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Sheep and Goat Industry

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Title: Sheep and Goat Industry


1
Sheep and Goat Industry
  • Animal Science Level 2

2
Unit Map Follow Along in your packet
  • WHAT ARE YOU LEARNING?
  • AS.06.02(Basic) Recognize, identify, and
    evaluate the effects of diseases and parasites on
    animals.
  • AS.03 Identify breeds of economically important
    animal species.

3
Know Understand Do!
  • Know
  • Types of sheep
  • Basic Management practices
  • Basic terminology
  • Understand
  • Use and variation in sheep breeds
  • Importance of management in relation to industry
    and health
  • Use of terminology in the industry
  • Do
  • Identify common sheep breeds
  • Research disease prevention
  • Define and utilize basic sheep vocabulary

4
Key Learning Sheep and Goat Industry
  • Unit EQ Why are sheep and goats rising in
    economic importance ?

Concept Sheep/ Goat Industry Lesson EQ How
are sheep and goats utilized in the animal
science industry? Vocab Lamb, Mutton, Wool
Concept Care and Management Lesson EQ How
does management effect the sheep/goat
industry? Vocab Drenching, Shearing, Lambing
Concept Sheep/Goat Breeds and Uses Lesson
EQ What characteristics define sheep/goat
breed uses? Vocab Meat, Dairy, Textiles
5
History of sheep
  • Todays sheep descend from wild sheep (Mouflon)
    of Asia and Europe
  • Sheep are a source of fiber and meat
  • Sheep were first domesticated about 10,000 years
    ago
  • People used wool as much as 20,000 years ago

Corel Photo
6
Introducing sheep to the world
  • Columbus and other Europeans carried sheep to the
    New World
  • Spanish missionaries introduced to sheep to
    Native Americans in Mexico
  • Sheep are an important part of Navajo culture

7
Introducing sheep to the world
  • The Navajo word for sheep translates to that by
    which we live
  • Merino sheep were imported to New England in 1793
  • During the next 20 years, demand for the Merino
    spread across the Northeastern U.S.

8
Sheep in the U.S.
  • With the development of synthetic fibers in the
    20th century, the sheep industry has declined
  • Sheep and lamb population peaked at 56.2 million
    in 1942
  • In 1996, the sheep and lamb population had
    declined to 8.4 million
  • In 2001, 66,000 sheep producers in the U.S. were
    raising 6.9 million sheep and lambs

9
Wool
  • Sheep have been bred to produce finer wool fiber
  • People in Iran began selective breeding of sheep
    for finer wool 6,000 years ago
  • Fine wool sheep breeds of today originated with
    the Spanish Merino, developed more than 1,200
    years ago

10
Main areas in the Sheep and Goat Industry
  • Dairy
  • Milk Production
  • Meat
  • Wool/Textiles
  • There are specific breeds that perform well in
    each area. There are also dual purpose breeds

11
What are the leading states and nations in sheep
and goat production, and what are the major
export and import markets for the United States?
  • D. The United States exports only about 2 percent
    of its lamb and mutton production.
  • Most U.S. mutton exports are to Mexico.
  • E. The United States imports more than 50 percent
    of the dairy goat cheese products it uses and
    consumes.
  • Most dairy goat cheese imports come from France.

12
How does the sheep and goat industry affect the
U.S. economy?
  • Compared with the beef, dairy, and swine
    industries, the sheep and goat industry is
    relatively small in terms of production numbers
    and overall impact on the economy.
  • On the other hand, the sheep and goat industry
    tries to increase sales in specialty markets.
  • A. The sheep industry
  • 1. The sheep industry has significantly changed
    over the past several years from wool to meat
    production.
  • 2. The demand for lamb and mutton remains steady
    and shows little change in preferences.
  • Americans have not traditionally consumed lamb
    regularly, the way they have beef, pork, and
    poultry products.

13
How does the sheep and goat industry affect the
U.S. economy?
  • 3. The wool industry in the United States has
    changed as many wool mills have either closed or
    moved to other
    countries.
  • This allows for export markets to
    increase slightly for
    wool and wool
    products.
  • 4. The challenges for the sheep industry and
    American lamb products depend on the adoption of
    new technologies by producers, marketing
    improvements, research development, and
    perfection of efficiency at every stage of sheep
    production.

