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Gay Male Christian Couples

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Part VIII Chapter 44 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Gay Male Christian Couples


1
Gay Male Christian Couples Sexual
Exclusivity Yip
  • Part VIII
  • Chapter 44

2
  • Discussion of feelings of satisfaction gay
    couples have with each other
  • Contrasts the commitment and expectations that
    compare/contrast homosexual heterosexual
    relationships
  • Describes how some couples maintain commitment in
    the face of sexual non-exclusivity by being
    discreet, while others stay together for opposite
    reason a searing commitment to honesty

Part 8 Ch. 44
3
A. Research on Gay Couples
  • Sexual exclusivity is one of the most researched
    areas in studies of gay male couples one of
    five most prominent themes
  • In a gay couple, its one of major issues
    partners grapple with
  • Kurdek (1991) reported that sexual
    non-exclusivity is ranked 3rd closely behind
    partners non-responsiveness partners
    personal problems
  • Research suggests that majority of gay male
    partnerships are sexually non-exclusive

Part 8 Ch. 44
4
B. Sexual Exclusivity
  • Most researchers define it in terms of behavior
    of partners
  • A partnership exclusive of both partners dont
    have sexual encounters with others
  • Some researchers define it in terms of
    expectation where sexual exclusivity is
    acknowledged by both partners (Hickson, 1991)
  • Author supports Hicksons argument that a
    partnership can be exceptionally exclusive but
    behaviorally non-exclusive

Part 8 Ch. 44
5
  • Unlike heterosexual couples who share a general
    cultural ideal of sexual exclusivity
    disapproval of non-exclusivity, gay male couples
    dont have such a cultural assumption
  • Thus they have to resort to actively negotiating
    the arrangement of their partnership
  • Most might use a trial-and-error approach to
    construct relationship rules due to lack of
    structural cultural guidelines

Part 8 Ch. 44
6
I. The Study
Part 8 Ch. 44
7
A. Methods / Data Analysis
  • Semi-structured interviews with 30 gay male
    Christian couples in Britain (N 30)
  • Ages 20s to 70s, mean duration of partnerships 12
    years 3 months
  • Recruited primarily through personal contacts
    three national gay Christian organizations
  • Lesbian Gay Christian Movement (LGCM)
  • QUEST (lesbian gay Catholics organization)
  • Anglican Clergy Consultation (ACC)
  • Fieldwork was carried out between June
    September 1993

Part 8 Ch. 44
8
II. Typology of Couples
Part 8 Ch. 44
9
A. Categorization
  • Typology takes into consideration both
    expectation behavior throughout duration of
    partnerships
  • Category A Expect partnership to be sexually
    exclusive are behaviorally (n 9)
  • Category B Expect partnership to be sexually
    exclusive but behaviorally non-exclusive
    (n 8)
  • Category C Expect partnership to be sexually
    non-exclusive are behaviorally (n 13)
  • Category D Expect partnership to be sexually
    non-exclusive but are behaviorally exclusive (n
    0)

Part 8 Ch. 44
10
  • Typology reveals contradictory scenario to
    Blasband Peplaus (1985) argument that this is
    consistency between partners agreements about
    sexual exclusivity their actual behavior

Part 8 Ch. 44
11
B. Category A
  • Research suggests that gay male couples tend to
    demonstrate trend towards sexual non-exclusivity
    over time (McWhirter Mattison, 1984 Davies et
    al., 1993 Harry DeVall, 1978)
  • Findings of current study dont confirm this
  • Six partnerships longer than 5 years
  • Longest 27 years
  • Shortest 1 year
  • Mean 9 years 5 months

Part 8 Ch. 44
12
B. Category A
  • Reasons for sexual exclusivity
  • (1) Sexual exclusivity considered symbol of total
    commitment
  • (2) Sexual exclusivity perceived as symbol of
    complete mutual satisfaction
  • (3) For some, explicit attribution of their
    belief in sexual exclusivity to conventional
    Christian sexual ethics for intimate
    relationships

