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Title: Chapter 3 Settling the Northern Colonies 1619-1700


1
Chapter 3Settling the Northern
Colonies1619-1700
2
(No Transcript)
3
The Settlement of New England
4
Separatists
vs.
Puritans
5
Puritanism
  • Calvinism ? Institutes of the Christian Religion
  • Predestination.
  • Good works could not save those predestined for
    hell.
  • No one could be certain of their spiritual
    status.
  • Gnawing doubts led to constantly seeking signs of
    conversion.
  • Puritans
  • Want to totally reform purify the Church of
    England.
  • Grew impatient with the slow process of
    Protestant Reformation back in England.

6
Separatists
  • Separatist Beliefs
  • Puritans who believed only visible saints
    those who could demonstrate in front of their
    fellow Puritans their elect status should be
    admitted to church membership.
  • Because the Church of England enrolled all the
    kings subjects, Separatists felt they had to
    share churches with the damned.
  • Therefore, they believed in a total break from
    the Church of England.

7
  • James I (1603 - 1625)
  • James I was the son of Mary, Queen of Scots. He
    had become James VI of Scotland after Mary lost
    her head, and he became James I when he took over
    England.
  • He was the first to call himself "King of Great
    Britain." James struggled with Parliament - he
    thought he ruled by divine right.
  • There was a new English translation of Bible -
    the "King James Bible.
  • He persecuted Pilgrims because they would not
    recognize him as the religious leader of the
    Church of England.
  • So, they became a political risk as well.

8
Sources of Puritan Migration
9
The Mayflower
  • 1620 ? a group of 102 people half Separatists
  • Negotiated with theVirginia Company to settle
    in its jurisdiction.
  • Non-Separatists included Captain Myles
    Standish.
  • Plymouth Bay way outside the domain of the
    Virginia Company.
  • Became squatters without legal right to land
    specific authority to establish a govt.

10
MAYFLOWER COMPACT
  • 41 Male passengers on the Mayflower formed into a
    civil body politic, signed a compact promising
    to write and obey "just and equal laws ... for
    the general good of the colony."
  • The compact brought an element of democracy to
    America and was an example of the practice of
    self-government in the colonies.
  • All the colonies practiced some form of
    self-government

11
The Mayflower CompactNovember 11, 1620
  • Written and signed before the Pilgrims
    disembarked from the ship.
  • Not a constitution, but an agreement to form a
    crude govt. and submit to majority rule.
  • Signed by 41 adult males.
  • Led to adult male settlers meeting in assemblies
    to make laws in town meetings.

12
PILGRIMS
  • Difficult winter (44 out of 102 survived).
  • First year went through a starving time
  • Developed friendly relations with Indian tribes
  • Squanto befriended settlement
  • Plymouth settlement survived under the leadership
    of Gov. William Bradford
  • First Thanksgiving

13
Strange Sign
14
That First Year.
  • Winter of 1620-1621
  • Only 44 out of the original 102 survived.
  • None chose to leave in 1621 when the Mayflower
    sailed back.
  • Fall of 1621 ? First Thanksgiving.
  • Colony survived with fur especially beaver,
    fish, and lumber.
  • Plymouth stayed small and economically
    unimportant.
  • 1691 ? only 7,000 people
  • Merged with Massachusetts Bay Colony.

15
William Bradford
  • Self-taught scholar.
  • Chosen governor of Plymouth 30 times in yearly
    elections.
  • Worried about settlements of non-Puritans
    springing up nearby and corrupting Puritan
    society.

A Model of Christian Charity
16
PILGRIMS
Pilgrims merge with the Puritans to form
Massachusetts Bay Colony
17
  • Charles I (1625 - 1649)
  • Son of James I and ruled by divine right.
  • Conflicts with Parliament much resistance to
    his policies.
  • Forced to sign the Petition of Right
  • no taxes without Parliaments consent
  • civilians didn't have to house soldiers
  • no military law in peacetime
  • Due process of law
  • In 1629, Charles dissolved Parliament and ruled
    until 1640.
  • Persecuted Puritans led to the Puritan Migration.
  • 16421651 English Civil Wars, "Cavaliers"
    (Anglicans, royalists, nobility, Catholics) vs.
    the "Roundheads" (Puritans and Middle Class).
  • Charles I was beheaded in 1649-------Oliver
    Cromwell became Lord Protector of the English
    Commonwealth.

