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Unit 6: Adjustment and Breakdown

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Unit 6: Adjustment and Breakdown Ch 15: Stress and Health Ch 16: Psychological Disorders Ch 17: Therapy and Change – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unit 6: Adjustment and Breakdown


1
Unit 6 Adjustment and Breakdown
  • Ch 15 Stress and Health
  • Ch 16 Psychological Disorders
  • Ch 17 Therapy and Change

2
Ch 15 Stress and Health
  • Stress
  • The anxious or threatening feeling resulting from
    _____________ of a situation our perception of
    the ___________________.
  • Some see it as an _______ that produces tension
    or worry. Some see it as a persons physical
    psychological _______ to such an event. Some see
    it as a persons ________ of the event.

3
  • Components of stress
  • A stressor is a ____________ event or situation.
  • Stress reaction refers to the bodys
    _______________ to a stressor.
  • Distress is ____________ that comes from anxiety.
  • Eustress is ___________ that comes from
    motivating strivings challenges.
  • The cognitive model of stress refers to how
    people perceive evaluate a situation before
    _______________________.

4
  • Conflict situations
  • Occur when a person ____________ b/w 2 or more
    options that tend to result from ______________.
  • Ex. Go to a movie w/ friends or stay home study
    for a psychology test?
  • __________________ you want to socialize do
    well in school.
  • 4 types
  • 1. _______________ conflict the person must
    choose b/w 2 ____________ alternatives.
  • 2. __________________ conflict the person must
    confront 2 ____________ alternatives.
  • 3. __________________ conflict the person
    _____________________, but has fears doubts, or
    is repulsed by it as well.
  • 4. ________________________ conflict the person
    must choose b/w 2 or more alternatives, each of
    which has __________ ___________ aspects.
  • Our primary appraisal refers to our ___________
    ____________ of a situation. There are 3 types
    irrelevant, positive, or negative.
  • Our secondary appraisal refers to deciding how to
    deal w/ a situation what ______________ to use.

5
  • Environmental stresses
  • Noise Americans regard noise as one of the
    ______________ in their lives. Its particularly
    aggravating when it is loud, irregular, /or
    ______________.
  • 3rd 4th graders in the flight path of major
    airports showed higher _______ ___________
    stress hormones.
  • Crowding Its a problem when you __________.
  • Can lead to ___________.
  • _______________ can be positive or negative.
  • Death, marriage, divorce, moving, etc
  • Hassles relatively ______________ stressors.
  • Lost keys, stuck in traffic, etc
  • Can gradually weaken your ___________.
  • Uplifts are small, _______________ that can
    stress.

End Section 1
6
  • Our reactions to stress
  • Many physiological responses to stress are
    ____________ that probably evolved to cope w/
    ____________________.
  • But what worked for our remote ancestors isnt
    always as ________ in our modern society.
  • Peoples reactions to stress __________.
  • Reactions may be physical, ___________, or
    behavioral.
  • But these are all __________, so problems in
    one area may lead to ___________________.
  • Ex. If youre having psychological issues, that
    may trigger a _______________.

7
  • Fight-or-flight response
  • Response in reaction to an _______.
  • Regardless of the stressor, the body reacts w/
    ____________________.
  • The adrenal glands begin producing
  • 1. Hormones that the amount of blood sugar
    for _________.
  • 2. _________ which causes rapid heartbeat
    breathing. It also enables the body to _________
    _______________.
  • Those responses are designed to prepare a person
    for ____________.
  • Necessary in wild animals ( sometimes humans)
    for ______.
  • If the stress persists for a long time, the
    bodys resources are used up. The person
    ___________________ in extreme cases dies.

8
  • General adaptation syndrome
  • Has 3 stages
  • 1. ____ fight-or-flight response occurs
    person becomes _____________.
  • 2. __________ the person often finds means to
    cope w/ the stressor.
  • Ex. Telling yourself to _________.
  • Person may suffer psychosomatic symptoms
    (_________________ caused by stress or tension).
  • If _______________________ continues, the
    individual reaches the 3rd stage
  • 3. _________ the continuous release of hormones
    during the fight-or-flight response has left the
    person exhausted unable to _____________________
    __. He/she may become disoriented delirious.

9
  • Emotional cognitive responses to stress
  • Emotional reactions include
  • Anxiety (a vague, generalized apprehension or
    ________________)
  • Anger (the irate reaction likely to result from
    ___________)
  • Fear (the usual reaction when a stressor involves
    ________________ danger) it directs the person
    to flee, but in severe cases he/she may panic
    be __________________.
  • Common examples of emotional stress reactions are
    overreacting to _______ __________, getting no
    joy from daily pleasures, doubting ones
    _____________.
  • Cognitive reactions include
  • Difficulty ____________
  • Recurring thoughts
  • Poor ______________
  • Unjustified _________________

10
  • Prolonged stress
  • Prolonged stress can lead to __________. People
    who are burned out are incapable of doing their
    job well are physically ______________________
    _______.
  • Prolonged stress, in combination w/ other
    factors, adversely affects ____________.
  • It doesnt cause mental illness, but can
    contribute to the ________ of it.
  • Post-traumatic stress disorder is when a person
    who has experienced a __________ ________ feels
    severe long-lasting ____________. It
    overwhelms a persons normal sense of reality
    ability to cope.