Part 8 Ch. 44
13
C. Category B
  • Couples began partnerships with expectation of
    exclusivity, but either one or both partners
    violated expectation at certain point during
    partnership
  • Non-exclusivity became feature of these couples
    within six months to two years
  • Reasons for sexual non-exclusivity
  • (1) Natural progression
  • (2) Dissatisfaction with aspects of partnership
  • (3) Desire for sexual experimentation

Part 8 Ch. 44
14
D. Regulatory Mechanisms
  • Four mechanisms developed to manage their
    non-exclusive lifestyles
  • (1) Establishment of explicit ground rules
  • (2) Concealment of information outside sexual
    encounters
  • (3) Disclosure of information about outside
    sexual encounters
  • (4) Prevention of casual sexual encounters from
    developing into ongoing affairs

Part 8 Ch. 44
15
E. Category C
  • Partnerships began with expectation of
    non-exclusivity, behaviorally as well
  • Three reasons cited
  • (1) Search for sexual variety excitement as
    main reason
  • (2) Related to absence of normative guidelines
    for same-sex partnerships
  • (3) Egalitarianism prevent interpartner
    possessiveness

Part 8 Ch. 44
16
F. Rejection of Conventional Christian Sexual
Ethics
  • Stems from perception of lack of recognition from
    institutionalized Church its silence on sexual
    ethics for gay Christian partnerships
  • Results in distancing of many respondents from
    the Church its official stance on homosexuality

Part 8 Ch. 44
17
III. Sexual Exclusivity, Relationship
Satisfaction Commitment
Part 8 Ch. 44
18
A. Summary
  • Research evidence suggests theres no significant
    difference between sexually exclusive
    non-exclusive couples in terms of relationship
    satisfaction, adjustment commitment (Peplau,
    1981 Blumstein Schwartz, 1983 Blesband
    Peplau, 1985 Kurdek Schmitt, 1986 and Kudek,
    1988)

Part 8 Ch. 44
19
Review Questions
  • What distinguishes homosexual couples and
    heterosexual ones in the context of sexual
    exclusivity?

Part 8 Ch. 44
20
Pimp-Controlled Prostitution Williamson
Cluse-Tolar
  • Part VIII
  • Chapter 45

21
  • Focuses on the mechanisms employed by pimps to
    lure women into prostitution, and eventually,
    into obligatory relationships that support his
    flashy lifestyle
  • Pimp one who controls actions lives off
    proceeds or one or more women who work the
    streets. They call themselves
  • Players pimps
  • The game their profession
  • The life context of subculture

Part 8 Ch. 45
22
  • In the 1960s 1970s, social scientists devoted
    much time research on exposing understanding
    pimp-controlled prostitution within street-level
    prostitution, which entails sexual acts for money
    or barter that occurs on off streets include
    sexual activities
  • In cars motels
  • As dancers in gentlemens clubs
  • Massage parlors work
  • Truck stops
  • Crack house work

Part 8 Ch. 45
23
I. The Study
Part 8 Ch. 45
24
A. Methods
  • Examines pimp-related violence toward women
    involved in street-level prostitution within
    context of pimp-controlled prostitution
  • Data obtained from larger study including both
    independent pimp-controlled women
  • Snowball, purposive sampling (n 21)
  • Six had pimps
  • Criteria for inclusion
  • 18 years or older (18 to 28 years)
  • No longer prostituting (Avg. 4 to 8 years)

Part 8 Ch. 45
25
II. Findings
Part 8 Ch. 45
26
A. Pimping Rules of the Game
  • Pimps, players and macks are those at top of
    pimping game
  • To these men in power, its a game where they
    control manipulate actions of subordinate
    others
  • Pimping game requires strict adherence to rules
  • To have game implies that pimps have certain
    amount of charisma smooth-talking, persuasive
    conversation toward women

Part 8 Ch. 45
27
  • Paramount rule the pimp must get paid
  • Another rule game is sold and not told
  • Pimps expected to sell prostitution to women
    without revealing his entire game plan
  • This is done via persuasive conversations
  • Final rule pimp must have woman or women that
    want to see him on top
  • Macks most well-respected pimps
  • Players average stable of women, well-respected
    make good living
  • Tennis shoe pimps one or two prostitutes on
    street