14
How does the sheep and goat industry affect the
U.S. economy?
  • B. The goat industry
  • 1. Dairy goat milk and cheese see a steady growth
    in consumer demand as people become more aware of
    the higher protein and lower cholesterol levels
    in goat products versus dairy cow products.
  • Dairy goat producers market their products
    primarily through direct markets, farmers
    markets, or Internet sales, or they sell them
    directly to retail stores and restaurants.
  • Goat milk can be used to make cheese known as
    chevre.
  • 2. Meat goats are marketed through harvest
    facilities, auctions, or on-farm sites to private
    buyers.
  • Meat goats are sold based on their size and age.
  • An Easter kid is a noncastrated meat goat
    weighing 16 to 40 pounds that is usually sold
    seasonally to ethnic markets.
  • Cabrito is the meat from a noncastrated
    milk-raised kid weighing 25 to 40 pounds.
  • Technically, chevon is the meat from a goat of
    any age or size.

15
How does the sheep and goat industry affect the
U.S. economy?
  • 3. As Hispanic and Asian populations continue to
    rise in the United States, so will the preference
    for goat meat.
  • Historically, these populations have preferred
    goat meat in their diets.
  • Faith-based populations have also increased in
    the United States, creating a greater demand for
    related food preferences.
  • Goat meat is not generally available at grocery
    stores or supermarkets.
  • It is sold at ethnic markets and specialty
    stores.
  • 4. Great potential exists for the goat industry
    in the United States as ethnic populations
    continue to grow.
  • Small goat farms have the greatest opportunity
    for growth as the demand in metropolitan areas
    increases.
  • Goat meat also offers a healthy choice to meet
    the demands of health-conscious Americans.
  • Industry groups must educate consumers and
    producers and increase marketing strategies.
  • Other challenges of the goat industry relate to
    the price and availability of the meat.

16
What food and non-food products are produced by
sheep and goats?
  • Sheep and goats are very versatile and offer many
    products for human use.
  • These animals provide both food and non-food
    products.
  • Many of the non-food products are used in the
    manufacturing of items that are used every day.
  • For example, baseballs are stuffed with wool and
    sewn with wool thread, the rubber lining is
    prepared from stearic acid, and the center cork
    contains processed blood.

17
What food and non-food products are produced by
sheep and goats?
  • A. Meat that comes from a sheep under one year
    old (young sheep) is referred to as lamb.
  • Mutton is meat from a sheep that is over one year
    old.
  • Mutton has a very different taste than lamb.
  • Lamb is considered a delicacy.
  • Mutton has a strong flavor and is not as popular
    as lamb.
  • Meat from goats is referred to as chevon,
    depending on the age of the animal.

18
What food and non-food products are produced by
sheep and goats?
  • B. The hide of sheep is used for leather.
  • The wool is used for clothing and other products,
    such as rugs, insulation, and artist brushes.
  • The wool also contains lanolin.
  • Lanolin is the grease found in the wool and is
    used in ointments and cosmetics.

19
What food and non-food products are produced by
sheep and goats?
  • 1. The fats and fatty acids from
    the carcass are used in
    products
    such as floor wax, candles, crayons, brake fluid,
    tanning
    lotion, cosmetics, and glycerol that helps
    asphalt stick.
  • 2. The manure from sheep and goats can be used as
    fertilizer and contains nitrogen, phosphorus,
    potassium, and other various minerals.

20
What food and non-food products are produced by
sheep and goats?
  • 3. The horns, hooves, and bones are used in a
    wide variety of products, such as shampoos/
    conditioners, bone china, marshmallows, piano
    keys, and gelatin
    desserts.
  • 4. The products manufactured from the intestines
    can be the casings for foods such as sausages and
    hot dogs.
  • The intestines also provide materials used to
    make instrument strings.