11
  • Behavioral responses to stress
  • Behavioral reactions include
  • __________________
  • Overeat or not eat enough
  • Smoke or drink more
  • ____________
  • ____________ for no reason
  • Develop a shaky voice, tremors, etc
  • Changes in _________
  • Lose interest in grooming, bathing, etc
  • ____________
  • ______________ may occur at times like the
    people who risk their lives during disasters to
    help others.
  • Severe stress can contribute to the development
    of an _______________ which can lead to
    alcoholism, drug addiction, __________________,
    etc

12
  • Physical responses to stress
  • Our thoughts emotions can produce ___________
    changes in our bodies.
  • Physical reactions include
  • Initial fight-or-flight response leads to faster
    _____________.
  • _____________________ such as headaches,
    stomachaches, muscle pains.
  • Weakens the _________________.
  • Contributing cause to illnesses like ulcers,
    ____________, arthritis, asthma, _______
    disease.

13
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14
  • Factors influencing reactions to stress
  • People have _________________ to stress. Some
    factors that influence their reactions include
  • _________________________.
  • Some peoples personalities make them
    ________________ to stress.
  • Perceived ______________ stressors.
  • Physical disorders are more likely when we dont
    have control over stressors. _______________ is
    also detrimental. People prefer __________
    stress over unpredictable stress.
  • Social support (information that leads someone to
    believe that he/she is cared for, ______,
    respected, part of a network of communication
    ___________________).
  • Helps to the effects of stressful
    situations. Offer 4 types of support
    _________, appraisal (_________), informational
    (advice), ___________ (assistance).

End Section 2
15
  • Coping w/ stress
  • Coping w/ stress is a way of trying to _____
    _______ over a part of your life.
  • People cope w/ stress in ______________.
  • Sometimes we act in ways that arent in our
    ____________. When we act in ways that hurt
    others, those are known as _________ ways of
    coping.
  • Our cognitive appraisal is our ___________ of an
    event that helps determine its _____ _______.
  • If we appraise a situation as a _______ that we
    can meet, our stress level .
  • If we appraise a situation as a _____, our stress
    level .
  • ________ can affect our cognitive appraisal.

16
  • Defensive coping strategies
  • Denial a coping mechanism in which a person
    decides that the event _________ _________.
  • Intellectualization a coping mechanism in which
    the person analyzes a situation from an
    ____________________ viewpoint.
  • Both denial intellectualization can prevent
    ________________ to stress.
  • Can lead to failing to deal w/ what could be a
    ___________________.
  • Stress reactions are more likely to occur when
    ___________________.

17
  • Active coping strategies
  • By appraising a situation as a ________ not a
    ________, we can adopt an active coping strategy.
  • Active coping strategies involve changing our
    environment or ____________________ to remove
    stressors or the level of stress.
  • ________ refers to traits of control,
    commitment, challenge.
  • Controlling stressful situations escape or
    withdrawal if you cant withdrawal, controlling
    its _______ can be helpful.
  • ________________ confronting the problem
    head-on by coming up w/ a rational analysis
    leading to an appropriate decision. It helps to
    regard situations as ______________ _________.
  • Explanatory style ________ vs. __________.

18
  • Relaxation many relaxation techniques were
    developed to help ___________________.
  • Progressive relaxation involves lying down
    comfortably then tensing releasing the tension
    in each _________________.
  • Meditation involves focusing attention w/ the
    goal of clearing ones mind producing an
    _____________.
  • Biofeedback (the process of learning to
    ________________ by monitoring the states to be
    controlled) helps to consciously control things
    like blood pressure muscle tension.
  • Humor laughing releases the ______ of pent-up
    feelings.
  • _______ stress by providing an outlet
    for physical arousal may burn off
    ________________.

19
  • Support groups/professional help specialize in
    helping people w/ specific _______________________
    _ (ex. therapists, AA, Weight Watchers, etc).
  • _______ helps to prepare for events which
    stress. Exposure to moderate stressors in a
    ___________ ______________ environment helps a
    person gain ___________.
  • Improving ____________________ developing
    skills to deal w/ others.

End Section 3
20
  • Stress in your life
  • Growing up involves gaining a sense of autonomy
    (the ability to take care of oneself make ones
    __________).
  • Going to college can be personally ________ but
    requires adjustment.
  • Many people approach going to college w/ high
    often ___________________________.
  • They dont have the experience to make realistic
    choices or the ____________________ their own
    motives needs.
  • College may challenge the ________ a student has
    established in high school.
  • Usually a greater amount of ________ at college.
  • May lead to the formation of developmental
    friendships (friends who force each other to
    reexamine their _________________ perhaps adopt
    new ideas beliefs).
  • Coping strategies include ___________________,
    avoid doubts by wasting your time, resynthesis
    (combining old ideas w/ new ones reorganizing
    feelings in order to ______________________).

