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Imperial Expansion and the Punic Wars


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Title: Imperial Expansion and the Punic Wars

Imperial Expansion and the Punic Wars
External Threats
  • Sabines, Alba Longa
  • Veii
  • Lars Porsenna
  • Lake Regillus (496BC)
  • Volscii, and Aequi
  • The renegade, Corlioanus
  • Cincinnatus
  • The Latin League (30 city-states)(50/50split)
  • patron client relationship
  • ager publicus
  • coloniae

War with Veii
  • access to the Tiber, salt beds, and ager publicus
  • Fidemae
  • 10 years to 396BC
  • stipendium
  • M. Furius Camillus
  • praeda

Gallic Sack of Rome 390BC
  • Gauls? Celts?
  • weakening of Etruria
  • Senones led by Brennus
  • realpolitik of Syracuse?
  • siege of Clusium
  • siege of Capitoline citadel
  • vae victis!
  • Po River Valley (Bonnie and Clyde)
  • psychological effect

End of the Latin League
  • consolidation of central Italy from 380-350BC
    (animosity between Rome and the Latin League)
  • alliance with the Samnites
  • ius Latii, citizenship, citizenship sine
    suffragio, socii, municipiae
  • spare the conquered, battle down the proud
  • divide and conquor

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THINK PAIR SHARE In these early years of
expansion, to what extent is the casus belli a
real threat to Rome? In other words, in what ways
are these wars caused by real threats or are they
the product of a Roman desire for expansion? Must
Romes response be martial?
Samnite Wars
  • Campania and the First Samnite War (340sBC)
  • Coloniae, Neapolis (Naples), and the Second
    Samnite War (320sBC)
  • Battle of the Claudine Forks and Battle of
  • Etruscans join Samnites
  • VE 308BC/ VS 304BC
  • Via Appia and Aqua Appia (Censor Appius Claudius)
  • maniples, gladius, pilum
  • Etruscans, Gauls, and the Third Samnite War
  • Battle of Sentinum
  • municipiae, Gauls hemmed in the Po River Valley,
    and Greek city-states in the South

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Pyrrhic War
  • Tarantum
  • King Pyrrhus of Epirus
  • war elephants
  • Pyrrhic Victories at Heraclea and Ausculum
  • alliance with Carthage
  • while leaving Sicily What a field we are
    leaving for the Romans and Carthiginians to
    exercise their arms.
  • Rome, master of Italy

THINK PAIR SHARE In what ways is Romes economy
tied into warfare and the military? What are the
consequences of this relationship?
The Punic Wars
  • Phoenician city founded 814BC by Queen Dido
  • greatest Mediterranean sea power
  • 4 million subjects stories of sailors in South
    Africa and Ireland
  • ran by a board of directors
  • minimal class conflict
  • mercenary army

The First Punic War
  • Mamertines at Messana (288BC)
  • Hiero II, King of Syracuse (265BC)
  • Carthigian aid, Roman aid (declaration by comitia
    centuriata, arguments by the Claudii vs. Fabii,
    discussion of Regium, Sicily, Sardinia, and
  • Hanno forfeits Messana
  • Carthigianian/ Syracusean siege of Messana
  • early Roman victories in Sicily
  • defection of Hiero (foreign cliens)
  • seige of Agrigentum (two walls)

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The First Punic War
  • Roman triremes and Carthiginian quinquiremes
  • beached quinquireme, and the corvus
  • Mylae (260BC) and the columna rostrata
  • Roman invasion of Corsica and Sardinia
  • Naval Battle of Ecnomus, invasion of North Africa
    (256BC), the Spartan mercenary Xanthippus, the
    hubris or Regulus, the Battle of Bagradas, and
    the dismissal of Xanthippus.
  • 247BC Hamilcar Barca leads Carthiginian forces
    in Sicily asymmetrical war based at Mt. Etna
  • war of attrition, 9 year siege of Lilybaelum, P.
    Claudius Pulchers raid, and auspices.
  • victory at the Aegates Islands (241BC)

The End of the First Punic War
  • Carthiginian withdrawal from Sicily
  • war indemnity
  • mare noster
  • acquisition of Corsica and Sardinia
  • evolution of provincia
  • perseverance of Senate and socii
  • Carthage involved in Mercenary War (238BC)
  • Rome fights a series of Illyrian Wars against
    pirates, and conquers Cisalpine Gaul, settling
    the Po River Valley