21
What food and non-food products are produced by
sheep and goats?
  • C. Goat milk can be used to make a cheese known
    as chevre.
  • Dairy goat producers market
    their products primarily
    through direct
    markets,
    farmers markets,
    Internet sales, or direct
    to retail stores and
    restaurants.
  • Goat cheese is one of the fastest-growing cheeses
    in the specialty cheese market.
  • It is considered a gourmet food, and restaurants
    use it in dishes such as pizza, salads, and
    desserts.

22
What food and non-food products are produced by
sheep and goats?
  • D. Meat goats are marketed through slaughter
    facilities, auctions, or on-farm sites to private
    buyers.
  • Meat goats are sold based on their size and age.
  • 1. An easter kid is a meat goat weighing 16 to 40
    pounds.
  • It should not be castrated and is usually sold
    seasonally to ethnic markets.
  • 2. A cabrito is the meat from a milk-raised kid
    that weighs 25 to 40 pounds and is not castrated.
  • Chevon is the meat from goats of any age or size.
  • Generally, chevon meat is from goats weighing
    over 60 pounds.
  • 3. The price of goats is typically higher before
    major ethnic holidays.
  • There is an increasing interest in goat meat in
    gourmet restaurants.
  • Goat meat is often found on the menu and usually
    comes with a high price tag.

23
What are the advantages and disadvantages of
sheep and goat production?
  • Sheep and goat production has several advantages
    and disadvantages.
  • A. The advantages of raising sheep and
    goats are
  • 1. Sheep and goats are good grazers, and
    some do well on
    range environments.
  • 2. Compared with beef animals, sheep and
    goats are efficient eaters of
    forage.
  • 3. Sheep and goats are used for more than one
    purpose.
  • 4. Lambs and goats have a fast growing rate, and
    return on investment can be seen in a short time.
  • 5. Sheep and goats can be raised together.
  • 6. Sheep are used in public and private areas to
    control plants like poison ivy and honeysuckle.
  • 7. Sheep and goats are very popular for young
    children to raise as 4-H and FFA projects.

24
What are the advantages and disadvantages of
sheep and goat production?
  • B. The disadvantages of
    raising sheep and goats are
  • 1. The price of wool is very low.
  • 2. The popularity of lamb and
    mutton is low.
  • Interest has lacked in lamb for the diet
    however, some improvements have been made in
    promoting the eating of lamb.
  • 3. Disease and parasite presence is very high in
    the production of sheep and goats.
  • 4. Predators, such as dogs, wolves, and coyotes,
    typically attack sheep and goats.
  • 5. Animals used for more than one purpose can
    cause an increase in labor.

25
Activities
  • Pictures worth a thousand words
  • Draw the history of the sheep up to today.
  • Begin with where sheep came from, and end with a
    product sheep are used to produce
  • Sheep are Better
  • Draw an advertisement for a sheep product. In
    your advertisement, include WHY your product
    containing sheep is better than a similar/related
    product that does not include sheep products.

26
Sheep and Goat Terminology
  • Animal Science Level 2

27
Review Activity
  • Worksheet One
  • Intro to Sheep and Goat Industry
  • Use the internet to answer the questions on your
    worksheet.
  • You can work in pairs on the computers.
  • You have 30 minutes to complete this activity

28
Terms Follow Along with your Worksheet
  • buck
  • cabrito
  • cashmere
  • chammy
  • chevon
  • chevre
  • doe
  • mutton
  • ram
  • wether
  • wool
  • yearling
  • Easter kid
  • ewe
  • kid
  • kidding
  • lamb
  • lambing
  • mohair

29
What are the proper terms used in describing
sheep and goats, and what are the parts of sheep
and goats?
  • Knowing basic sheep and goat terminology is
    important.
  • A. The following are common
    names and terminology used in describing
    sheep and goats.
  • 1. A ewe is a female sheep.
  • 2. A ram is a male sheep used for
    breeding purposes.
  • 3. A doe is a female goat at any age.
  • 4. A buck is a male goat at any age.
  • 5. A kid is a goat of either sex under one year
    of age.

30
What are the proper terms used in describing
sheep and goats, and what are the parts of sheep
and goats?
  • 6. A yearling is a goat of either sex one year
    old or older but less than two years old.
  • 7. A wether is a male sheep or goat castrated
    when it was young.
  • 8. Lambing is the process of a sheep giving
    birth.
  • 9. Kidding is the process of a goat giving birth.
  • 10. Wool is a sheeps coat used as a fiber for
    products such as clothing.
  • 11. Chammy is leather made from sheep or goats.

