Chapter 18 The Politics of Late-Nineteenth-Century America - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Chapter 18 The Politics of Late-Nineteenth-Century America PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 7794ac-NWFhZ



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Chapter 18 The Politics of Late-Nineteenth-Century America

Description:

I. Chapter 18 The Politics of Late-Nineteenth-Century America The Great Political Debate of the 1880 s??? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:294
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 88
Provided by: Susa2514
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Chapter 18 The Politics of Late-Nineteenth-Century America


1
Chapter 18The Politics of Late-Nineteenth-Century
America
I.
  • The Great Political Debate of the 1880s?
  • ?
  • ?

2
The Politics of the Status Quo, 1877-1893
I.
3
The National Scene
I.A
  • The Passive Presidency Most arduous task
    dispensing spoils (govt. jobs)
  • President Garfield Assassinated by deranged
    office seeker Pendleton Act (1883), 1st step
    toward civil service reform

4
The National Scene
I.A
  • Party Politics President took back seat to
    Congress and Congress did little
  • Traditional contrast between parties was muddled
  • Tariff big issue
  • Campaign Politics equal balance, politicians
    cautious not to offend

5
The National Scene
I.A
  • Sectional Politics Reconstruction abandoned,
    mudslinging and personal attacks, pomp and
    ceremony
  • Ma,Ma, wheres my paw?
  • 1884 - Democrats Rum, Romanism and Rebellion
  • Debate over what to do with surplus?????

6
(No Transcript)
7
(No Transcript)
8
(No Transcript)
9
The Ideology of Individualism
I.B
  • Laissez-Faire People support the government,
    but the government should not support the people
  • Gospel of Wealth Rags to Riches stories
    aplentyAndrew Carnegie
  • William Lawrence protestant ethic

10
The Ideology of Individualism
I.B
  • Social Darwinism Herbert Spencer human
    society evolved through competition and any
    interference with social progress is bad

11
The Supremacy of the Courts
I.C
  • Courts become the defenders of private property
    (and big business)
  • Corporations are now people! 14th Amendment
    protects people from being deprived of life
    liberty or property used to restrain government
    regulations
  • Manufacturing not interstate commerce and income
    tax unconstitutional

12
Cultural Politics
II.A
  • Parades, conventions and political paraphernalia
  • Party Loyalty heresy for protestant Northerners
    to be Democrat or Southerners to be Republican.

13
II.A
Two-Party Balance
14
Well-Defined Voting Blocs
II.A
DemocraticBloc
RepublicanBloc
  • White southerners(preservation ofwhite
    supremacy)
  • Catholics
  • Recent immigrants
  • Urban working poor (pro-labor)
  • Most farmers
  • Northern whites(pro-business)
  • African Americans
  • Northern Protestants
  • Anti-immigrant
  • Most of the middle class
  • Western Farmers

15
Issues
DemocraticBloc
RepublicanBloc
II.A
  • Low Tariff
  • Anti-Prohibition
  • Pro-immigrant
  • Increasing money Supply inflation
  • Greenbacks/free coinage of silver
  • States Rights
  • High Tariff
  • Pro-voting rights
  • Anti-immigrant
  • Tight control on money supply Gold backed
    dollar
  • Favor Blue Laws legislating morality

16
Organizational Politics
II.B
  • All politics is local
  • Both parties well organized structures
  • Precinct and Ward local
  • Precinct-Ward-County-State-National
  • Precinct and Ward responsible for getting out the
    vote

17
Organizational Politics
II.B
  • Machine Politics internal organization of party
    made up of insiders working for party in exchange
    for public jobs or connections. Usually one man
    rule Party Boss.
  • Inner conflict not over policy, but spoils. ie.
    Republicans, Stalwarts vs. Half-Breeds
  • Results not all bad

18
(No Transcript)
19
(No Transcript)
20
(No Transcript)
21
(No Transcript)
22
(No Transcript)
23
(No Transcript)
24
Organizational Politics
II.B
  • Mugwumps Republican defectors who wanted an end
    to machine politics Elitist, not populist
  • Influenced public debate regarding cleaning up
    political process Secret (Australian Ballot)