21
  • Getting a _______
  • Work experience is different for everyone
    people _____________ to their jobs based on their
    ____________.
  • ______________ refers to the attitude a worker
    has towards his/her job. 5 major sources of job
    satisfaction are
  • 1. __________ having enough help supplies to
    do the job well.
  • 2. Financial reward salary _______.
  • 3. _______ job is interesting allows worker
    to use his/her _________.
  • 4. Relations w/ __________.
  • 5. _________ working conditions are attractive
    comfortable.
  • Comparable worth is the concept that ____ ______
    should receive _______ for jobs of comparable
    skill responsibility.

End Section 4
22
Ch 16 Psychological Disorders
  • Defining identifying psychological disorders
  • Just b/c a person is different from the norm
    doesnt mean he/she has a _____________.
  • So how do we __________ if someone does have a
    mental illness? There are 3 ways
  • 1. ____________________ Acting in a way that is
    not considered normal.
  • What is _______ may vary in different
    societies.
  • Not always __________.
  • 2. ___________ Able to get along in the world,
    physically, _____, socially.
  • ________, destructive, /or isolated.

23
  • 3. _____________________
  • Some psychologists say that a normal/healthy
    person is one who is _______________ or who is
    striving toward ideal functioning.
  • Others believe that to be normal/healthy involves
    full acceptance expression of ones own
    ______________ _________________.
  • Its irresponsible to label someone mentally ill
    b/c their _______________.
  • Minor psychological disorders _________.

24
  • The problem of classification
  • The causes symptoms of psychological disorders
    their cures are rarely ___________________.
  • Since 1952, the APA (_____________________
    _________) agreed upon a system of classifying
    abnormal symptoms published it in the DSM. The
    DSM-5 is the 6th version of the Diagnostic and
    Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.
  • See p. 452 for major categories of psychological
    disorders.
  • W/in each category, the following descriptions
    are included
  • 1. ___________________ defining characteristics
  • 2. _________________ additional features that
    are usually present
  • 3. Differential diagnosis how to distinguish it
    from ____________
  • 4. Diagnostic criteria a list of symptoms that
    _______________ for a positive diagnosis

25
  • A patient often has more than ________________.
  • To help w/ diagnoses, the DSM-5 uses 5 major
    dimensions or axes to describe a persons
    ____________________
  • Axis I Clarifies _____________________.
  • Axis II Describes developmental disorders
    long-standing ______________________.
  • Axis III Describes physical disorders or medical
    conditions that are potentially relevant to
    __________________________ for each person.
  • Axis IV Measurement of the ________________ the
    person is functioning at.
  • Axis V Describes the _____________ of adaptive
    functioning present w/in the past year.
  • Adaptive functioning refers to 3 major areas
    social relations (family friends),
    ____________________ (work), leisure time
    (activities or hobbies).
  • The 5 axes help researchers see connections b/w
    different disorders other factors like stress.
  • Many people develop a ______ at some point, but
    they are often ____________.

End Section 1
26
  • Anxiety disorders
  • Anxiety is a general state of ____________
    ________ that a person feels in response to a
    real or imagined danger.
  • People w/ anxiety disorders suffer from anxiety
    that is _________________ to the situation
    provoking it. The intense anxiety may interfere
    w/ __________________ in everyday life.
  • People w/ these disorders share characteristics
    like feelings of _____ (duh!), feelings of
    _______________, avoidance of dealing w/
    problems.
  • Their emotional problems may be expressed w/
    _______________ like headaches, sweating,
    fatigue, etc
  • Anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety
    disorder, ______________, panic disorder,
    obsessive-compulsive disorder,
    _____________________ disorder.

27
  • Generalized anxiety disorder
  • While fear is a reaction to real identifiable
    threats, anxiety is a reaction to
    ___________________ __________.
  • People w/ generalized anxiety disorder experience
    a continuous, generalized anxiety. They fear
    __________________ are unable to make decisions
    or ___________.
  • They may become so preoccupied w/ their internal
    problems that they neglect their
    __________________.
  • May develop physical symptoms such as muscular
    tension, an __________ _____, a furrowed brow,
    a strained face. Other symptoms include poor
    appetite, indigestion, diarrhea, difficulty
    __________.
  • May be partly ___________ /or influenced by a
    ____________ as a child.

28
  • Phobic disorder
  • A phobia is a ___________ focused on a particular
    object, animal, activity, or situation that seems
    _____________ to the ______________ involved.
  • 3 types
  • ________ phobias can focus on anything or
    situation.
  • Social phobias involve fearing that you will
    _______________ in a public place.
  • Agoraphobia extreme fear of being in a
    _____________.
  • Phobias range in intensity from mild to extremely
    ________.
  • Phobic individuals develop _________ __________
    the situations they fear.