31
What are the proper terms used in describing
sheep and goats, and what are the parts of sheep
and goats?
  • B. When the main purpose of a sheep or goat is
    meat consumption, we look at it not only to
    identify its basic external parts but also to
    identify the meat cuts on the animal.
  • 1. Many external parts of sheep and goats must be
    known to speak the language when judging or
    selecting one animal over another.

32
What are the proper terms used in describing
sheep and goats, and what are the parts of sheep
and goats?
33
What are the proper terms used in describing
sheep and goats, and what are the parts of sheep
and goats?
34
What are the proper terms used in describing
sheep and goats, and what are the parts of sheep
and goats?
  • 2. Many other terms should be known in reference
    to meat cuts taken from sheep and goats.
  • a. Lamb is meat from a sheep under one year old
    (young sheep).
  • Mutton is meat from a sheep one year old or
    older.
  • Lamb is considered a delicacy.
  • b. Meat from a goat is referred to as chevon.

35
Breeds
36
Breeds of sheep
  • 1,000 distinct breeds of sheep, with 50 breeds in
    North America
  • Many of these breeds are rare and some are in
    danger of extinction
  • In the U.S., four breeds account for more than
    two-thirds of the sheep population

37
Breeds of sheep
  • Sheep are raised for wool and meat some provide
    milk for cheese-making
  • Breeds can be classified according the type of
    wool they produce
  • Fine wool
  • Medium wool
  • Long wool
  • Crossbred wool
  • Hair sheep

www.damaras.com
38
Southdown
  • Medium- to small-sized breed
  • Polled, medium-wool breed raised primarily for
    meat
  • Early maturing breed
  • Ewes have good lambing ability and average milk
    production

39
Southdown
American Sheep Industry Association
40
Hampshire
  • Large medium-wool breed
  • Mild disposition and polled
  • Rapid growth and efficient feed conversion

41
Hampshire
American Sheep Industry Association
42
Suffolk
  • Most common breed in the U.S. (40 percent of
    sheep population
  • Medium-wool polled breed
  • Raised primarily for meat

43
Suffolk
American Sheep Industry Association
44
Shropshire
  • Heaviest wool producers among medium-wool breeds
  • Medium-sized
  • Dual purpose breed suitable for both meat and wool

45
Shropshire
American Sheep Industry Association
46
Dorset
  • Medium-sized medium-wool breed
  • Both horned and polled varieties (polled is more
    common)
  • Ewes are good mothers and good milkers
  • Second most common breed in the U.S.

47
Dorset
American Sheep Industry Association
48
Delaine Merino
  • Medium-sized fine-wool breed
  • Originated in Spain 1,200 years ago
  • Noted for producing the best wool in the world

49
Delaine Merino
American Sheep Industry Association
50
Rambouillet
  • Fine-wool breed medium size
  • Good carcass characteristics dual-purpose breed
  • French in origin and descends from Spanish Merino
  • Produce some of the finest wool in the world

51
Rambouillet
American Sheep Industry Association
52
Montadale
  • Medium-wool, dual-purpose breed
  • Produce high quality carcasses and excellent wool
    that is very white in color

53
Montadale
American Sheep Industry Association
54
Columbia
  • Crossbred wool breed developed by the USDA in
    1912
  • Produce large ewes with large lambs and good wool
    yield
  • Survive well on range conditions of the western
    U.S.

55
Columbia
American Sheep Industry Association
56
Barbado
  • Hair sheep originated in Texas
  • Males are horned and females are polled
  • Color is usually tan, tan with pale or black
    belly, or pied (has two or more colors in large
    spots or blotches

57
Barbado
American Sheep Industry Association
58
Cheviot
  • Small-sized, medium-wool
  • Polled
  • Raised primarily for meat produces a
    high-quality lamb carcass
  • Hardy sheep developed in Scotland and England

Objective 3 Evaluated on Assignment Sheet 1
59
Cheviot
American Sheep Industry Association
60
What are common types of goats, and how do they
differ?
  • There are more than 300 breeds of
    domestic goats.
  • Selection of a specific breed for
    production depends on the
    growers personal needs and
    goals.
  • Goats are typically classified into types.
  • A. Angora goats originated in Turkey and are well
    adapted to areas not fit for other livestock.
  • Angoras are almost totally white at maturity and
    produce up to 7 pounds of mohair each year.
  • Angora goats are horned, with long, droopy ears.
  • At maturity a buck weighs between 125 and 175
    pounds, and a doe weighs between 80 and 90 pounds.