25
Womens Political Culture
II.B
  • Suffragists overcome division of reconstruction
  • Concentrate on state campaigns
  • Women operated within their sphere to fight for
    change particularly prohibition (WCTU)

26
  • State Date Begun
  • Territory of Wyoming 1869
  • Wyoming 1890
  • Colorado 1893
  • Utah 1896
  • Idaho 1896
  • Arizona 1912
  • Washington 1910
  • California 1911
  • Kansas 1912
  • Oregon 1912
  • Territory of Alaska 1913
  • Montana 1914
  • Nevada 1914
  • New York 1917
  • Michigan 1918
  • Oklahoma 1918
  • South Dakota 1918

27
Race and Politics in the New South
II.C
28
Race and Politics in the New South
II.C
  • Blacks remain staunch Republicans
  • Voter intimidation and suppression common
  • Democrats Redeemers
  • Class strife Elite vs. hill-country farmers
    (Populist), hard not to see need for cooperation
    with blacks Lukewarm at best

29
Race and Politics in the New South
II.C
  • Black Disenfranchisement Democrat leaders see
    alliance of poor white and Blacks as a threat
  • Reform Literacy Tests, Grandfather Clause
    exempted those who were entitled to vote BEFORE
    15th Amendment
  • Were still poll taxes/property requirements

30
Race and Politics in the New South
II.C
  • Jim Crow Brand of White Supremacy emerges
  • Segregation
  • Supreme Court Upholds in Plessy v. Furguson
    separate but equal
  • Upholds disenfranchisement of blacks as long as
    race was not a specified criteria in Williams v.
    Mississippi

31
Race and Politics in the New South
II.C
  • Public vilification of blacks commonplace
  • Lynchings and race riots
  • Causes
  • Younger generation of Blacks
  • Competition for jobs w/ poor whites
  • Populist threat to one party rule, elite power
    brokers accept demagogue politicians

32
Race and Politics in the New South
II.C
  • Grimes County Texas Populist/Republican
    coalition holds on until 1900 terrorism used to
    wrest control back to Democrats

33
(No Transcript)
34
  • 1. How did Progressivism and organized interest
    groups reflect the new political choices of
    Americans?
  • 2. What reforms did American women, Urbanites,
    and African Americans seek?
  • 3. Evaluate and explain how and why President
    Roosevelt expanded the role of the Federal
    Government.
  • How did President Wilson seek to accommodate his
    progressive principles to the realities of
    political power?

35
Resisting White Supremacy
II.C
  • Some resisters (often paid with life)
  • Ida B. Wells
  • Atlanta Compromise Booker T. Washington
    Accommodationist
  • Tuskegee Institute Promote education, work
    property ownership civil rights

36
The Crisis of American Politics
II.D
  • 1890s Democrat victories seem to usher in new
    Democrat age
  • McKinley Tariff -
  • Prohibition Party siphon Republican votes
  • Panic of 1893 profound political consequences
  • Unemployment over 20
  • Falling grain/cotton prices

37
The Populist Revolt
II.D
  • Farmers Alliances tap into anti-monopoly, big
    business sentiment
  • Became politicized and abandoned traditional
    Republican/Democrat alliances
  • Local-State-National
  • Peoples Party (Populist) crated 1892

38
The Populist Revolt
II.D
  • 1892 James Weaver presidential candidate
  • 1,000,000,000 votes, 4 states
  • Roots in Grange Social clubs women active
    (Mary Elizabeth Lease, raise less corn and more
    hell
  • Pitted themselves (producers, including labor))
    against money power

39
To what extent did the Populist revolt reshape
American politics?
  • Do Now Copy reading quiz questions for
    Wednesday.
  • 1. How did Progressivism and organized interest
    groups reflect the new political choices of
    Americans?
  • 2. What reforms did American women, Urbanites,
    and African Americans seek?
  • 3. Evaluate and explain how and why President
    Roosevelt expanded the role of the Federal
    Government.
  • 4. How did President Wilson seek to accommodate
    his progressive principles to the realities of
    political power?

