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Step Up To: Psychology by John J. Schulte, Psy.D.

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Title: Step Up To: Psychology by John J. Schulte, Psy.D.


1
Step Up To Psychology by John J. Schulte, Psy.D.
  • Psychology, Eighth Edition
  • by David G. Myers
  • Worth Publishers
  • (2007)

2
Chapter 1 Thinking Critically With Psychological
Science
Correlation
Describe Our World
Experiment
Psychology as a Science
Statistical Reasoning
3
Psychology as a Science
500
400
300
200
100
4
Describe our World
500
400
300
200
100
5
Correlation
500
400
300
200
100
6
Experiment
500
400
300
200
100
7
Statistical Reasoning
500
400
300
200
100
8
1. Psychology is currently defined as
  • A) the scientific study of behavior.
  • B) the scientific study of behavior and mental
    processes.
  • C) the scientific study of biological and
    cognitive processes.
  • D) the scientific study of motives and
    conflicts.

9
2. The ____ administers tests and provides
therapy and the ___ prescribes medication.
  • A) clinical psychologist psychiatrist
  • B) psychiatrist clinical psychologist
  • C) counseling psychologist clinical psychologist
  • D) school psychologist clinical psychologist

10
3. In the SQ3R model, the recommended sequence
is
  • A) survey, question, read, reason, review.
  • B) study, question, review, read, reflect.
  • C) study, question, read, review, reflect.
  • D) survey, question, read, review, reflect.

11
4. Dr. James proposes that mens desire for
young, healthy women contributes to the survival
of the human species. He is taking the ___
perspective.
  • A) psychodynamic
  • B) neurological
  • C) evolutionary
  • D) socio-cultural

12
Together, three different levels form an
integrated approach to understanding
psychological processes. This approach is called
  • A) neuro-developmental.
  • B) biopsychosocial.
  • C) bio-mental-behavioral.
  • D) cognitive-behavioral.

13
6. Julie appeared not to be surprised when the
couple broke up. I could have predicted that,
she said. Julie is demonstrating
  • A) ESP.
  • B) hindsight bias.
  • C) overestimation the extent to which others
    share her opinion.
  • D) correlation proves causation.

14
7. To have a scientific attitude, we should not
just believe something we have been told, we
should examine the evidence, ask questions and
come to our own conclusions. This process is
called
  • A) a hypothesis.
  • B) an experiment.
  • C) critical thinking.
  • D) logical reasoning.

15
8. A hypothesis is a(n)
  • A) testable prediction that gives direction to
    research.
  • B) way to organize facts.
  • C) process of linking facts to deeper principles.
  • D) set of principles that explains newly
    discovered facts.

16
9. According to the recommendations by the
Psychologists for the Ethical Treatment of
Animals, research using animal subjects
  • A) should not be done.
  • B) should be conducted in a controlled
    laboratory.
  • C) should only be conducted in order to
    save lives.
  • D) should be done through naturalistic
    observation.

17
10. The following is an example of an operational
definition
  • A) stress is defined as how well a person adjusts
    to his/her environment.
  • B) personality is defined as how well that person
    relates to others.
  • C) empathy is defined as showing you can
    understand the other persons feelings.
  • D) intelligence is defined as a score on
    an intelligence test.
  • E) all of the above.

18
11. When everybody has an equal chance of being
included in a study, this process is called
  • A) unbiased reporting.
  • B) a survey.
  • C) a random sample.
  • D) reliability.

19
12. Which of the following correlation
coefficients reflects the strongest correlation?
  • A) .10
  • B) -.64
  • C) .35
  • D) -.10

20
13. A mistaken belief that two factors or events
are related when they are not is called
  • A) the rule of falsifiability.
  • B) pseudoscience.
  • C) an illusory correlation.
  • D) paranormal phenomena.

21
14. Joan had not been able to get pregnant for
years so she and her husband decided to adopt.
Six months after the adoption, Joan became
pregnant. This proves
  • A) the belief that infertile couples are more
    likely to have a child after adoption.
  • B) if you try hard to have a child, you are less
    likely to.
  • C) she must have become remarried.
  • D) coincidences which confirm a belief
    are believed to be meaningful.

22
15. Consistently, we find low self-esteem is
often related with high levels of depression.
This means
  • A) low self-esteem causes depression.
  • B) depression causes low self-esteem.
  • C) low self-esteem and depression are caused by a
    third factor.
  • D) they are correlated but this does not
    prove causation.