61
Goats Angora
62
What are common types of goats, and how do they
differ?
  • B. Dairy goats can produce 5 pounds of milk per
    day.
  • They supply 1.8 percent of the milk supply in the
    world.
  • Goat milk has more minerals than cow milk and is
    easier for small children and elderly people to
    digest.
  • The most common breeds raised in the United
    States, in order of their popularity, are French
    Alpine, LaMancha, Nubian, Saanen, and Toggenburg.
  • 1. French Alpine goats are known as good milkers
    and have no distinct color.
  • However, they are commonly shades of fawn, gray,
    brown, red, and black, or combinations of these
    colors.
  • This breed has short hair. French Alpines are
    larger-sized goats with a rangy look.

63
What are common types of goats, and how do they
differ?
  • 2. LaMancha goats are known for their external
    ears.
  • Two typesthe gopher ear and the elf earare
    distinctive breed characteristics.
  • This breed has high milk production.
  • 3. Nubian goats are all-purpose
    goats, useful for meat, milk, and
    hide production.
  • They are not heavy milk producers, but their milk
    has a high-average butterfat content.
  • Nubian goats have long ears.

64
What are common types of goats, and how do they
differ?
  • 4. Saanen goats originated in Switzerland.
  • They are known as heavy milk producers.
  • Saanen goats are white or light cream in color,
    with white preferred.
  • The hair should be short and fine.
  • Saanens perform best in cooler conditions.
  • 5. Toggenburg goats are a medium-sized
    breed from Switzerland.
  • They are known to be the oldest credited dairy
    goat breed.
  • Toggenburg goats have excellent udder development
    and high milk production.
  • The color is solid, varying from light fawn to
    dark chocolate.
  • Toggenburgs have erect ears.

65
Dairy Goats
66
What are common types of goats, and how do they
differ?
  • C. Meat goats are also known as Spanish goats and
    are used for both milk and meat.
  • 1. Boer goats came from South Africa and made
    their first appearance to the United States in
    1993.
  • Boer goats are known for their rapid growth rate,
    excellent carcass qualities, and adaptability.
  • They have white bodies with red heads.
  • This breed has grown in popularity among FFA and
    4-H projects, as well as in the show ring.

67
Meat Goat Boer (boar)
68
What are common types of goats, and how do they
differ?
  • D. Cashmere goats have been developed by
    selective breeding.
  • Cashmere is the soft undercoat of fine down
    produced by goats.
  • There is usually a large demand for cashmere
    since it is in short supply.
  • Solid-colored goats are preferred in cashmere
    production, but multicolored goats are also used.
  • E. Pygmy goats were originally imported from
    Africa.
  • They are only 16 to 23 inches tall at the withers
    and have horns.
  • They can be any color or combination of colors.
  • The main uses of pygmy goats are for research, as
    pets, as 4-H and FFA projects, and in zoo
    exhibits.

69
Cashmere and Pygmy
70
Fainting Goats !
71
Activity
  • Iowa FFA CDE
  • Live Stock Judging Sheep
  • Have out paper!

72
Sheep and Goat Industry Disease, Management,
Feeding
  • Animal Science Level 2

73
What are common parasites and diseases that
affect sheep and goats, and what are appropriate
prevention and treatment methods?
  • Several common parasites and diseases
    can affect sheep and goats.
  • Good management systems and
    prevention programs can control these.
  • A. External parasites attack sheep and goats.
  • Lice, horn flies, stable flies, ticks, blowflies,
    mange mites, and mosquitoes are common external
    parasites.
  • Symptoms include bites, scabs, and sores on the
    hide.
  • Pesticides sprayed around the pen or directly on
    the animal can serve as a treatment.
  • Good sanitation and sound management practices
    are preventives.