40
(No Transcript)
41
The Populist Revolt
II.D
  • Ideology
  • Opposed Laissez-Faire
  • 1892 Platform
  • Nationalization of Railroads
  • Protection of land from monopolies
  • Graduated Income Tax
  • Subtreasury Plan
  • Free Coinage of Silver

42
The Populist Revolt
II.D
  • Free Silver Coinage of Silver would increase
    the money supply (inflation) and secure funding
    for populist candidates from silver mining
    industry
  • Double edged sword Labor did not want
    inflationary cycle

43
Money and Politics
II.D
  • Money Policy Always a contentious issue
  • Debtors and commodity producers vs. sound money
    creditors, fixed incomes

44
Money and Politics
II.D
  • History Before Civil War printed by state
    chartered banks
  • U.S. Banking Act of 1863 Feds print greenbacks
  • After war sound money interests lobby for
    specie printed money to be backed by gold and
    silver in treasury
  • Era of chronic deflation and tight credit

45
Money and Politics
II.D
  • History Continued.
  • Silver becomes more valuable as a metal than
    money and silver coins disappear.
  • 1873 silver dropped as currency
  • Inflationists urge govt to resume bimetallic
    policy purchasing silver at a ratio of 16-1 with
    gold
  • This would greatly increase supply

46
Money and Politics
II.D
  • Cleveland and Silver
  • Coxeys Army
  • Pullman Strike
  • Tariff still high
  • Refuses to cave on Silver Issue
  • Negotiations with Wall Street reinforced image he
    was in cahoots with big business.

47
Money and Politics
II.D
  • Election of 1896 Dems abandon Cleveland,
    Nominate William Jennings Bryan passionate
    advocate of Free Silver
  • Cross of Gold Speech

48
Gold / Silver Bug Campaign Pins
49
William Jennings Bryan (1860-1925)
The Great Commoner
50
BryantsCross of Gold Speech
You shall not press down upon the brow of labor
this crown of thorns you shall not crucify
mankind upon a cross of gold!
51
Bryan The Farmers Friend(The Mint Ratio)
18,000 miles of campaign whistle stops.
52
(No Transcript)
53
Money and Politics
II.D
  • Populists also nominate WJB due to Silver Issue
  • Republicans nominate William McKinley campaign
    orchestrated by Mark Hanna massive money
    raising campaign
  • Revolutionary and Anarchistic
  • Bryans religious fervor did not sit well with
    labor

54
1896 Election Results
55
Money and Politics
II.D
  • Republicans make electoral inroads into cities
  • McKinley wins
  • Populism Dies, and with it liberal reform.for
    now!

56
Gold Triumphs Over Silver
  • 1900 ? GoldStandard Act
  • confirmed thenations commitment tothe gold
    standard.
  • A victory for the forces ofconservatism.

57
The Wizard of Oz by L. Frank Baum
58
1964 Henry Littlefields Thesis?
59
  • Mark Twain coined the phrase referring to the
    superficial glitter of the new wealth.
  • It also refers to the politics of the era all
    show with little substance (era of forgettable
    Presidents) characterized by patronage,
    corruption and graft

60
  • Elections were so close, politicians avoided any
    controversial topics victory hinged on getting
    out the vote (you supporters)
  • Political rallies were less about issues and more
    about entertainment brass bands, eloquent
    speeches, free beer and food, buttons, pins etc.
  • Local and National politicians were more
    concerned about handing out patronage jobs than a
    legislative agenda

61
Local Politics
  • Political Machines A party linked political
    organization that maintained power by controlling
    votes, the courts and the police.

62
Political Machines
  • As a result of the rapid growth of cities,
    businesses sought lucrative contracts to provide
    services (building roads, schools, sewers etc.)
  • They handed out these lucrative contracts for
    kickbacks making themselves rich

63
Political Machines
  • Power came from the bottom up
  • They provided food to needy families, organized
    free parties, and provided jobs and favors to
    local citizens
  • When elections came around, people rewarded the
    machines with their vote

64
Boss Tweed
  • Controlled New York City politics until
    cartoonist Thomas Nast exposed him

65
(No Transcript)
66
(No Transcript)
67
(No Transcript)
68
National Politics
  • Also characterized by graft
  • Political campaigns relied on large numbers of
    volunteers
  • The reward for volunteering was a well paying
    government job (spoils system)