Part 8 Ch. 45
28
B. Turning a Woman Out
  • For a pimp, gaining a womans attention means
    looking good, smelling nice, flashing possessions
    presenting himself as someone who can counter
    boredom with adventure excitement
  • Must also be skilled at assessing a womans needs
    vulnerabilities
  • Exploiting these vulnerabilities fulfilling
    unmet needs enable him to prostitute her
  • For some, a pimp offers hope for future
    opportunity to be financially successful

Part 8 Ch. 45
29
  • Women in this study who were involved with a pimp
    typically didnt engage in drug abuse
  • Pimps realize crack is competition frown upon
    any drug use from their stable
  • Two women involved with tennis show pimps
    indulged in drug use along with their pimp
  • Pimp-controlled women were told they were
    beautiful that men wanted them
  • Pimps didnt guarantee emotional financial
    security, but potential for these things inspired
    women

Part 8 Ch. 45
30
  • Thoroughbreds women who learn the game become
    proficient in playing
  • They are professionals in prostitution
    responsible for maintaining market rates
  • Able to handle customers, command money conduct
    business effectively to maximize profits

Part 8 Ch. 45
31
C. Free Enterprise Choosing Up
  • Pimps keen on marketing product investing in it
    in order for maximum profits
  • Thus courting or honeymoon period between pimps
    prostitutes
  • A time when pimp runs his game
  • Can last one day to several months
  • Women can be enticed away from another pimp
    viewed as component of free enterprise
  • This can be done without retaliation from another
    pimp

Part 8 Ch. 45
32
D. Pimp Prostitute Relationship in the Game
  • Each woman in study had a pimp who set rules,
    controlled her actions took her earnings
  • Most reported being infatuated with their pimp
  • The more corporate the pimp, the less likely
    women described feelings as love or defining
    interaction as a relationship
  • With tennis shoe pimps, for example, women more
    likely to describe interactions as relationship

Part 8 Ch. 45
33
  • Wife-in-law prostituted women in a pimps family
    that work for his benefit
  • May be responsible for ongoing training of recent
    inductees
  • Some women didnt tolerate this moved on
  • Others welcomed the prestige of being with a
    successful pimp willingly took on challenge
    responsibilities as a prostituted woman under his
    direction
  • Bottom bitch number one lady in pimp family who
    might be required to work but only use her hands
    and/or mouth, saving intercourse for pimp

Part 8 Ch. 45
34
  • True talents of a pimp
  • Keeping his women happy
  • Commanding money
  • Portray deep, mysterious somewhat mean demeanor
    about him
  • Conveys message that he is not to be crossed,
    which gives him title of being cold-blooded or
    icy
  • Pimps approach is never to cow down to his woman
    at any time
  • Cant let love cloud his judgment concerning
    business

Part 8 Ch. 45
35
E. Pimp-Related Violence Physical Control of
Women
  • Extent to which women felt threatened by pimp in
    part function of her evaluation of likelihood of
    pimps violence
  • This threat realized by all women in study
  • Pimp violence unpredictable took many forms
  • Most revealing immediate attack
  • Leaving ho stroll or designated work area early
    without making daily quota one violation
    resulting in violence

Part 8 Ch. 45
36
F. Pimp-Related Violence Emotional Control of
Women
  • Pimps success dependent on arousing love fear
    in women
  • Relationships require level of trust degree of
    vulnerability

Part 8 Ch. 45
37
G. Leaving Pimp-Controlled Prostitution
  • Many factors prevent women from pursuing legal
    assistance
  • Often fear, intimidation
  • Love for pimp despite abuses
  • Buying into pimping game blame herself for
    violating
  • Reluctance to report due to prior experience of
    inaction on part of law enforcement when it came
    to customer complaints
  • Women who do leave are escaping

Part 8 Ch. 45
38
Review Questions
  • Why do women remain with pimps that, most often
    times, treat them harshly? What is the appeal?
  • To what extent does pimping resemble any other
    capitalist, free enterprise?

Part 8 Ch. 45
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