74
What are common parasites and diseases that
affect sheep and goats, and what are appropriate
prevention and treatment methods?
  • B. Internal parasites can live in sheep and goats
    for a long time and interfere with nutrients,
    cause diarrhea, and result in poor performance.
  • Common internal parasites
    are lungworms,
    stomach and
    intestinal worms, liver flukes,
    and
    coccidia.
  • A good, sound worming program
    is necessary for
    successful
    production.
  • C. Diseases can drastically affect sheep and
    goats.
  • Veterinarians help producers manage flock or herd
    health in the presence of diseases.

75
What are common parasites and diseases that
affect sheep and goats, and what are appropriate
prevention and treatment methods?
  • 1. Enterotoxemia, or overeating disease, is very
    common among growing lambs and kids.
  • Because large amounts of feed are ingested,
    intestinal bacteria undergo rapid growth and
    release a toxin.
  • Sudden death is usual in sheep and goats.
  • Single lambs are more frequently affected than
    twins.
  • Feeder lambs can also be susceptible once they
    are placed on heavy rations of grain or pasture.
  • A common treatment is to remove all concentrates
    from the ration and feed solely roughage.
  • The animals should be vaccinated, and the
    all-roughage ration should be continued until
    they have fully recovered.
  • Preventive practices include a vaccination
    program, good management, and proper feeding.

76
What are common parasites and diseases that
affect sheep and goats, and what are appropriate
prevention and treatment methods?
  • 2. Foot rot thrives in muddy areas where air is
    poorly circulated.
  • Foot rot is caused by bacteria.
  • Signs include a foul odor and a grayish, cheesy
    discharge, with
    lameness and intense pain.
  • Vaccination is available to treat foot rot, or
    the
    rotten area can be trimmed away and the foot
    treated with 10 to 30
    percent copper sulfate.
  • Prevention of foot rot includes proper trimming
    of feet, keeping muddy pastures drained, and
    using a foot bath.
  • 3. Contagious ecthyma, or sore mouth, is a highly
    contagious disease.
  • Sores/scabs appear on the lips and mouth.
  • Humans are also susceptible to this disease.
  • When applying antibiotic ointments as a
    treatment, the producer should wear gloves.
  • Treatment should be applied until all sores are
    dried up.
  • A vaccination program is a valuable tool in
    preventing the disease.

77
What are common parasites and diseases that
affect sheep and goats, and what are appropriate
prevention and treatment methods?
  • 4. Bluetongue is caused by a virus and is
    transmitted by gnats.
  • Commonly, gnats will infect sheared sheep during
    warm weather.
  • Signs of bluetongue are fever, depression, nasal
    discharge, and loss of appetite.
  • The lips become swollen.
  • There is no treatment for the bluetongue virus.
  • Prevention should include vaccination at shearing
    time.

78
What are common parasites and diseases that
affect sheep and goats, and what are appropriate
prevention and treatment methods?
  • 5. Mastitis is an inflammation of the udder.
  • Signs include fever, depression, decreased milk
    production, abnormal milk, hardening or
    sensitivity of the udder, and loss of appetite.
  • Sometimes signs are not visible.
  • Bacteria can spread through dirty
    lots and bedding.
  • Several types of bacteria can
    cause mastitis.
  • Controlling mastitis requires cleaning and
    controlling the environment.
  • Treatments are sensitive to the severity of each
    case and may include antibiotics.
  • Ewes or does should be moved to individual pens,
    and a veterinarian should be contacted.

79
What different types of production systems are
used for sheep and goats?
  • Goats and sheep can be raised together.
  • They complement each others eating likes and
    dislikes.
  • There are five types of sheep production systems.
  • Goats can be raised in similar situations.

80
What different types of production systems are
used for sheep and goats?
  • A. The farm flock method of sheep

    production describes
    the farm flocks
    that can
    have one sheep or thousands of
    sheep.
  • The farms are located in the midwestern, eastern,
    and southern United States.
  • The purpose of farm flocks is to produce market
    lambs and wool.
  • Many dairy goats are also raised with this type
    of production method and are popular throughout
    the country.