69
A Two-Party Stalemate
70
Two-Party Balance
71
Well-Defined Voting Blocs
DemocraticBloc
RepublicanBloc
  • Northern whites(pro-business)
  • African Americans
  • Northern Protestants
  • Anti-immigrant
  • Most of the middle class
  • Western Farmers
  • White southerners(preservation ofwhite
    supremacy)
  • Catholics
  • Recent immigrants
  • Urban working poor (pro-labor)
  • Most farmers

72
Issues
DemocraticBloc
RepublicanBloc
  • High Tariff
  • Pro-voting rights
  • Anti-immigrant
  • Tight control on money supply Gold backed dollar
  • Low Tariff
  • Anti-Prohibition
  • Pro-immigrant
  • Increasing money Supply inflation
  • Greenbacks/free coinage of silver
  • States Rights

73
Very Laissez Faire Federal Govt.
  • From 1870-1900 ? Govt. did verylittle
    domestically.
  • Main duties of the federal govt.
  • Deliver the mail.
  • Maintain a national military.
  • Collect taxes tariffs.
  • Conduct a foreign policy.
  • Exception ? administer the annual Civil War
    veterans pension.

74
The Presidency as a Symbolic Office
  • Party bosses ruled.
  • Presidents should avoid offending any factions
    within their own party.
  • The President just doled out federal jobs. 1865 ?
    53,000 federal employees.1890 ? 166,000 federal
    employees

75
1881 Garfield Assassinated!
Charles GuiteauI Am a Stalwart, and Arthur is
President now!
76
Pendleton Act (1883)
  • Civil Service Act.
  • The Magna Carta of civil service reform blow
    to spoils system.
  • 1883 ? 14,000 out of 117,000 federal govt. jobs
    became civil service exam positions.
  • 1900 ? 100,000 out of 200,000 civil service
    federal govt. jobs.

77
Why did western farmers begin to abandon the
Republican Party?
78
  • Traditionally, they supported the Republican
    Party because Republicans favored using the
    federal governments power for internal
    improvements Western railroads, roads,
    Homestead Act etc.

79
Problems..
  • Many began to become concerned with the problems
    of industrialization
  • Growth of power of large corporations
    particularly RRs, banks, steel etc
  • Growth of Monopolies
  • Plight of factory workers
  • Corruption of politics
  • Particularly power of business over politicians

80
January, 1889
81
Changing Public Opinion
  • Government (Republican) Response
  • Interstate Commerce Act 1887
  • Sherman Antitrust Act 1890
  • These acts were loosely enforced (if enforced at
    all) A Presidents justice department decides
    which laws to enforce (or not)

82
Panic of 1893
  • One of worst financial crisis country faced (4
    years)
  • 20 unemployment, stock market crash, historic
    rates of farm foreclosures
  • Run on Gold reduces in circulation
    deflation
  • U.S. had a gold backed currency

83
What is money?
  • A medium of exchange!
  • Worth its exchange value!
  • Value is constantly changing!
  • Value is based on its quality and quantity!
  • Quality who is issuing it/does it give you
    ownership of something.
  • Quantity how much is available.

84
  • Deflation When less is circulated, value goes
    up, prices go down
  • Inflation
  • When more is circulated, value goes down,
    prices go up

85
Neither a borrower nor a lender be
  • Is inflation or deflation better for a borrower
    of money?
  • Inflation
  • Banks would prefer the value of money increase
  • Many poor farmers blamed the power of banks on
    the government for their ills.

86
Farmers Needs
  • Inflation crop prices rise, value of debt
    decreases (
  • Removal of special interests on Politics (greater
    say in govt.)
  • Govt. control over abusive Railroads and banks

87
(No Transcript)
88
Cleveland Loses Support Fast!
  • The only President to serve two non-consecutive
    terms.
  • Blamed for the 1893 Panic.
  • Defended the gold standard.
  • Used federal troops in the 1894Pullman strike.
  • Refused to sign the Wilson-GormanTariff of 1894.
  • Repealed the Sherman Silver Purchase Act.
About PowerShow.com