Psychology 403: Topics in Evolutionary Psychology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Psychology 403: Topics in Evolutionary Psychology PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 779d8e-NTM4N



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Psychology 403: Topics in Evolutionary Psychology

Description:

Psychology 403: Topics in Evolutionary Psychology Dr. M.R. Snyder Evolutionary Psychology The approach Old application, new formalization Evolutionary Theories Why ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:57
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 37
Provided by: DrMR154
Learn more at: http://www.psych.ualberta.ca
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Psychology 403: Topics in Evolutionary Psychology


1
Psychology 403Topics in Evolutionary Psychology
  • Dr. M.R. Snyder

2
Evolutionary Psychology
  • The approach
  • Old application, new formalization

3
Evolutionary Theories
  • Why/how do new organisms develop?
  • What drives change?

4
Evolutionary Psychology
  • Multidisciplinary approach
  • About 20 years old as a formalized field
  • Theoretical approach
  • Cosimides Toobey (1992)
  • Evolutionary Psychology Manifesto

5
Evolutionary Theories Not New
  • Greeks
  • Heraclitus (6th C. BC)
  • State of flux
  • Aristotle (4th C. BC)
  • Development in prescribed direction
  • Medieval Europe
  • St. Thomas Aquinas (13th C)
  • Human/lower animal differences

6
Eighteenth Century
  • George Leclerc, Comte de Buffon
  • Adaptations to fit environment pressures
  • Erasmus Darwin
  • Role of sexual reproduction
  • Jean de Lamarck
  • Inheritance of acquired characteristics
  • Georges Cuvier
  • Catastrophism

7
Charles Darwin
  • Provided causal mechanism
  • Voyage of the Beagle (1831-1836)
  • On the Origin of Species (1859)
  • Variation, inheritance, selection
  • Artificial, natural, sexual
  • Differential reproductive success

8
Social Darwinism
  • Late 19th century to present
  • Directed, purposeful
  • Teleological
  • Political, social agenda

9
Sociobiology
  • E.O. Wilson
  • Systematic study of the biological basis of
    social behaviour

10
Evolutionary Psychology Issues
  • Are humans unique animals?
  • Gradual or sudden development?
  • Modularity of mind, or general information
    processor?
  • Environment of Evolutionary Adaptiveness (EEA)

11
Approaches
  • Evolutionary Psychology
  • Will the real EP please step forward?
  • Dual Inheritance Theory (DIT)
  • Human Behavioural Ecology (HBE)

12
Terms and Concepts
13
Genetics
  • Mendellian genetics
  • Gene, alleles
  • Particulate inheritance
  • Dominant or recessive
  • Homozygous or heterozygous
  • Genotype and phenotype
  • Polygenetic effects
  • Interaction between genes and environment

14
Darwinian Selection
  • Adaptive, maladaptive, neutral
  • Success
  • Not number of offspring, but number of
    reproducing offspring
  • Gene, individual, or group as level of selection?

15
Natural Selection
  • Survival value
  • Predator/prey, environment, parasitism, etc.
  • Survival of the fittest

16
Sexual Selection
  • Intrasexual selection
  • Within a sex
  • Intersexual selection
  • Between sexes

17
Genetic Diversity
  • Heterozygosity
  • Variability of offspring in the population
  • Disease vector
  • Sexual vs. asexual reproduction

18
r Values
  • Genetic relatedness
  • Probability of having the same gene due to common
    ancestor
  • r 1.0
  • Self, identical twins
  • r 0.5
  • Parent and child, siblings
  • r 0.25
  • Grandparent and grandchild

19
Inclusive Fitness
  • William Hamilton
  • Classical (direct) and indirect fitness
  • Role of r values
  • rBgtC
  • Phenotype and genotype

20
How to be Successful
  • Increase classical fitness
  • Increase inclusive fitness
  • Quantity vs. quality tradeoff

21
Male vs. Female Reproduction
  • Energy investment
  • Commonalities
  • Differences

22
Adaptationist Approach
23
Traits
  • An aspect of an organisms phenotype
  • Physiological, behavioural

24
Adaptations
  • Process by which evolution modifies and generates
    traits that effect the spread of some genes over
    others
  • The end product of the process i.e., the traits
    selected by the evolutionary process

25
Spandrels
  • Byproducts
  • Not all traits are directly selected for
  • These traits are linked to other traits that were
    adaptations

26
Energy
  • Finite
  • Cost/benefit
  • Energy budgets require trade-offs
  • Expectation is that evolution selected for
    adaptations to energy budget that allows for
    maximization of fitness

27
Identifying Adaptations
  • Traits show special design if they perform a
    specific function well, and
  • It is difficult to postulate an alternative
    evolutionary process that led to the trait except
    for selection for this function
  • Inferential

28
Attractiveness as an Adaptation
  • Particular traits perceived as attractive by
    opposite sex
  • Benefits individuals reproductive fitness
  • Symons (1995) Beauty is in the adaptations of
    the beholder.

29
Selection Benefits for Attractiveness
  • Genetic and resource benefits
  • Selection favoured those who possessed traits
    that predisposed them to mate with others who
    possessed traits that provided the benefits
  • Sexually selected traits

30
Cross Cultural Value
  • Buss (1989) surveyed from 37 cultures world wide
  • Value of physical attractiveness rated highly
  • Industrial, first world
  • Traditional (e.g., Ache of Paraguay, Shiwiar of
    Equador, etc.)
  • Also, cross-cultural agreement on who is
    attractive

31
Sexual Selection
  • A feedback system
  • One sex develops preference for trait
  • If it increases differential reproductive
    success, preference for trait spreads to
    offspring
  • Members of opposite sex that have the desired
    trait will also, therefore, spread the trait to
    their offspring

32
Intrasexual Selection
  • Competition between members of the same sex
  • Usually, perceived as male-male
  • Polygynous mating systems
  • However, in humans both male and female
    intrasexual selection

33
Intersexual Selection
  • Choice between the sexes
  • Sometimes called, female choice
  • Reproductive costs generally more expensive for
    females (limiting reproductive resource)

34
Mutual Mate Choice
  • Seen in species where both sexes invest heavily
    in offspring
  • Both sexes are selected to display desired traits
  • Seen in humans across time and cultures

35
Signaling Quality Traits
  • Traits that indicate something about an
    individuals fitness
  • Honest signals are costly (Zahavi 1975)
  • Handicap principle
  • If you can afford the handicap, you must be of
    superior quality

36
Sensory Bias
  • May be a bias towards some trait in sensory
    system
  • May have nothing to do with mate choice
  • However, may inadvertently influence mate
    selection
  • Genes for some trait may be piggybacked into
    gene pool due to genes for sensory bias
About PowerShow.com