THINK PAIR SHARE In what ways does the First
Punic War guarantee and also shape the Second
Punic War? What other ways could have the First
Punic War concluded that would have better
provided for a peaceful future between these two
The Outbreak of the Second Punic War
  • Hamilcar in Spain
  • new territory (New Carthage and Barcelona)
  • precious metals the new world of the old world
  • establishment of dynasty
  • Romans wary of Gauls
  • Ebro River Treaty
  • Saguntum
  • Hannibal (221BC)

Crossing into Italy
  • Publius Cornelius Scipio (the Elder) sent to
    Spain (Gnaeus pushes onwards)
  • Hannibal leaves Hasdrubal with an army of 16,000.
    He sets out with 80,000 infantry, 12,000 cavalry,
    and elephants
  • crossing of the Rhodenus (Rhone)
  • crossing the Alps
  • c. ½ Carthiginian army emerges Alps, and
    1-handful of elephants
  • Tributaries of the Po, injury of Cornelius Scipio
    (the Elder), presence of Cornelius Scipio (the

Trebia River Battle (218BC)
  • T. Sempronius Longus
  • Hannibal baits the Romans
  • Magos Ambush
  • 20,000 Romans KIA
  • loss of northernmost Italy

Battle of Lake Trasimene (217BC)
  • swamps and eye
  • G Flaminius and Gn. Servilius Geminus
  • 30,000 Romans KIA
  • 10,000 captured
  • 4,000 reinforcements destroyed
  • Sanguineto

Fabius Maximus Cunctator, dictator
  • Fabian Tactics
  • escape of Hannibal from Campania
  • socii in central Italy remain loyal

Cannae (215BC)
  • G. Terentius Varro (hubris) Lucius Aemilius
    Paullus (reserve)
  • Numidian Cavalry
  • Pincer Movement
  • hamstrings
  • 50-70,000 Roman KIA
  • 11,000 captured
  • Capua, Syracuse (Sicily), Macedon defect to

Turning Point
  • Hannibal at the Gates
  • seizure of power by senate, merit based political
    advancement, and return to Fabian Tactics
  • M. Claudius Marcellus in Sicily, death of
  • Gn. and P. Cornelius Scipio in Spain (since
    217BC), both killed in 211BC
  • P. Cornelius Scipio (the Younger, later,
  • cult of personality, aristea, prorogatio
  • capture of New Carthage (209BC)
  • Battle of Metaurus (207BC) and the decapitation
    of Hasdrubal Barca

The End of the Second Punic War
  • Scipio, imperator and consul in Africa (204BC)
  • fall of Utica
  • recall of Hannibal
  • Massinissa of Numidia
  • Battle of Zama (202BC)
  • Hannibal escapes
  • acquisition of Spain, and northern Africa
  • 50 year war indemnity

THINK PAIR SHARE It is often said that the
Second Punic War is defined by great generalship?
Is this the case?
The Macedonian Wars
  • First Macedonian War, phony war, Philip V of
    Macedon, Carthaginian ally, trapped in the East
  • Philip V becomes an ally to Antiochus III of
    Syria. Smaller Greek states (Rhodes, Pergamum,
    Aetolian League) seek aid from Rome (clientela)
  • Second Macedonian War (200-196BC), Philip ordered
    to dismantle fleet, Aetolians defect to
    Antiochus, Hannibal leads armies of Antiochus
  • Syrian Wars (192-189BC), Romans invade Asia
    Minor, Scipio faces off again against Hannibal
  • Third Macedonian War (172-167BC), new players
    (Perseus of Macedon, and Antiochus IV), Battle of
    Pydna, Perseus as Romes captive, devastation of
    Epirus, Greek freedom
  • massive influx of slaves, Rome as master of
    Italy, Spain, N. Africa, Greece, Asia Minor, and

Third Punic War (149-146BC)
  • M. Porcius Cato Carthago delenda est
  • Numidian (Client) King Massinissa captures
    territory from Carthage
  • Macedonian Rebellion (praetors and provinciae)
  • 146BC Destruction of Corinth and Carthage

Effects of War and Imperial Expansion on Roman
  • fear of northern invaders
  • professional military
  • praeda
  • displaced soldiers look to commanders as patrons
  • provincial administration and tax farming
  • philHellenism
  • centrality of the Senate, nobilitas, cult of
    personality, aristea, honor, and imperium
  • 16 novi homines between 264 and 134BC