29
  • Panic disorder
  • An extreme anxiety that manifests itself in the
    form of ______________.
  • Panic is a feeling of sudden, _________ _______.
  • During a panic attack, a person experiences
    ____________________ attacks of intense anxiety,
    leading the person to feel a sense of doom /or
    the feeling that he/she is about to _____.
  • Symptoms include a sense of __________, choking,
    or difficulty _______ as well as faintness,
    dizziness, nausea, ____________.
  • Attacks occur w/o ______ usually last a couple
    of minutes, but may last over an hour.
  • Panic disorder may be _______ in part. The 1st
    attack usually occurs after a _________________.

30
  • OCD (obsessive-compulsive disorder)
  • The obsessiveness is characterized by an
    ____________________ of thoughts. This may lead
    to compulsions which are _________ __________
    coping behaviors.
  • These things dont always __________________.
  • Everyone has obsessions compulsions. Its only
    considered a problem when such thoughts
    activities ___________ w/ what a person wants
    needs to do.
  • Most people w/ OCD realize that their thoughts
    actions are irrational, but feel ____________
    them.
  • Runs in ________.
  • Examples of compulsions typical of OCD include
    _______________ excessively, counting, excessive
    attention to _________, etc

31
  • Post-traumatic stress disorder
  • A condition in which a person who has experienced
    a traumatic event feels severe long-lasting
    ________________.
  • Common among ____________________ _______ as well
    as survivors of terrorism, natural disasters,
    ___________, human aggression.
  • The event that triggers the disorder overwhelms a
    persons ______________ ability to cope. The
    disorder may begin immediately after the event or
    develop ______________.
  • Symptoms are __________, recurring nightmares,
    insomnia, /or feelings of ________.
  • __________ who experiences a traumatic event
    develops this disorder.

32
End Section 2
33
  • Somatoform disorders
  • Are physical symptoms for which there is no
    apparent ________________.
  • There are 2 major types
  • 1. Conversion disorders occur when a person
    changes emotional difficulties into a loss of a
    specific _____________________.
  • There is no actual ____________, but the person
    suffers from a real prolonged _________.
  • Might result in temporary ______, loss of speech,
    etc
  • 2. Hypochondriasis occurs when a person in good
    health becomes preoccupied w/ ____________________
    .
  • Constantly looking for signs of illness
    misinterprets signs of _______________ injuries
    as something ________________.

34
  • Dissociative disorders
  • When a person experiences a _______________ in
    memory, identity, or consciousness.
  • They are ___________.
  • Dissociative amnesia is memory loss w/ no
    biological explanation. Its often caused by a
    ____________.
  • Dissociative fugue is when a person suddenly
    unexpectedly ___________ from home or work is
    unable to _______________.
  • Its amnesia w/ active flight into a ________
    ______________.
  • They will establish a new _______________.
  • May last for days or __________.
  • When a person comes out of it, they cant
    _____________________ when they were in the fugue
    state.
  • Dissociative identity disorder (formerly known as
    ___________________ disorder) is when a person
    exhibits 2 or more personality states, each w/
    its own patterns of _____________________.
  • These people usually suffered __________ as
    children.

End Section 3
35
  • Schizophrenia
  • A group of disorders characterized by _______
    disconnected thoughts, emotions, __________.
  • Its the most complex severe _________
    _________.
  • A person w/ schizophrenia __________ w/ reality
    to a large extent.
  • Its not a single problem it doesnt have a
    ______ ______________ its a collection of
    symptoms.
  • Many people w/ schizophrenia have delusions
    (false beliefs maintained in the face of contrary
    evidence) hallucinations (perceptions that have
    no direct ____________) such as hearing voices.
  • Other symptoms include incoherence (a marked
    in _________ processes), disturbances of affect
    (emotions not _________ for the circumstances),
    deterioration in normal movement, in
    previous levels of functioning, diverted
    attention their ______________________.
  • Affects 1 in ___ worldwide, but if its already
    in a persons family, their odds to 1 in
    _____.

36
  • Types of schizophrenia
  • Classified into several subtypes
  • _________ involves hallucinations delusions.
  • _______ believes he/she is a savior.
  • ____________ believes he/she is always being
    watched.
  • _______ remains motionless for long periods.
  • _____________ incoherent language, inappropriate
    emotions, generally disorganized motor behavior,
    hallucinations, _________.
  • ______________ has basic symptoms such as
    deterioration of daily functioning, delusions,
    hallucinations, _______________________,
    thought disorders.
  • _________ symptoms are completely gone or still
    exist but are ___________ not to justify earning
    a diagnosis of schizophrenia.
  • Treatment is long-term usually requires
    ____________. Schizophrenia may go into
    remission, but symptoms often __________.
  • Recovery is possible, but _____________________.

