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Quantitative Methods and Gender Inequalities

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Title: Quantitative Methods and Gender Inequalities


1
Quantitative Methods and Gender Inequalities
  • Jacqueline Scott
  • University of Cambridge

2
Outline
  1. Consider whether early feminist opposition to
    quantitative research makes sense
  2. Introduce the ESRC Research Priority Network on
    Gender Inequalities (GeNet) as an exemplar
  3. Discuss the diverse methodologies of GeNet
    against a fit for purpose evaluative framework
  4. Consider challenges posed by understanding
    intersectionalities in gender research
  5. Identify how qualitative methods used to inform
    and sharpen the ways quantitative researchers
    count

3
Feminism in 1970s /1980s
  • Emphasis on making women visible in social
    sciences and giving voice
  • Concern about objectivity impersonal
    knowledge being all too biased
  • Challenge to essentialist arguments about
    natural differences between men and women
  • Championing of qualitative over quantitative

4
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5
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6
The difference gender makes
  • Shift from women to gender
  • Gender as analytical category gendered
    processes..inclusive of male and females..
  • Inequalities both between men and woman and also
    within men and women
  • Intersectionalities gender, race, class, age..
    More nuanced understanding

7
ESRC Gender Equality Network
  • Research Priority Network on Gender Inequalities
    in Production Reproduction
  • www.genet.ac.uk

8
Background
  • Demise of male breadwinner family - labour market
    changes/changes in parenting partnership
  • Paradigm shift in gender relations
  • Greater policy recognition of equality although
    policies ambiguous
  • Some human capital convergence but inequalities
    persistent

9
9 Linked Projects3 Inter-related themes
  • Pathways to Adult Attainment Life Course
    Processes
  • Changing occupations and careers of women and men
  • Biographical agency and developmental outcomes
  • Gendered pathways from childhood disadvantage to
    adulthood
  • Gender, time allocation in paid and unpaid work
    the wage gap
  • Resources, Gender, Ethnic Class Inequalities
  • Within-household inequalities in income and power
  • Gender, ethnicity, migration and service
    employment
  • Class gender, employment and family
  • Policy Responses to Gender Inequalities
  • Addressing gender inequality through corporate
    governance
  • Policy initiatives tackling inequalities in work
    and care in UK EU

10
3 different methodologies
  • Pathways to Adult Attainment Life Course
    Processes
  • QUANTITATIVE LONGITUDINAL ANALYSIS - unpacking
    gendered processes and changes across time
  • Longitudinal analysis of cohort differences in
    occupations and careers (Shirley Dex and Heather
    Joshi)
  • Childhood and adolescent transitions to adulthood
    across cohorts (Ingrid Schoon)
  • Gendered pathways from childhood disadvantage to
    adulthood across cohorts (Wendy Sigle-Ruston and
    John Hobcraft)
  • Gender, time allocation in paid and unpaid work
    the wage gap using the BHPS (Gershuny)
  • Resources, Gender, Ethnic Class Inequalities
  • MIXED METHODS (qualitative unpacking the
    specific context quantitative providing
    estimates of sub-group differences within the
    population)
  • Within-household inequalities in income and power
    (Himmelweit, Sutherland and Bennett)
  • Gender, ethnicity, migration and service
    employment (McDowell)
  • Class gender, employment and family (Crompton)
  • Policy Responses to Gender Inequalities
  • QUALITATIVE semi-structured interviewing
    documentary analysis
  • Addressing gender inequality through corporate
    governance (Deakin)

11
Inter-twining of theory, empirical research and
methodology
  • GeNet has explicit goal of promoting highest
    possible methodological standards in its own
    gender research and contributing to ESRCs
    various methodological and training initiatives
    that are concerned to raise standards of social
    science generally
  • Is there a feminist method? No what matters
    for feminist research is fit for purpose and
    feminist research is sufficiently broad-ranging
    that it spans quantitative and qualitative
    divides

12
Questions requiring quantitative analysis
(Source Joshi and Pacci 1998)
  • Pay gap narrowing for those aged 26 (enhanced
    human capital and labour market experience
    Equal Pay Act 1970 75)

13
Masculinization of Female Life Course (UK Cohort
effects Participation- Joshi et al 2005)
14
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15
The combined effects of various factors on the
gender difference in annual earnings of 1995
graduates seven years after graduation
16
Time-use investigation (Gershuny et al)
  • Hypothesis substantial part of gender gap in
    wages that persists beyond operation of
    work-place equal opportunities can be explained
    in terms of day-to-day practices of unequal
    division of production and caring activities in
    household.
  • Data British Household Panel and Harmonised
    European Time Use

17
Time use by family change Women aged 20- 40
(Gershuny 2004)
18
Time use by family changeMen aged 20-40
(Gershuny 2004)
19
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20
Lagged adaptation
  • Over the long term women who carry dual burden
    have choices suffer, argue, quit
  • Not much of real choice so what happens?
  • Over time, women and mens share of domestic
    division of labour becomes more equal, with women
    reducing unpaid work immediately, but mens take
    up of home chores taking longer and being less
    reliable

21
time on work (mins of day)
neths UK USA Sweden W Germ
Core domestic work Core domestic work Core domestic work Core domestic work Core domestic work Core domestic work
Male 29 28 33 56 11
Female 188 177 182 143 238
Other unpaid work Other unpaid work Other unpaid work Other unpaid work Other unpaid work Other unpaid work
Male 84 83 97 117 84
Female 124 111 142 146 132
Paid work Paid work Paid work Paid work Paid work Paid work
Male 325 367 406 379 418
Female 94 178 187 262 168
Total work Total work Total work Total work Total work Total work
Male 438 478 536 552 513
Female 406 466 511 551 538
22
Range of models of work-family balance
Model Description Policies Countries
Adult worker model Supported Unsupported Lone parents low earners Gender neutral Childcare Work benefits Tax credits Model encouraged in EU UK since 1999 USA
Nordic gender Differentiated adult worker Equality allowing for difference Cash support for parental leave care relief parental leave provision Sweden to lesser extent other Scandinavian
Gender equality based on female model Male and female reduced hours Netherlands
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