Social Psychology is the study of the impact of our surroundings, and in particular of other people on our behaviour. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Social Psychology is the study of the impact of our surroundings, and in particular of other people on our behaviour. PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 779daa-ZWY3N



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Social Psychology is the study of the impact of our surroundings, and in particular of other people on our behaviour.

Description:

Social Psychology is the study of the impact of our surroundings, and in particular of other people on our behaviour. Social Influence Conformity vs Independent ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:25
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 23
Provided by: Jonatha604
Learn more at: http://kespsych.weebly.com
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Social Psychology is the study of the impact of our surroundings, and in particular of other people on our behaviour.


1
What is Social Psychology?
  • Social Psychology is the study of the impact of
    our surroundings, and in particular of other
    people on our behaviour.
  • Social Influence
  • Conformity vs Independent behaviour

2
The Final Solution
  • e.g. Adolf Eichmann

6 million people
3
Abu Ghraib
Iraqi prison abuses
4
Conformity
  • What is conformity?
  • It is a form of social influence where people
    adopt the behaviour, attitudes and values of
    other members in a majority position
  • Kelman (1958) proposed 3 types of conformity
  • Compliance
  • Internalisation
  • Identification

5
Compliance
  • Individuals engage in social comparison,
    adjusting their own actions to fit with the group
  • Identification with the majority is desirable
  • Individual may comply with little or no private
    attitude change

6
Internalisation
  • Individuals may engage in a validation process.
  • Beliefs and attitudes are examined
  • Individual may decide that the majority is
    correct.
  • This leads to an acceptance of the groups point
    of view both publicly and privately

7
Identification
  • Incorporates both compliance and internalisation
  • Individual may wish to adapt the groups
    attitudes and beliefs to establish a relationship
    etc.
  • Individual accepts what they are adopting
    (internalisation)
  • Attitudes are adopted to be an accepted member of
    the group (compliance)

8
Asch 1956 - procedure
  • 123 male American undergraduates recruited for a
    vision test
  • In each experiment all but one were confederates
  • In turn, participants and confederates were asked
    to state which of three lines was the same length
    as a stimulus line.
  • The real participant always answered last or
    second to last
  • Confederates would give the same incorrect answer
    for 12 out of 18 trials

9
Findings
  • For 12 critical trials 36.8 of responses given
    by participants were incorrect
  • ¼ of participants never conformed
  • In a control trial, only 1 of responses given by
    participants were incorrect

10
Why?
  • When asked why they conformed, participants often
    gave one of three answers
  • Distortion of perception
  • Participants actually started to perceive the
    line differently
  • Distortion of judgement
  • Feelings of doubt about their judgement
  • Distortion of action
  • Majority continued to trust their own perception
    and judgement but changed their behaviour to
    avoid disapproval

11
Variations - Difficulty
  • Differences between the lines were made smaller
  • Conformity increased
  • Lucas et al. (2006)
  • Conformity is moderated by self-efficacy of the
    individual
  • E.g. When exposed to maths problems, individuals
    confident in their abilities remained more
    independent
  • Demonstrates both situational (task difficulty)
    and individual differences (self-efficacy)
    determine conformity

12
Variations Size of the Majority
  • Conformity low when majority consisted of one or
    two
  • With majority of three, conformity rose to 30
  • Further increases did not substantially increase
    conformity

13
Variations Unanimity of the Majority
  • When participant was joined by another real
    participant or disaffected confederate,
    conformity fell from 32 to 5.5
  • If the dissenter gave a different wrong answer
    conformity fell to 9
  • Asch concluded breaking the groups consensus
    important to reduce conformity
  • Abu Ghraib Private Joe Darby

14
Real-World Applications
  • Conformity in juries
  • Many jurors would not want to appear to have a
    different attitude to their fellow jurors
  • Tanford and Penrod, 1986
  • 1st vote of the jury determines the outcome 95
    of the time
  • Suggests conformity pressure is a real issue in
    juries
  • How could this be reduced?

15
Individual Differences
  • Eagly and Carli (1981)
  • Meta-analysis of 145 studies
  • Women were more compliant than men
  • Women are possibly more interpersonally-oriented
  • Male researchers were more likely to find gender
    differences, suggesting they choose experimental
    material more accessible to males (self-efficacy)

Vs.
16
Quick quiz
  1. What are the three different types of conformity?
  2. How many participants were there in Aschs study?
    What gender?
  3. What percentage of the responses were incorrect?
  4. What percentage of the population never
    conformed?
  5. Conformity increased when the line lengths were
    closer or farther apart?
  6. The size of the majority must be more than what
    for individuals to conform?
  7. Do men or women conform more?

17
Evaluation Validity of Aschs study
  • Lack of ecological validity
  • Judging lengths of lines is an insignificant task
  • How would conformity change for important tasks?
  • Answering out loud puts special pressure on the
    participant not to sound stupid
  • Aschs study may only show us about conformity in
    certain circumstances
  • Williams and Sogon (1984) tested people from same
    sports club
  • Suggested conformity higher with people you know

18
Evaluation Validity of Aschs study
  • Lack of historical and population validity?
  • All were male Americans in the 1950s during the
    era of McCarthyism
  • Perrin and Spencer (1980)
  • England 1970s on science and engineering
    students only one conformity in 396 trials
  • In a 2nd study youths on probation (probation
    officers as confederates), conformity was similar
    to Aschs studies
  • Suggests conformity is higher when perceived
    costs of non-conformity are high

19
Evaluation - Ethics of Aschs study
  • Deception
  • Pps didnt know the real purpose of the study
  • Can be overcome with
  • proper debriefing
  • Offering right to withhold their data
  • Informed consent not given at the start but could
    be given at the end

20
Independence???
  • With 2/3 of trials participants not conforming,
    Aschs study also highlights a human tendency to
    show independent behaviour
  • Lalancette and Standing (1990) found no
    conformity in trials concluded Asch effect is
    unstable phenomenon.

21
Activity
  • Complete Study Evaluation for Smith and Bond,
    1998
  • Plan essay question Has research supported the
    view that majority exerts a significant degree of
    influence over the individual?

22
  • Compliance
  • Individuals engage in social comparison,
    adjusting their own actions to fit with the group
  • Internalisation
  • Individuals engage in a validation process,
    possibly changing their attitudes
  • Identification
  • Individuals conform by both adjusting their
    actions (compliance) and changing their attitudes
    to fit with the majority (internalisation)
  • Asch
  • Researcher who studied majority influence
  • Distortion of perception
  • Participants who started to perceive the line
    differently is explained as a...
  • Self-efficacy
  • Confidence in performing in a certain manner to
    attain certain goals.
  • Distortion of judgement
  • Participants who felt doubt about their judgement
    is explained as a...
  • Distortion of action
  • Majority of participants changed their behaviour
    to avoid disapproval, is explained as a...
  • Conformity in juries
  • A real-world application of research into
    majority influence
  • Deception
About PowerShow.com