23
16. In order to prove a cause-and-effect
relationship, we must use
  • A) naturalistic observation.
  • B) the experimental method.
  • C) human subjects.
  • D) correlation coefficients.

24
17. In an experiment, the group of participants
who are exposed to the treatment of interest is
in the
  • A) control condition.
  • B) independent condition.
  • C) placebo condition.
  • D) experimental condition.

25
18. Neither the researcher nor the subjects knew
whether or not they received the drug studied or
a placebo. This is an example of
  • A) expectancy effects.
  • B) placebo effects.
  • C) a double-blind study.
  • D) nothing. It would be ridiculous.

26
19. The best way to assure the post-treatment
differences found between the experimental and
control groups is due to the treatment is by
  • A) random assignment.
  • B) training your subjects well.
  • C) letting your subjects know which group they
    are in.
  • D) using a placebo.

27
20. Dr. Schulte wants to investigate if
aggressive behavior in children is increased if
they view violent videos. In this instance, the
dependent variable is
  • A) violent videos.
  • B) aggressive behavior.
  • C) a placebo.
  • D) the control condition.

28
21. Which measure of central tendency is the
exact middle score of a distribution of scores?
  • A) mean
  • B) median
  • C) mode
  • D) coefficient

29
22. The ____ is a measure of the degree of
variation among a set of scores from each other.
  • A) mean
  • B) scatterplot
  • C) standard deviation
  • D) normal distribution

30
23. Mean is to range as ____ is to ___.
  • A) central tendency variation
  • B) frequency distribution bar graph
  • C) scatterplot correlation
  • D) mean mode

31
24 If results of research are not likely to have
occurred by chance, we say the results are
  • A) an illusory correlation.
  • B) descriptive.
  • C) valid.
  • D) statistically significant.

32
25. Mr. Soda found in his experiment more
Americans enjoyed Coke than Pepsi. He
blindfolded 100 people, had them taste each and
then report. You would recommend that Mr. Soda
  • A) should use other colas, too.
  • B) should have tested non-Americans.
  • C) should test many more subjects.
  • D) should have some test 7-up.

33
Congratulations!
34
Answers
Stop here, or continue as a review
35
1. Psychology is currently defined as
  • A) the scientific study of behavior.
  • B) the scientific study of behavior and mental
    processes.
  • C) the scientific study of biological and
    cognitive processes.
  • D) the scientific study of motives and conflicts.

2
36
2. The ____ administers tests and provides
therapy and the ___ prescribes medication.
  • A) clinical psychologist psychiatrist
  • B) psychiatrist clinical psychologist
  • C) counseling psychologist clinical psychologist
  • D) school psychologist clinical psychologist

13
37
3. In the SQ3R model, the recommended sequence
is
  • A) survey, question, read, reason, review.
  • B) study, question, review, read, reflect.
  • C) study, question, read, review, reflect.
  • D) survey, question, read, review, reflect.

15
38
4. Dr. James proposes that mens desire for
young, healthy women contributes to the survival
of the human species. He is taking the ___
perspective.
  • A) psychodynamic
  • B) neurological
  • C) evolutionary
  • D) socio-cultural

11
39
Together, three different levels form an
integrated approach to understanding
psychological processes. This approach is called
  • A) neuro-developmental.
  • B) biopsychosocial.
  • C) bio-mental-behavioral.
  • D) cognitive-behavioral.

10
40
6. Julie appeared not to be surprised when the
couple broke up. I could have predicted that,
she said. Julie is demonstrating
  • A) ESP.
  • B) hindsight bias.
  • C) overestimation the extent to which others
    share her opinion.
  • D) correlation proves causation.

20
41
7. To have a scientific attitude, we should not
just believe something we have been told, we
should examine the evidence, ask questions and
come to our own conclusions. This process is
called
  • A) a hypothesis.
  • B) an experiment.
  • C) critical thinking.
  • D) logical reasoning.

24
42
8. A hypothesis is a(n)
  • A) testable prediction that gives direction to
    research.
  • B) way to organize facts.
  • C) process of linking facts to deeper principles.
  • D) set of principles that explains newly
    discovered facts.