18
The MA Bay Colony
  • 1629 ? non-Separatists got a royal charter to
    form the MA Bay Co.
  • Wanted to escape attacks by conservatives in the
    Church of England.
  • They didnt want to leave the Church, just its
    impurities.
  • 1630 ? 1,000 people set off in 11 well-stocked
    ships
  • Established a colony with Boston as its hub.
  • Great Migration of the 1630s
  • Turmoil in England leading to the English Civil
    War sent about 70,000 Puritans to America.
  • Not all Puritans ? 20,000 came to MA.

19
PURITAN MIGRATION 1629 to 1640
20
PURITANS
  • Pilgrims merge with the Puritans to form
    Massachusetts Bay Colony
  • Communities well organized
  • Established towns
  • Protestant Work Ethic
  • Family values

21
John Winthrop
  • Well-off attorney and manor lord in England.
  • Became 1st governor of Massachusetts.
  • Believed that he had a calling from God to lead
    there.
  • Served as governor or deputy-governor for 19
    years.

We shall be as a city on a hill..
22
PURITANS
  • John Winthrop, founder of the Massachusetts Bay
    Colony
  • Middle class settlers, educated and organized
  • Successful as fur traders, fishermen and
    shipbuilders
  • Ruled as Bible Commonwealth or theocracy
  • New England Way Puritan covenant with
    God
  • To establish holy society----city upon a hill

23
Covenant Theology
  • Covenant of Grace
  • between Puritan communities and God.
  • Social Covenant
  • Between members of Puritan communities with each
    other.
  • Required mutual watchfulness.
  • No toleration of deviance or disorder.
  • No privacy.

24
Patriarchy
  • Authoritarian male father figures controlled each
    household.
  • Patriarchal ministers and magistrates controlled
    church congregations and household patriarchs.

25
Building the Bay Colony
  • Franchise (right to vote) extended to freemen
    adult Puritan men of Congregational church (about
    40 of men in the colony higher percentage than
    in England)
  • However, in town government, all property-owning
    males could vote in town meetings
  • Direct democracy----self government
  • Since idea of government was to enforce Gods
    laws, religious leaders (e.g. John Cotton) were
    very influential

26
Try to focus on this picture- it will drive you
crazy!
27
Building the Bay Colony
  • Clergy were barred from formal political office
    early church/state separation
  • Puritan ideas calling to Gods work,
    Protestant work ethic, limited worldly pleasures,
    fear of hell

28
Trouble in Bible Colony(Puritan Rebels)
  • Social harmony when only Puritans, but that
    didnt last
  • Quakers fines, floggings, banishments,
    executions
  • Anne Hutchinson truly saved dont need to obey
    (antinomianism the theological doctrine that by
    faith and God's grace a Christian is freed from
    all laws (including the moral standards of the
    culture)
  • Banished from Mass. Bay
  • Travels to Rhode Island with her children and
    helps organize this settlement

29
Anne Hutchinsons Trial
  • 1638 ? she confounded the Puritan leaders for
    days.
  • Eventually bragged that she had received her
    beliefs DIRECTLY from God.
  • Direct revelation was even more serious than the
    heresy of antinomianism. WHY??
  • Puritan leaders banished her ? she her family
    traveled to RI and later to NY.
  • She and all but one member of her family were
    killed in an Indian attack in Westchester County.
  • John Winthrop saw Gods hand in this!

30
Puritan Rebels
  • Young, popular minister in Salem.
  • Argued for a full break with the Anglican
    Church.
  • Condemned MA Bay Charter.
  • Did not give fair compensation to Indians.
  • Denied authority of civil govt. to regulate
    religious behavior.
  • 1635 ? found guilty of preaching new dangerous
    opinions and was exiled.