81
What different types of production systems are
used for sheep and goats?
  • B. A purebred flock is one that sells rams and
    ewes of an ideal type.
  • The management requirements are high, and
    knowledge of genetics is helpful.
  • Many people starting a 4-H or FFA project will go
    to a purebred flock for their first purchases.
  • Many dairy and meat goat breeds are raised in a
    purebred flock.
  • These flocks express highly valuable genetics and
    are seen in the show ring.

82
What different types of production systems are
used for sheep and goats?
  • C. The range band method of sheep
    production
    involves large bands of
    sheep (between 1,000
    and 1,500)
    that are managed over a large area
    by a herder.
  • In high vegetation areas, sheep are used for
    meat.
  • In low vegetation areas, sheep are used for wool
    because the feed is not suitable to produce a
    market-quality lamb.

83
What different types of production systems are
used for sheep and goats?
  • D. Some producers use
    confinement methods.
  • Confinement means raising
    animals completely indoors.
  • This method is popular because
    of the need
    for less land, fewer
    parasite problems, the increased
    ability to
    monitor animals, and the success of raising other
    animals in confinement.
  • Some disadvantages include increased building
    costs, higher feed costs, and the increased need
    for intense management.
  • E. Lamb feeding production involves weaning lambs
    and selling them to feedlots where the lambs are
    fed out to slaughter weight.
  • Meat goats are commonly raised in this type of
    situation.

84
What production practices are involved in the
reproductive management of sheep and goats?
  • All types of producers must
    maintain efficient production
    practices to raise
    sheep and
    goats in a healthy and
    productive environment.
  • These production practices
    start with well-managed
    breeding management systems.
  • A. Kidding is the process of a goat giving birth.
  • Lambing is the process of a sheep giving birth.
  • The gestation period for goats is about five
    months.
  • The gestation period for a sheep is about 150
    days.
  • The gestation period can vary in both sheep and
    goat breeds.

85
What production practices are involved in the
reproductive management of sheep and goats?
  • B. Sheep and goats are both seasonal breeders.
  • They are typically bred in late summer and early
    winter.
  • Meat goat breeding season depends on the
    decreasing of daylight.
  • There are no true signs of estrus other than
    acceptance of a ram/buck.
  • The estrus cycle of a ewe will occur every 16 to
    17 days, while that of a goat will occur every 18
    to 21 days.

86
What production practices are involved in the
reproductive management of sheep and goats?
  • C. The number of lambs or kids a
    female may have will vary among
    breeds.
  • It is common for dairy goats to have
    twins or triples.
  • Twins or multiples are common in
    some sheep breeds.
  • A good production practice in sheep is to
    calculate the percent lamb crop.
  • The higher the percent lamb crop the more that
    will be ready for market.
  • Another important production practice is to
    maintain the mortality rate below 25 percent.

87
What production practices are involved in the
reproductive management of sheep and goats?
  • D. The rams and/or bucks are kept separate from
    ewes until breeding season.
  • Rams should have access to water, pasture, and
    exercise.
  • Rams will require some additional grain feed
    during breeding and cold temperatures.
  • It is important to maintain a ram in good
    condition with low body fat.

88
What production practices are involved in the
reproductive management of sheep and goats?
  • E. A bred ewe or doe will require
    high-quality hay, pasture, feed, water,
    shelter, and exercise.
  • Supplemental grains are used to
    maintain health and condition during
    pregnancy.
  • The ewe or doe should be observed
    very closely as parturition time occurs.
  • 1. It is common to shear the ewes wool around
    the dock, flank, and udder.
  • The ewe is also directed to a dry, sheltered pen.
  • Once the ewe enters an individual pen, grain
    should be reduced.

89
What production practices are involved in the
reproductive management of sheep and goats?
  • 2. There are many complications that could occur
    at lambing or kidding time.
  • It is very important to observe and help
    ewes/does during the delivery.
  • It is a good production practice to make sure the
    young lamb/kid is in the right position.
  • It is also a good practice to make sure the
    ewe/doe accepts the young animal and allows
    nursing to begin.

