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Conception to Birth Prenatal Development

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Title: Conception to Birth Prenatal Development


1
Conception to BirthPrenatal Development
2
Prenatal Development
  • Prenatal defined as before birth
  • Prenatal stage begins at conception and ends with
    the birth of the child.

3
Zygote
  • A newly fertilized egg
  • The first two weeks are a period of rapid cell
    division.

4
Embryo
  • 14 days until the end of the eight week
  • Most of the major organs are formed during this
    time.
  • Heartbeat, Red Blood Cells

Embryo 45 Days
5
Prenatal Development
6
  • Prenatal Development Overview
  • Zygote Conception to 2 weeks
  • Embryo 2 weeks through 8 weeks
  • Fetus 9 weeks to birth

7
Fetal Period
  • The period between the beginning of the ninth
    week until birth
  • Now referred to as a Fetus

8
Prenatal Development 2 months
9
11 Weeks
10
Placenta
  • A cushion of cells in the mother by which the
    fetus receives oxygen and nutrition
  • Acts as a filter to screen out substances that
    could harm the fetus

11
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12
Teratogens
  • Substances that pass through the placentas
    screen and prevent the fetus from developing
    normally
  • Includes radiation, toxic chemicals, viruses,
    drugs, alcohol, nicotine, etc.

13
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14
Smoking and Birth Weight
15
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
  • A series of physical and cognitive abnormalities
    in children due to their mother drinking large
    amounts of alcohol during pregnancy

16
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17
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18
  • Swallowing and Kicking

19
  • Make its first movements

20
28 Weeks
21
2-D
22
3-D and 4-D
National Geographic Channel In The Womb
23
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24
The Beginnings of Life The Newborn
25
Newborn
Reflexes Automatic and Unlearned Responses
  • Within the 1st 30 minutes, newborns will turn
    their heads to watch a human face even it is a
    picture or a drawing
  • Human Voices
  • Taste preferences no spoiled milk please!

26
Rooting Reflex
  • Infants tendency, when touched on the cheek, to
    move their face in the direction of the touch and
    open their mouth
  • Child is looking for nourishment.
  • Sucking Swallowing Reflexes
  • Allows for food to be received at birth

27
left leg extends when infant gazes to the left,
while right arm and leg flex inward, and vice
versa.
infant closes its hand and "grips" your finger
takes brisk steps when both feet placed on a
surface, with body supported.
The infant raises up (upper torso, shoulders, and
head) with arms when lying face down (on his
tummy).
28
Newborns are great at grasping
  • but not at letting go!

29
  • Newborns are able to see, but are nearsighted.
  • -prefer faces over other stimuli in the
    environment.
  • Prefer the sounds of their parents voices over
    others

30
Temperament
  • A persons characteristic emotional reactivity
    and intensity

31
Temperament
  • A babys temperament is apparent after just a few
    hours of birth
  • easy babies eat and sleep regularly
  • difficult unpredictable, intense, irritable
  • Relatively stable personality aspect

32
Physical Development in Infancy and Childhood
33
Infant, Toddler, Child
  • Infant First year
  • Toddler From about 1 year to 3 years of age
  • Child Span between toddler and teen

34
Motor Development
  • Includes all physical skills and muscular
    coordination
  • When did you first roll over, sit up, walk, ride
    a bike???

35
Motor Development
36
Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood
Piagets Cognitive Stages
  • Module 4 Prenatal and Childhood Development

37
Cognition
  • All the mental activities associated with
    thinking, knowing, and remembering
  • Children think differently than adults

38
Jean Piaget (pee-ah-ZHAY)
  • Developmental psychologist who introduced a stage
    theory of cognitive development

39
Stage 1- Sensorimotor Stage
  • From birth to 2 years
  • Child gathers information about the world through
    senses motor functions
  • Child learns object permanence

40
Object Permanence
  • The awareness that things continue to exist even
    when they cannot be sensed
  • Out of sight, out of mind

41
Object Permanence
Clip the baby to see object permanence in action!
42
Even when they get older, kids figure out objects
dont go away, but the A not B Effect gets
em every time!
Check out this clip!
43
toast permanence?
44
Stage 2- Preoperational Stage
  • From about 2 to 6 or 7 yrs
  • Children can understand language but not logic
  • Fantasy Play

45
Egocentrism
  • The childs inability to take another persons
    point of view
  • Includes a childs inability to understand that
    symbols can represent other objects

46
Conservation
  • Certain properties remain constant despite
    changes in their form
  • The properties can include mass, volume, and
    numbers.

47
Conservation
48
Conservation
49
Conservation
50
Types of Conservation Tasks
51
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52
Stage 3- Concrete Operational Stage
  • From about 7 to 11yrs
  • Child learns to think logically
  • understands the concept of conservation

53
Stage 4- Formal Operational Stage
  • Child can think logically and in the abstract
  • About age 12 on up
  • Can solve hypothetical problems (What if.
    problems)

Check out this clip the 1st kid is in stage 3
logic the last person is stage 4, she thinks
hypothetically
54
Assessing Piagets Theory
  • Piaget underestimated the childs ability at
    various ages.
  • Piagets theory doesnt take into account culture
    and social differences.
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