37
  • Causes of schizophrenia
  • Usually starts b/w ________________ into the
    30s.
  • What causes schizophrenia is debated, but its
    most likely an interaction of _________,
    biochemical, _______________ factors.
  • Although it tends to ___________, if a twin
    develops it, his/her identical twin has a _____
    chance of developing it so it cant just be
    caused by _______.
  • Some researchers believe that the basic problem
    of schizophrenia is too much or too little of
    certain __________ interfering w/ how the brain
    processes information.
  • The ___________ of people w/ schizophrenia show
    signs of deterioration.
  • The role of the ___________ is unclear, but
    present.
  • Studies have shown a correlation to children
    developing schizophrenia w/ their mother being
    _____ prior to pregnancy, infection during the
    2nd trimester, lack of ________ to the fetus.
  • People who develop schizophrenia often come from
    families of the verge of ____________.

38
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39
  • Mood disorders
  • Occur when emotions hamper a persons ability to
    ____________________.
  • In extreme cases, a mood may cause individuals to
    lose touch w/ ________ or seriously threaten
    his/her ___________.
  • Mood disorders include major depressive disorder,
    ________________, seasonal affective disorder.
  • People w/ these disorders often have more
    _____________ if depressed, feel that their
    depression will go on forever there is
    ______________________ about it.
  • Psychological factors contributing to mood
    disorders including ____________ (ex.
    self-esteem), amount of social support, the
    ability to deal w/ _______________. Biological
    factors include hormones, neurotransmitters,
    __________.

40
  • Major depressive disorder
  • A severe form of ____________ in which a person
    experiences feelings of __________ diminished
    pleasure or interest in many activities.
  • People w/ this disorder spend at least ____
    ______ feeling depressed, anxious, fatigued,
    agitated, experience a _____________ to
    function interact w/ others.
  • To be diagnosed as depression, these feelings
    cant be attributed to ______________.
  • This disorder is characterized by at least 4 of
    the following symptoms problems w/ eating,
    _______, thinking, concentrating, or decision
    making _________ thinking about ________
    feeling worthless or guilty.

41
  • Bipolar disorder
  • Occurs when a person alternates b/w feelings of
    ____ (euphoria) depression.
  • They are either excessively inappropriately
    _____________.
  • During the manic phase, he/she experiences
    extreme elation, ________, distractibility,
    racing thoughts. The person often has an
    exaggerated sense of ________ engages in
    __________ behavior. He/she often needs less
    sleep engages in activity.
  • This state isnt as easy to detect b/c the person
    seems to be in touch w/ reality ____________.
  • During the depressive phase, he/she is overcome
    by feelings of ________, sinfulness,
    worthlessness, despair. The person is
    _________ unresponsive like someone w/ major
    ________________.

42
  • Seasonal affective disorder
  • People w/ this disorder struggle w/ annual
    depressions during ___________________ (usually
    _______, but can be at other times).
  • They tend to sleep eat __________ during their
    ________________.
  • May be caused by _________ exposure to less
    light during winter causes less of the hormone
    melatonin to be released.
  • Many sufferers can be treated by sitting under
    bright ________________ during the evening or
    early morning hours.

43
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44
  • Suicide depression
  • Not all people who commit suicide are _______
    not all people who are depressed try to _______
    __________.
  • But many people who are depressed have
    _________________.
  • People may commit suicide to escape from physical
    or emotional pain, ______________ for wrongs they
    think they committed, or to ______ _________.
  • Every year over ________ Americans commit
    suicide.
  • More women ________ suicide, but more men
    ___________.
  • Suicide is most common among the ______, but is
    the 2nd most common cause of death among
    _________________.
  • People who threaten suicide or make unsuccessful
    attempts __________________! 70 of people who
    commit suicide threatened to do so w/in 3 months
    before doing so an unsuccessful attempt is
    often a ___________.

End Section 4
45
  • Personality disorders
  • Are maladaptive or inflexible ways of dealing w/
    _____ ones _____________.
  • People w/ these disorders seem unable to
    establish __________________ w/ other people, to
    assume social responsibilities, or to adapt to
    their social environment. They adopt
    ____________ personality patterns (ex.
    Excessively shy or aggressive).
  • People w/ a personality disorder dont usually
    suffer from excessive anxiety nor behave in a
    ________________.

46
  • Antisocial personality
  • Is characterized by irresponsibility, shallow
    emotions, a _______________________.
  • Formerly called _________________________.
  • A person w/ an antisocial personality exhibits a
    persistent disregard for violation of
    __________. They also
  • Treat people as __________.
  • Live in the moment constantly seeking thrills.
  • Dont seem to feel any ______.
  • Are ____________ when caught.
  • Many people w/ antisocial personalities get away
    w/ their behavior b/c theyre intelligent,
    entertaining, able to ___________ they dont
    feel. They win the affection confidence from
    people they later _____ ___________ of.
  • How do they become like this?
  • Some think they imitate their _________
    _________.
  • Could be a lack of or __________________.
  • Some think its due to a ________________
    ________.

