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Selecting an Effective Bilingual Instructional Model


Title: Helping Our ELL Students Succeed: Finding the Right Setting Author: Bill Ramakkan Created Date: 3/21/2010 8:42:33 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Selecting an Effective Bilingual Instructional Model

Selecting an Effective Bilingual Instructional
Closing the Literacy Gap for ELLs
  • Ashley Martin
  • Education 7201Seminar in Applied Theory and
    Research I
  • Fall 2010

Table of Contents
  • Introduction
  • Statement of Problem
  • Slide 3
  • Review of Related Literature
  • Slides 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
  • Statement of Hypothesis
  • Slide 11
  • References
  • Slides 12 13

Hola! Hello!
Statement of Problem
  • To instruct first-grade ELLs at PSX, the school
    has implemented a side-by-side dual-language
    setting that separates L1 and L2 literacy
    development by classroom. For Spanish-speaking
    students (L1), English proficiency (L2) is below
    expected levels according to ECLAS-2 results and
    Fountas Pinnell reading levels.

Whats the Debate?
Reversing the Bilingual Education Act (1968)
with NCLB
Native Language Support
  • Research confirms significance of native language
    maintenance as predictor of future L2 proficiency
    as well as a powerful tool to assist in the
    transfer of literacy knowledge from one language
    to the next.
  • (Carlo et al., 2004 Culatta, Reese
    Setzer, 2006 Lee Schallert, 1997 Potowski,
    2004 Quesada, 2007 Vaughn et al., 2006).

Native Language Support
  • Literacy skills that are significant predictors
    of later reading success and response to
    instruction are similar for English and Spanish,
    and include skills for phonological processing.
    (Lee Schallert, 2006 Vaughn et al., 2006)
  • Texas ELA test scores higher for ELLs in
    bilingual models than immersion models.
    (Quesada, 2007)

English Immersion ProgramsL2 replaces L1 No
native language support
  • Research confirms English-only immersion models
    as most effective
  • (Garcia, E., 2007 Helmsley, Holm Dodd, 2006
    Leung et al., 2010 Rossell Baker, 1996
    Winsler et al., 2006)
  • States with recent policy changes California,
    Arizona, Georgia, and Massachusetts.

English Immersion ProgramsL2 replaces L1 No
native language support
  • Synthesis of research
  • 300 studies were examined to analyze and quantify
    effectiveness of bilingual education models.
  • Just 22 of studies suggested bilingual education
    model effectiveness over immersion models.
  • (Rossell Baker, 1996)

Additional Synthesis of Research
  • Synthesis conducted recently findings were
  • Bilingual instructional models favored over those
    that eliminated native language.
  • 17 studies, mostly Spanish-speaking, and covered
    a wide variety of bilingual models (Transitional,
    Two-Way, Dual Language)
  • (Slavin Cheung, 2005)
  • Illustrates the need for further research to
    reach conclusions as to effectiveness of

Bilingual Education Theorists
  • Jim Cummins
  • Bilingualism and special education Programs and
    pedagogical issues (1983).
  • students must receive sufficient comprehensible
    input in the target language while maintaining
    ties to the native language
  • Ofelia Garcia
  • Logisitical concerns - vary by region
  • Teacher preparation, entrance and exit criteria,
    parental involvement, curriculum.

Statement of Hypothesis
  • HR¹ Use of bilingual small-group literacy
    instruction in English Classroom over an
    eight-week period will increase L2 proficiency of
    Spanish-speaking ELLs in the dual-language
    program (ECLAS-2, Fountas Pinnell)
  • HR² Bilingual small-group literacy instruction
    in English Classroom A will yield a greater
    literacy improvement for students compared to
    those instructed in English Classroom B.