25
43
9. According to the recommendations by the
Psychologists for the Ethical Treatment of
Animals, research using animal subjects
  • A) should not be done.
  • B) should be conducted in a controlled
    laboratory.
  • C) should only be conducted in order to
    save lives.
  • D) should be done through naturalistic
    observation.

47
44
10. The following is an example of an operational
definition
  • A) stress is defined as how well a person adjusts
    to his/her environment.
  • B) personality is defined as how well that person
    relates to others.
  • C) empathy is defined as showing you can
    understand the other persons feelings.
  • D) intelligence is defined as a score on
    an intelligence test.
  • E) all of the above.

25
45
11. When everybody has an equal chance of being
included in a study, this process is called
  • A) unbiased reporting.
  • B) a survey.
  • C) a random sample.
  • D) reliability.

28
46
12. Which of the following correlation
coefficients reflects the strongest correlation?
  • A) .10
  • B) -.64
  • C) .35
  • D) -.10

31
47
13. A mistaken belief that two factors or events
are related when they are not is called
  • A) the rule of falsifiability.
  • B) pseudoscience.
  • C) an illusory correlation.
  • D) paranormal phenomena.

33
48
14. Joan had not been able to get pregnant for
years so she and her husband decided to adopt.
Six months after the adoption, Joan became
pregnant. This proves
  • A) the belief that infertile couples are more
    likely to have a child after adoption.
  • B) if you try hard to have a child, you are less
    likely to.
  • C) she must have become remarried.
  • D) coincidences which confirm a belief
    are believed to be meaningful.

33
49
15. Consistently, we find low self-esteem is
often related with high levels of depression.
This means
  • A) low self-esteem causes depression.
  • B) depression causes low self-esteem.
  • C) low self-esteem and depression are caused by a
    third factor.
  • D) they are correlated but this does not
    prove causation.

32
50
16. In order to prove a cause-and-effect
relationship, we must use
  • A) naturalistic observation.
  • B) the experimental method.
  • C) human subjects.
  • D) correlation coefficients.

36
51
17. In an experiment, the group of participants
who are exposed to the treatment of interest is
in the
  • A) control condition.
  • B) independent condition.
  • C) placebo condition.
  • D) experimental condition.

37
52
18. Neither the researcher nor the subjects knew
whether or not they received the drug studied or
a placebo. This is an example of
  • A) expectancy effects.
  • B) placebo effects.
  • C) a double-blind study.
  • D) nothing. It would be ridiculous.

37
53
19. The best way to assure the post-treatment
differences found between the experimental and
control groups is due to the treatment is by
  • A) random assignment.
  • B) training your subjects well.
  • C) letting your subjects know which group they
    are in.
  • D) using a placebo.

37
54
20. Dr. Schulte wants to investigate if
aggressive behavior in children is increased if
they view violent videos. In this instance, the
dependent variable is
  • A) violent videos.
  • B) aggressive behavior.
  • C) a placebo.
  • D) the control condition.

38
55
21. Which measure of central tendency is the
exact middle score of a distribution of scores?
  • A) mean
  • B) median
  • C) mode
  • D) coefficient

41
56
22. The ____ is a measure of the degree of
variation among a set of scores from each other.
  • A) mean
  • B) scatterplot
  • C) standard deviation
  • D) normal distribution

42
57
23. Mean is to range as ____ is to ___.
  • A) central tendency variation
  • B) frequency distribution bar graph
  • C) scatterplot correlation
  • D) mean mode

41
58
24 If results of research are not likely to have
occurred by chance, we say the results are
  • A) an illusory correlation.
  • B) descriptive.
  • C) valid.
  • D) statistically significant.

43
59
25. Mr. Soda found in his experiment more
Americans enjoyed Coke than Pepsi. He
blindfolded 100 people, had them taste each and
then report. You would recommend that Mr. Soda
  • A) should use other colas, too.
  • B) should have tested non-Americans.
  • C) should test many more subjects.
  • D) should have some test 7-up.

43
60
Acknowledgements
  • Step Up Created by
  • John J. Schulte, Psy.D.
  • Based on Psychology, Eighth Edition
  • By David G. Myers
  • Published by
  • Worth Publishers (2007)

61
Answers
1. B
2. A
3. D
4. C
5. B
6. B
7. C
8. A
9. D
10. D
11. C
12. B
13. C
14. D
15. D
16. B
17. D
18. C
19. A
20. B
21. B
22. C
23. A
24. D
25. C
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