47
  • Drug addiction
  • Its covered in the DSM-V b/c many people hurt
    themselves physically, socially, _____________
    b/c they depend so heavily on drugs.
  • Abuse of drugs involves psychological dependence
    (the use of a drug to such an extent that a
    person feels _____________ w/o it). When
    deprived of the drug, they become restless,
    ______, uneasy.
  • Addiction is a pattern of drug abuse
    characterized by an overwhelming
    _______________ to obtain the drug.
  • The drugged state becomes the bodys
    ____________. W/o it, the person is in extreme
    _________________.
  • Tolerance is the physical adaptation to a drug so
    that a person needs ___________ to produce the
    original effect.
  • Withdrawal refers to the symptoms that occur
    after a person _________________ of a drug to
    which he/she has become addicted. The symptoms
    vary by _________________ used.

48
  • Alcoholism
  • Americas most ________________________.
  • Factor in about ____ of deaths in car accidents.
  • In about ___ of murders, the killer /or victim
    had been drinking.
  • Many think alcohol is a ________ b/c it slows
    down our inhibitions in small amounts can make
    people feel relaxed talkative. Its really a
    ____________.
  • After more drinks, a persons ______________
    physiological functions begin to shut down.
    Perceptions sensations become distorted
    __________________.
  • _____________ of alcohol can lead to
    unconsciousness, _______, or even death.
  • Effects of alcohol depend on a persons
    ____________, body chemistry, how much alcohol is
    __________ how quickly, his/her past
    experience w/ drinking.
  • Can produce psychological ____________,
    tolerance, withdrawal.

49
  • There are 3 stages of _____________
  • 1st The individual discovers that alcohol
    tensions makes him/her ________.
  • 2nd The individual begins to drink so heavily
    that the person feels he/she __________ how much
    alcohol he/she consumes. May begin to suffer
    from __________.
  • 3rd The individual drinks compulsively
    ___________ when deprived of alcohol he/she is
    now an _________.
  • May develop from ________ environmental
    factors. A persons risk of becoming an
    alcoholic is _____________ if a member of his/her
    family is an alcoholic.
  • The 1st step of treating alcoholism is to get
    help for the violent ____________________.
  • Treatment varies from psychotherapy to ______.
    Antabuse can help - it makes the person _______
    when he/she drinks alcoholic beverages.
  • There is no certain ________.

End Section 5
50
Ch 17 Therapy and Change
  • Psychotherapy
  • Is _____________ used by therapists to help
    troubled individuals overcome their __________.
    It involves
  • _____________ b/w a therapist
  • clients.
  • 2. The development of a supportive
  • trusting _____________.
  • 3. An ________ by the therapist of
  • the clients problems including
  • _____________ for overcoming
  • those problems.

51
  • Beliefs about mental illness
  • Centuries ago, people often thought that
    psychological disturbances represented a moral or
    ______________. People w/ these problems were
    believed to be possessed by demons treatment
    was an ___________.
  • W/in the last couple of centuries, views have
    changed societies began viewing these people as
    having a ____________. This was good b/c they
    were then seen as needing care ___________.
  • However, the term ___________ can create the
    problem of having the person view their problem
    as being outside his/her _______. He/she may
    refuse to ________________ for the situation
    working towards change.

52
  • The nature of psychotherapy
  • The purpose of psychotherapy is to help people
    realize that they ______________ for their own
    problems that they are the only ones who can
    really _________________.
  • The therapist is there to ______.
  • There are many different types of therapy based
    on different theories w/ different approaches.
    Well discuss the following _______________,
    humanistic, cognitive, behavioral, __________.
  • While some psychologists/psychiatrists stick w/
    __________, others use an eclectic approach
    (choosing methods from _____________ kinds of
    therapy using the one that works best).
  • The primary goal of therapy is to strengthen the
    patients ________________ his/her life.
  • Its important that the patient believes that
    he/she ________. The influence of a patients
    hopes expectations on his/her ___________ is
    called the placebo effect.

53
  • Therapists
  • There are different types of therapists (p.489),
    some are
  • ________ may/may not have training in psych, but
    troubled people turn to them more than any other
    types of therapists.
  • Various groups of ______________.
  • _____________ are licensed medical doctors who
    specialize in abnormal behavior. They can
    ______________ perform surgery.
  • There are 3 characteristics of effective
    therapists. He/she must
  • Be ______________________.
  • Have plenty of empathy (a capacity for warmth
    _____________).
  • Be experienced in dealing w/ people
    understanding their _____________.

54
  • Group therapy
  • Therapy in which patients work together w/ the
    aid of a leader to resolve _____________________.
  • Advantages of group therapy
  • The chance to see how other people are struggling
    w/ _______________.
  • Get hope from seeing people ___________
    __________ a similar problem.
  • See how other people view them so they can
    overcome the ___________ they have of themselves.
  • One therapist can help a large of people which
    the _______ of therapy.
  • In _____________, the family all attends therapy
    together the therapist focuses on how they
    ________ w/ each other. The therapist can then
    suggest ways of improving ___________________
    w/in the family.
  • In ______________, people who share a particular
    problem voluntarily get together, often w/o the
    active involvement of a _____________________.