90
What production practices are involved in the
care of lambs and kids from birth to weaning?
  • Several production practices are
    involved in the care of
    newborn
    lambs and kids.
  • A. Newborn lambs and kids
    should receive colostrum.
  • Colostrum is the first milk given by the mother.
  • It contains important nutrients for the newborn.
  • Mothers that deliver multiples can show
    acceptance to either one or none.
  • A common practice is to put a little bit of salt
    on the newborn lamb, allowing the ewe to lick and
    accept the baby.
  • If the mother has had complications during
    delivery, it is important for the
    producer to have supplemental nursing equipment
    ready.

91
What production practices are involved in the
care of lambs and kids from birth to weaning?
  • B. The navel on newborn lambs
    and kids should be dipped
    with
    iodine as soon as possible, and
    the newborn should be
    kept in a clean
    stall or pen.
  • C. The newborn should be identified as soon as
    possible.
  • Applying ear tags is a common method of
    identification for sheep and goats.
  • It is important to maintain good recordkeeping
    practices.
  • D. Lambs and kids should enter immediately into
    the flocks vaccination schedule.
  • Lambs should be wormed and vaccinated for
    overeating at an older age.

92
What production practices are involved in the
care of lambs and kids from birth to weaning?
  • E. Lambs should be docked as soon as possible.
  • Docking is the removal or cutting off of part of
    the tail.
  • Docking is important because later, as the lamb
    grows, it prevents manure from accumulating and
    parasite infestation of the tail.
  • Lambs are typically docked from 3 to 10 days old.
  • Docking can be accomplished with the use of an
    elastic bank or electric docker.
  • Goats are not docked.
  • F. Castration of lambs should be conducted during
    the first month.
  • The equipment used is similar to docking.

93
What are the nutritional requirements of sheep
and goats?
  • Sheep and goats are good grazers, and some do
    well in a range environment.
  • These animals are known for their scavenging
    ability.
  • Sheep and goats are efficient eaters of forage
    compared to beef animals.
  • Sheep will eat short grass and some broadleaf
    plants.
  • Goats will eat leaves off woody and broadleaf
    plants.

94
What are the nutritional requirements of sheep
and goats?
  • A. Sheep and goats require
    carbohydrates and fats that
    are used for energy.
  • These substances are mainly
    supplied through pasture
    and hay.
  • Grain is used before and during
    lambing season, as well as during drought,
    overgrazing, and in snow-covered pastures.
  • Grains commonly used in a sheep/goat ration are
    corn, oats, wheat, and grain sorghums.

95
What are the nutritional requirements of sheep
and goats?
  • B. Sheep and goats also require
    high levels of protein.
  • Protein levels are important due to
    the production of wool.
  • Legume grasses and plants found in a pasture
    setting contain good sources of protein for
    sheep and goats.
  • High-quality hay, containing alfalfa and clover,
    is also a good source of protein during the
    winter months.
  • Protein supplements may be used.
  • Sheep and goats raised in a range situation may
    develop a protein deficiency.
  • The producer should provide supplemental protein
    to prevent and/or control this problem.

96
What are the nutritional requirements of sheep
and goats?
  • C. Sheep and goats need minerals
    and vitamins in their
    rations.
  • Salt and mineral mixtures are common
    supplements given to these
    animals.
  • Vitamins A, D, E, and K are important
    and should be maintained
    in the diet or fed by free choice.
  • D. Water is the final component of the sheep and
    goat diet.
  • The average mature sheep will consume up to one
    gallon of water per day.
  • It is important to offer fresh, clean water to
    sheep and goats.
  • However, these animals can find water from other
    sources, such as snow, dew, and lush, green
    pastures.

97
Activity
  • Feeding and Management reading and worksheet
  • Youre the Expert
  • Your friend just purchased a large plot of land
    and they want to raise sheep just like their
    neighbors.
  • PROBLEM They know NOTHING about sheep!
  • Explain to your friend (who has never heard of
    sheep before and knows nothing about care) how
    they should set up, care for, and run their sheep
    operation.
  • INCLUDE vocabulary learned in class, and
    UNDERLINE your vocabulary. At least 10 words.

98
Test Review!
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