  • Carlo, M.S., August, D., McLaughlin, B., Snow, C.
    E., Dressler, C., Lippman, D., . . . White, C. E.
    (2004). Closing the gap Addressing the
    vocabulary needs of English language learners in
    bilingual and mainstream classrooms Electronic
    Version. Reading Research Quarterly, 39(2)
  • Combs, M. C., Evans, C., Fletcher, T., Parra, E.,
    Jim?nez, A. (2005). Bilingualism for the
    children  Implementing a dual-language program
    in an English-only state. Educational Policy, 19,
    701-727. doi 10.1177/0895904805278063.
  • Culatta, B., Reese, M., Setzer, L. (2006).
    Early literacy instruction in a dual-language
    (Spanish-English) kindergarten. Communication
    Disorders Quarterly, 27(2), 67-82. doi
  • Cummins, J. (1983). Bilingualism and special
    education Programs and pedagogical issues.
    Learning Disability Quarterly, 6(4), Autumn,
  • Duran, L, Roseth, C. J., Hoffman, P. (2010).
    An experimental study comparing English-only and
    transitional bilingual education on
    Spanish-speaking preschoolers early literacy
    development. Early Childhood Research Quarterly,
    25(2), 207-217. doi 10.1016/j.ecresq.2009.10.002
  • Freeman, R. (2000). Contextual challenges to
    dual-language education A case study of a
    developing middle school program Electronic
    Version. Anthropology Education Quarterly,
    31(2), 202-229.
  • Garcia, E. (2007). Education comes in diverse
    shapes and forms for U.S. bilinguals. In J, Noel,
    (Ed.), Multicultural Education, 2nd ed. 138-144.
    New York McGraw Hill.
  • Garcia, O. (2008). Bilingual education in the
    21st century. West Sussex, United Kingdom
  • Garcia, O. (2005). Positioning heritage
    languages in the United States Electronic
    Version. The Modern Language Journal, 89(4),
  • Helmsley, G., Holm, A., Dodd, B. (2006).
    Diverse but not different The lexical skills of
    two primary age bilingual groups in comparison to
    monolingual peers. International Journal of
    Bilingualism,10(4). 453-476. doi
  • Holloway, L. (2000, October 17). Immersion
    promoted as alternative to bilingual instruction.
    The New York Times. Retrieved from
  • Hornberger, N. H. (1998). Language policy,
    language education, language rights Indigenous,
    immigrant and international perspectives
    Electronic Version. Language in Society,
    27(4), 439-458.
  • Johnson, D. C. (2010). The relationship between
    applied linguistic research and language policy
    for bilingual education Electronic Version.
    Applied Linguistics, 31(1), 72-93.

References (2)
  • Lee, J., Schallert, D. L. (1997). The relative
    contribution of L2 language proficiency and L1
    reading ability to L2 reading performance A test
    of the threshold hypothesis in an EFL context
    Electronic version. TESOL Quarterly, 31.
  • Leung, C. B., Silverman, R., Nandakumar, R.,
    Qian, X., Hines, S. (2010). A comparison of
    difficulty levels of vocabulary in first grade
    basal readers for preschool dual language
    learners and monolingual English learners
    Electronic Version. American Education
    Research Journal. doi 10.3102/0002831210382890.
  • Palmer, D. (2010). Race, power, and equity in a
    multiethnic urban elementary school with a
    dual-language strand program Electronic
    Version. Anthropology and Education Quaterly,
    4(1), 94-114.
  • Potowski, K. (2004). Student Spanish use and
    investment in a dual language immersion
    classroom Implications for second language
    acquisition and heritage language maintenance.
    The Modern Language Journal, 88(1), Spring,
  • Quesada, P. (2007). A comparative study of the
    writing achievement of fourth grade English
    language learners in a dual-language bilingual
    program and a transitional bilingual program in
    the lower Rio Grande Valley (Texas) Electronic
    Version. Dissertation Abstracts International
    Section A Humanities and Social Sciences,
    68(4-A), 1310.
  • Ravitch, D. (1997, September 5). First teach
    them English. The New York Times. Retrieved
    from http//
  • Rossell, C. (2002). Dismantling bilingual
    education implementing English immersion The
    California initiative. Public Policy Inst. of
    California, San Francisco. ERIC Document
    Reproduction Service No. ED467063.
  • Rossell, C. Baker, K. (1996). The educational
    effectiveness of bilingual education Electronic
    Version. Research in the Teaching of English,
    30(1), 7-74.
  • Slavin, E., Cheung, A. (2005). A synthesis of
    research on language of reading instruction for
    English language learners. Review of Educational
    Research, 75(2). Summer, 247-284. doi
  • Tong, V., Lara-Alecio, R., Irby, B., Mathes, P.,
    Kwok, O. M. (2008). Accelerating early
    academia oral English development in transitional
    bilingual and structure English immersion
    programs. American Educational Research Journal,
    45(4), 1011-1044. doi 10.3102/000283120832
  • Vaugh, S., Linan-Thompson, S., Mathes, P. G.,
    Cirino, P. T., Carlson, C. D., Pollard-Durodola,
    S. D., . . . Francis, D. J. (2006).
    Effectiveness of Spanish intervention for
    first-grade English language learners at risk for
    reading difficulties. Journal of Learning
    Disabilities, 39(1), 56-73. doi
  • Winsler, A., Diaz, R., Espinoza, L., Rodriguez,
    J. (1999). When learning a second language does
    not mean losing the first Bilingual language
    development in low-income, Spanish-speaking
    children attending bilingual preschool
    Electronic version. Child Development, 70(2).