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SPECIFIC DRUGS

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SPECIFIC DRUGS The Major (vs. minor) Stimulants Cocaine and Amphetamine – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: SPECIFIC DRUGS


1
SPECIFIC DRUGS
  • The Major (vs. minor) Stimulants
  • Cocaine and Amphetamine

2
Major Stimulants - Cocaine
  • Free association
  • COCAINE
  • What is coke and where does it come from?
  • coca leaf / coca bush
  • Incas and Spanish
  • Freud
  • American history (VIP usage)

3
Major Stimulants - Cocaine
  • street cocaine coca paste and hydrochloric acid
  • type of salt--powder sniffed or snorted
  • more addictive uses
  • can inject it if mix with water--IV quicker
  • smoking freebase - powder and ether
  • crack - dissolve cocaine salt in baking soda
    solution, boil off water, left with rock
  • Cocaine - ETOH combo (coca-ethylene) - may
    alter metabolics of cocaine, which may be more
    cardiotoxic via increased half-life of cocaine

4
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5
Major Stimulants - Cocaine
  • Prevalence
  • 1998 2003
  • Cocaine (Crack) Cocaine (Crack)
  • Past month .8 (.2) 1.0 (.3)
  • Past year 1.7 (.4) 2.5 (.6)
  • Lifetime 10.6 (2.0) 14.7 (3.3)
  • cheapness of crack--national crisis
  • shift of users from college educated to high
    school dropouts
  • smoking cocaine becoming more popular, especially
    among young users

6
Major Stimulants - Speed
  • Amphetamines
  • ephedrine, principal chemical in these drugs,
    has been known for thousands of years used as
    Chinese medicinal herb
  • ephedrine first isolated in late 1800's, and
    synthesized in 1920s when it was named
    amphetamine
  • first medically used in 1920's for treating
    obesity, narcolepsy, colds, and much later ADHD
  • used to enhance performance, decrease fatigue
    sport military applications (e.g., go and no-go
    pills)

7
Major Stimulants - Speed
  • Prevalence 2003
  • Stimulants (Methamphetamine)
  • Lifetime 8.8 5.2
  • Past year 1.2 0.6
  • Past month 0.5 0.3
  • ages 12 and older, from NSDUH

8
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9
U.S. Banned Ephedra in 2004
  • used primarily for weight loss and body building
    in the U.S.
  • linked to 155 deaths and dozens of heart attacks
    and strokes.
  • Derived from a plant (powdered and then put in
    pills)
  • Contains ephedrine pseudoephedrine

10
ephedra ban, cont
  • side effects can be life threatening even for a
    health individual (constricts blood vessels,
    raises blood pressure).
  • FDA was aware of a problem for 8 years, however
    the high profile death of Baltimore Orioles
    pitcher, Steve Bechler stimulated concern from
    the FDA as well as many others.
  • 1st government ban on a dietary supplement

11
Major Stimulants
  • Neurotransmitters and behavioral pharmacology
  • Effects of the Major Stimulants
  • Desired effects
  • Negative effects
  • Overdose
  • Withdrawal SXs

12
Major Stimulants
  • Medical Effects
  • Fetal Exposure during Pregnancy
  • Other Co-morbid Diagnoses
  • Factors in Initiation of use leading to
  • dependence

13
Major Stimulants
  • Treatment of Cocaine Dependence
  • A. Drug TX
  • B. Psychological TX
  • Community reinforcement
  • Payment for abstinence
  • Relapse prevention (triggers, cravings)
  • Lifestyle modification
  • Self-help Groups (CA - cocaine anonymous)
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