University

The Baltic Sea eutrophication
  • N or P?
  • Coastal areas
  • Nitrogen fixation in the sea
  • P in organic material e.g. manure, plant
    material, sewage sludge, is very reactive
  • Algal blooms
  • Waste water treatment plants
  • Agriculture

Algae bloom
Baltic Sea Region Project (BSRP) HELCOM ICES,
regional platform for water related co-operation
4 Components
  • Comp. 1 Large Marine Ecosystem Activities
  • Comp. 2 Land and Coastal Management Activities
  • Comp. 3 Institutional Strengthening and Regional
    Capacity Building
  • Comp. 4 Project Management

Goals for sustainable agriculture
Agriculture contributes significantly to the
society of the future. Sustainable agriculture
is the production of high quality food and other
agricultural products / services in the long run
with consideration taken to economy and social
structure, in such a way that the resource base
of non-renewable and renewable resources is
maintained. Important sub-goals are 1. the
farmers income should be sufficient to provide a
fair standard of living in the agricultural
community 2. the farmers should practise
production methods which do not threaten human or
animal health or degrade the environment
including biodiversity and at the same time
minimise the environmental responsibilities that
future generations must assume 3. non-renewable
resources have to gradually be replaced by
renewable resources and that recirculation of
non-renewable resources is maximised 4.
sustainable agriculture will meet societies needs
of food and recreation and preserve the
landscape, cultural values and the historical
heritage of rural areas and contribute to create
stable well developed and secure rural
communities 5. the ethical aspects of
agricultural production are secured
Baltic 21 - An Agenda 21 for the Baltic Sea Region
  • The Baltic 21 Agriculture Sector priority
  • Education and training
  • Create demonstration watersheds with
    demonstration farms in a network in the different
    countries (part of joint action 3)
  • Develop a Virtual Research Institute for
    sustainable agriculture based on the already
    existing NOVABOVA in the Baltic Sea Region.
  • Elaborate and implement agro-environmental
    legislation and policies

Ecosystem Health Sustainable Agriculture
New Course Package !!
  • New course package on SD agriculture
    ecosystem health for university level
  • Developed in cooperation with BUP the Envirovet
    Baltic network
  • Countries Belarus, Denmark, Estonia, Finland,
    Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Kaliningrad
    St. Petersburg in Russia, Slovakia, Sweden,
    Ukraine the USA
  • Part of HELCOM and GEFs Baltic Sea Regional
    Project in NW Russia (Sida financed)
  • Baltic 21 Lighthouse project
  • 4 seminars in St. Petersburg in 2007-2008
  • 4 seminars in Kaliningrad in 2008
  • 1 seminar in Tartu, Kaunas, Jelgava, Rogow in

Unique cooperation
  • Agronomists,
  • Veterinaries,
  • Animal scientists,
  • Nature geographers,
  • Biologists,
  • Wildlife biologists,
  • Chemists
  • Economists
  • Rural development specialists
  • Public health professionals etc.
  • Gender specialist and social experts
  • New concept on sustainable agriculture its part
    in the rural ecosystem
  • sustainable agriculture covered from the
    different aspects represented by the above
    mentioned professions
  • substantial knowledge on land use rural
    development, ecosystem health the interactions
    between the wild the domestic population,
    poverty alleviation, legislation, control

Definition of the ecosystem approach
  • Ecosystems consist of flora, fauna, other
    organisms, the surrounding environment.
  • Are all a part of a food chain, with
    interconnections where the different levels
    influence each other as the result of complex
    dynamic relationships.
  • If a critical species decreases in number or
    disappears, these relationships can break down.
    The ecosystem can then take on a completely
    different state after the break down.
  • Sustainable management must be based on this
    perspective consider the impact of proposed
    measures in a holistic manner.
  • The ecosystem approach places more far-reaching
    demands on protection measures.
  • Management - more adaptive instructive with
    clear links between implemented measures,
    environmental monitoring research -
    based more on the obligations of the sectors
    less on their rights.
  • The aim is to preserve the structure function
    of ecosystems hence maintain their capacity to
    provide us with goods services.

Non-sustainable issues of present day agriculture
  • Production
  • Contaminants and residues in food
  • Unfavourable market conditions for
    agricultural production
  • Excessive livestock density
  • Changing climate, temperatures, water
    availability, storms
  • Natural resources
  • Dependence on fossil energy
  • Low efficiency of energy use in agricultural
  • Dependence on non-renewable phosphorus deposits
  • Lack of water and of high water quality
  • Nutrient losses (N and P) to the environment
  • Decrease in soil fertility (acidification,
    carbon content, nutrient status, structure,
    compaction, salinisation)
  • Erosion
  • Pesticide residues in soil, water and
    non-target organisms
  • Accumulation of heavy metals and nuclides
  • Soil contamination with persistent organic and
    inorganic substances
  • Loss of biodiversity and genetic resources
  • Air pollution (NH3, CH4, N2O, pesticides)

Non-sustainable issues of present day agriculture
  • Human and animal welfare
  • Occupational threats to farmers consumers
  • Dependence on growth promoters antibiotics in
    animal production
  • Unfavourable animal welfare threats to animal
  • Diseases that can spread from animals to humans e
    g BSE, avian influenza
  • Socio-economic criteria
  • Unfavourable economical profitability of
  • Lack of food security food production
  • Unfavourable social infra-structure in rural
  • Lack of preservation of nature historical
  • Urbanisation
  • Competence- Education
  • Lack of education, information management