End Section 1
55
  • Psychoanalysis
  • Therapy aimed at making patients aware of their
    _______________ so that they can gain control
    over their behavior.
  • It leads to the apparent sudden realization of a
    ________ to their problem (known as insight).
  • Based on the theories of ________________.
  • Its a ______ procedure.
  • Often begins w/ the therapist telling the patient
    to talk about ______________________ (free
    association). The therapist often says nothing
    for long periods of time only occasionally
    making remarks or asking ?s to _______________.
    The therapist may suggest unconscious motives to
    explain what the patient is talking about, but
    most of the work is ______________________.
  • Often the patient experiences resistance (the
    reluctance of a patient either to reveal painful
    feelings or to examine ____________________
    patterns).
  • The therapist must help him/her work around this
    by pointing out what is happening or trying
    _________________.

56
  • Another technique is dream analysis (__________
    the content of patients dreams).
  • Again, they are looking for ____________ thoughts
    feelings causing them.
  • The manifest content of the dream refers to what
    a person __________ about the dream.
  • The latent content of the dream refers to the
    ___________________ represented symbolically in
    the dream.
  • Sometimes the patient experiences transference (a
    process in which the patient begins to have
    ______ ________________ similar to the feelings
    he/she has toward some other _____________ in
    his/her life usually a _________).
  • The therapist must remain ___________.
  • Psychoanalysis requires an average of __________
    years of therapy.
  • Not beneficial for people who lose touch w/
    reality like people w/ ______________.

57
  • Humanistic therapy
  • Focuses on the value, dignity, worth of each
    person, holds that healthy living is the result
    of realizing _______________________.
  • Uses client-centered therapy which is the belief
    that the client therapist are __________ in
    therapy.
  • Uses the words ____ instead of _____ to
    reflect the equal relationship of the person
    the therapist.
  • Based on the theories of ______________.
  • Client-centered therapists assume that people are
    ___________ capable of handling their own
    lives. Problems occur when the true self is lost
    they begin to view themselves according to the
    _____________________.
  • An important goal is to help the person recognize
    his/her own ________ confidence, so as to start
    living by his/her _________________.

58
  • It often begins w/ the client being encouraged to
    ____________ about any troubling matters. This
    free flow of images ideas, w/ no particular
    direction is known as nondirective therapy.
  • The therapist doesnt direct the ___________
    tries to avoid giving any __________.
  • The therapist will restate clarify the ______
    the client has expressed (known as active
    listening).
  • There must be an atmosphere of unconditional
    positive regard (the therapists consistent
    expression of ______________________, no matter
    what the client says does).
  • They try to set ____________ consider the
    __________________ to reach them.

End Section 2
59
  • Cognitive therapies
  • Focus on using ________ to control emotions
    behaviors.
  • Both cognitive behavior therapies use behavior
    modification (the systematic method of changing
    the way a __________________).
  • Cognitive therapies assume that ___________
    irrational or uninformed beliefs, expectations,
    ways of thinking ________ our behaviors,
    attitudes, emotions.
  • So the patients have to change the way they
    _______.
  • Common techniques in cognitive therapies include
    disconfirmation (confronting patients w/ evidence
    that _________________ their existing beliefs),
    reconceptualization (having the patient work
    toward an ______________ ______ to explain their
    experiences or current observations), ________
    (working toward understanding deriving new or
    revised beliefs).

60
  • Cognitive therapies Rational-emotive therapy
    (RET)
  • A form of psychological help aimed at changing
    unrealistic assumptions about ________ other
    people.
  • Developed by Albert Ellis. He believed that
    people behave in deliberate rational ways,
    given their ___________ about life.
  • Emotional problems occur when a persons
    assumptions are _______________
  • The goal of RET is to correct the false ______
    __________________ of the patients.
  • Techniques include role-playing, ______, humor,
    _______________
  • Ellis believed behaviors are a result of the
    ABCs.
  • A___________________
  • B___________________
  • C___________________
  • Taught that B (______!) causes C.
  • Therapist patient work together to ___________.
  • Patient must learn ___________.

61
  • Cognitive therapies Becks cognitive therapy
  • Aaron T. Beck came up w/ a therapy similar to
    RET. The difference is that his therapy stresses
    the focus on the _______________________.
  • Therapists use persuasion logic to change the
    patients ____________.
  • Very successful w/ people suffering ____________.
  • Again, the goal is to change the way
    ________________.