Ecosystem Health Sustainable Agriculture
  • Modules
  • Rural development and land use
  • Sustainable agriculture
  • Ecology and animal health
  • 3 books for university teaching

EHSA Activities
  • Stakeholders LFA planning Meeting, 10-12 Sept.
    2005, Kaunas, Lithuania
  • Identifying local coordinators 2006
  • Kick-Off Meeting, 27-29 Nov. 2006,Tallinn,
  • Homepage started in December 2006
  • Newsletter start in Spring 2007
  • Editors meetings Oct 2007 modules 2,3 April -08
    module 4
  • Authors meeting, 25-26 June 2008, Klaipeda,
  • Planning meeting with Russian coordinators 14-16
    Nov 2007
  • Seminar /training course (1st of 12) 13-14 Dec.
    2007 the rest during 2008
  • Film production in 2008 (if financing is secured)
  • Editing conference in Autumn 2008
  • Layout printing of books Autumn/Winter 2008/2009
  • Teachers conferences in 2009

Local Coordinators
  • Kaliningrad Helena Kropinova, Anna Polyotkina,
    Elena Kostyk, Immanuel Kant Russian State
  • St. Petersburg Nikolay Poliansky, Eleena
    Korneva, Marina Efremova, St. Petersburg State
    Agrarian University Alexandra Izosimova,
    Academy of Management and Agribusiness of
    Non-Chernozem Zone of Russian Federation
  • Estonia Arvo Ital, Tallinn Technical University,
    Institute of Environmental Engineering
  • Latvia Maira Dzelzkaleja in cooperation with
    Viesturs Jansons, Latvia University of
  • Lithuania Angelia Buciene, Klaipeda University
  • Poland Jozef Moseij, Warsaw Agricultural

EHSA the future
  • Substantial holistic knowledge on ecosystem
    health sustainable agriculture based on
    research experience. Written by well-known
    experts within the BSR the Great Lakes region.
  • Suitable for continuing education for advisors
  • University education to provide a solid
  • Large multiplying effect after the project ends
    as the educational package will be offered to all
    universities within the BSR GLR
  • Good platform for future research

EHSA the future
  • A planned continuation together with the Swedish
    Farmers Federation, WWF and Keep Baltic Tidy
  • Result of the Agricultural and Environmental
    Ministers Meeting in Saltsjöbaden, April 2007
  • Meeting Agri-environmental extension services
    around the Baltic Sea, Riga, Latvia, 6 7 Dec.
  • Baltic 21 project
  • Cooperation on agri-environmental extention
    service around the Baltic Sea
  • Example - Transfer Focus on Nutrients

The Baltic University Programme
  • a network of 220 universities
  • institutes of higher learning
  • 14 countries in the Baltic Sea Basin
  • 14 regional centres
  • 1.500 teachers/researchers contributed
  • 9.500 students yearly
  • coordinated by a Secretariat at Uppsala
  • University, Sweden
  • focuses on sustainable development,
  • environmental protection democracy

Thank you for your attention and interest!
Module 2. Rural Development Land Use
  1. The rural landscape
  2. The Rural society
  3. Human perspectives on values of the landscape
  4. Planning, management and assessment
  5. Policy instruments and governance

Module 3. Sustainable Agriculture
  • Definition of sustainable unsustainable issues
    in agriculture
  • Reduce the nutrient losses from agriculture
  • Reduce the risks connected with the use of plant
    protection products
  • Protection of ground surface water for drinking
    water purposes in agricultural areas
  • Improve efficiency of energy transports
  • Improve efficiency of raw materials usage for
    high quality agricultural productivity
  • Combating soil degradation

Module 3. Sustainable Agriculture cont
  1. Production of high quality products balanced
  2. Animal welfare
  3. Occupational health
  4. Maintain promote biodiversity
  5. Promote balanced land use improve landscape
  6. Recycling of nutrients in bio-solids(sewage
    sludge, compost, organic materials) human urine,
    by-products from industries
  7. Counteract climate effects

Module 4. Ecology and Animal Health
  • Stewardship of biodiversity
  • A.1. Terrestrial
  • A.2. Aquatic
  • Monitoring for diseases in wildlife populations
  • Preventing transmission of infectious diseases
    among wildlife, domestic animal, and human
  • Prevention reduction of impacts of chemical
    contaminants on ecosystems
  • Food Safety

Module 4. Ecology and Animal Health .
  • Differences in North American, EU and Russian
  • Impact of Climate Change on Wildlife, Domestic
    Animal, Human, and Ecosystem Health Preparing
    for global warming

The Baltic University Programme Undergraduate
courses Environmental Science courses 1. The
Baltic Sea Environment 2. Environmental
Science 3. English for Environmental Science The
Baltic Sea Region (area studies) courses 1. The
Baltic Sea Region Cultures, Politics,
Societies 2. Peoples of the Baltic 3. Regional
Development and the Baltic Sea Region Sustainable
Development course 1. A Sustainable Baltic
  • The Baltic University Programme
  • Master courses
  • Water Management courses
  • 1. Sustainable Water Management in Baltic Sea
  • 2. The Baltic Waterscape
  • 3. The Use and Management of Water
  • 4. River Basin Management
  • Environmental Management courses
  • 1. Policy Instruments for Environmental
  • 2. Cleaner Production Technologies
  • 3. Product Design Life Cycle Techniques
  • 4. Environmental Management Systems
  • Sustainable community development courses
  • 1. The city
  • 2. Building sustainable communities
  • 3. Sustainable Urban Management