62
  • Behavior therapies
  • Focus on changing ___________________ through
    conditioning techniques.
  • Doesnt try to spend a large amount of time going
    over the patients ______________. Instead the
    therapist concentrates on determining what is
    _________________ the patient taking steps to
    modify the behavior.
  • The idea is that the patient has learned to
    behave in an undesirable way that the behavior
    _________________.
  • The ____________ for the behavior arent
    important.
  • Once the behaviors change, the ________
    ____________ will change as well.

63
  • Behavior therapies Counterconditioning
  • Involves pairing the stimulus that triggers an
    unwanted behavior w/ a new, more _________
    _________.
  • 3 step process
  • 1. The person builds an _______________ w/ the
    least feared situations on the bottom most
    feared on the top.
  • 2. The person learns ________________
    _____________.
  • 3. The person imagines or experiences each step
    in the hierarchy, working from ________________.
  • Systematic desensitization is a technique which
    is used to overcome irrational fears anxieties.
    The patient is encouraged to imagine the feared
    situation while using ______________
    ____________.
  • Aversive conditioning links an unpleasant state
    w/ an unwanted behavior in an attempt to
    _______________________.
  • Other techniques used are modeling flooding
    (when the therapist exposes the patient to the
    ________________________________).

64
  • Behavior therapies Operant conditioning
  • Based on the assumption that behavior that is
    reinforced _________________.
  • In contingency management, the therapist
    patient decide what old, undesirable behavior
    ________________ what new, desirable behavior
    needs to appear.
  • Used in _______, mental hospitals, ______, army
    bases, w/ individual patients.
  • They set up token economies (a system in which
    desirable behavior is reinforced w/
    ______________ or points, which can be
    accumulated exchanged for various ________).
  • Useful in inducing patients to begin leading
    _________.

65
  • Cognitive-behavior therapy
  • Is based on a combination of _______________
    thoughts for negative thoughts/beliefs changing
    disruptive behaviors in favor of _____________.
  • Helps patients differentiate b/w serious, real
    problems ____________________ problems.
  • Many ______________ use this approach.
  • Proven ________ for treating a wide range of
    problems.

End Section 3
66
  • Biological therapy
  • Assumes that there is an underlying
    _______________ for a persons disturbed
    behavior, faulty thinking, inappropriate
    __________.
  • Uses methods like ________, electric shock,
    surgery to help people w/ ____________
    __________.
  • B/c these treatments are medical in nature,
    physicians or _____________ usually administer
    them.
  • __________ may help decide if when a biological
    approach is necessary for a particular patient.
  • Some experts believe that biological therapies
    should be reserved for people who fail to respond
    to _____________. Others believe that a
    combination of psychotherapy biological therapy
    _____ for many patients.

67
  • Biological therapy drug therapy
  • A biological therapy that uses _____________.
  • Its the most _____________ biological therapy.
  • Involves 4 main types of psychoactive
    medications antipsychotic drugs, antidepressant
    drugs, lithium, antianxiety drugs.
  • Can only be obtained w/ a _____________.
  • When patients stop taking the drugs, their
    symptoms ____________________.
  • These drugs often only _______________ they
    dont remove the ____ of the disorder.
  • Antipsychotic drugs are medications used to
    agitation, delusions, hallucinations by
    blocking the activity of _________ in the brain.
    Theyre tranquilizers.
  • Used on people w/ _______________.
  • Antidepressant drugs are medications that treat
    major depression by the amount of one or
    both of the ______________ noradrenaline
    serotonin.

68
  • Lithium carbonate is a chemical used to
    counteract the mood swings of ________
    __________.
  • Antianxiety drugs are medications that relieve
    anxiety ______________ by depressing the
    activity of the ________ __________________.
  • Also known as sedatives or mild ___________ which
    excitability cause drowsiness.
  • Can be helpful for helping normal people cope w/
    _____________ in their lives.
  • Can also be helpful for _________ withdrawal.

69
  • Biological therapy electroconvulsive therapy
    (ECT)
  • Biological therapy that involves administering
    _______________ to the brain to try to the
    symptoms of mental disturbance.
    ______________.
  • Has proven extremely __________ for treating
    severe _________, acute mania, some types of
    schizophrenia.
  • Involves administering ______________ of about
    70-150 volts for 0.1-1.0 sec over the course of
    several weeks.
  • It induces a _________________ similar to an
    epileptic seizure that may last up to a minute.
  • Its considered very _____________.
  • Used too much in the past w/ _____________.
    Today it involves very little pain as patients
    are given medication prior.
  • Many may suffer minor _____________.

70
  • Biological therapy psychosurgery
  • A medical operation that _______________ _______
    to make the patient calmer freer of symptoms.
  • The most common operation is a prefrontal
    lobotomy, which involves destruction of the
    ____________ of the brain, just behind the
    forehead.
  • This part of the brain contains the most nerve
    connections that control _________.
  • This surgery used to be ______, but when new
    drugs were developed. Additionally, lobotomized
    patients showed an _______________ often became
    apathetic ______________.
  • Effects of a lobotomy are _________ b/c destroyed
    brain tissue never regenerates.

End Section 4
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