Roger Williams
31
Rhode Island
  • 1636 ? Roger Williams fled there.
  • MA Bay Puritans had wanted to exile him to
    England to prevent him from founding a competing
    colony.
  • Remarkable political freedom in Providence, RI
  • Universal manhood suffrage ? later restricted by
    a property qualification.
  • Opposed to special privilege of any kind ?
    freedom of opportunity for all.
  • RI becomes known as the Sewer because it is
    seen by the Puritans as a dumping ground for
    unbelievers and religious dissenters ? More
    liberal than any other colony!

32
New England Spreads Out
33
New England Spreads Out
  • 1635 Hartford (Conn.) founded by Dutch/English
    settlers. Some Puritans moved westward to
    Connecticut with Rev. Thomas Hooker
  • 1639 Fundamental Orders modern constitution
    established democratic government
  • 1641 New Hampshire taken over by overly
    aggressive Bay Colony
  • 1679 Annoyed by greed of Bay Colony, king
    arbitrarily separates it, becomes royal colony

34
Characteristics of New England Settlements
  • Low mortality ? average life expectancy was 70
    years of age.
  • Many extended families.
  • Average 6 children per family.
  • Average age at marriage
  • Women 22 years old
  • Men 27 years old.

35
  • New England
  • good harbors
  • small farms and towns
  • trade centered around harbors
  • hilly, forested and shallow soil
  • cities Boston
  • 15,000 1750
  • fishing, lumber and trapping
  • Family, religion and community
  • Massachusetts
  • New Hampshire
  • Rhode Island
  • Connecticut

36
Population of the New England Colonies
37
Puritans vs. Native Americans
  • Indians especially weak in New England ?
    epidemics wiped out ¾ of the native popul.
  • Wampanoags near Plymouth befriended the
    settlers.
  • Cooperation between the two helped by Squanto.
  • 1621 ? Chief Massasoit signedtreaty with the
    settlers.
  • Autumn, 1621 ? both groups celebrated the First
    Thanksgiving.

38
The Pequot Wars 1636-1637
  • Pequots ? verypowerful tribein CT river valley.
  • 1637 ? PequotWar
  • Whites, withNarragansettIndian allies,attacked
    Pequotvillage on Mystic River.
  • Whites set fire to homes shot fleeing
    survivors!
  • Pequot tribe virtually annihilated? an uneasy
    peace lasted for 40 years.

39
King Philips War (1675-1676
  • Only hope for Native Americans to resist white
    settlers was to UNITE.
  • Metacom King Philip to white settlers
  • Massasoits son united Indians and staged
    coordinated attacks on white settlements
    throughout New England.
  • Frontier settlements forced to retreat to Boston.

40
KING PHILIP'S WAR
Massasoits son, Metacom (King Phillip) formed
Indian alliance attacked throughout New
England, especially frontier English towns were
attacked and burned -unknown numbers of Indians
died 1676 War ended, Metacom executed, lasting
defeat for Indians
41
  • Charles II was the son of Charles I.
  • Because his father had been killed, Charles II
    had the ravens caged so they couldn't leave.
  • He was a "Merry Monarch," a very popular king.
  • Charles II encouraged religious toleration.
  • The Restoration Colonies were settled during
    his reign.

Charles II (1660 - 1685)
42
DOMINION OF NEW ENGLAND
  • Goal
  • Bring colonies under Englands rule
  • Defend colonies from French Indians
  • Stop colonial smuggling
  • Sir Edmund Andros, Kings
  • Representative restricted
  • colonies
  • Town meetings, the press, schools
  • Revoked land titles
  • Taxed without consent of the governed
  • Collapses after Glorious
  • Revolution

Forced by King James I All NE Colonies, NJ NY
43
CHART THIRTEEN COLONIES
Colony/Date Person Responsible
Why Founded Governed/Owner
Massachusetts 1621Pilgrims Plymouth Colony 1630---Puritans Mass. Bay Colony William Bradford Pilgrims John Winthrop Puritans Plymouth merges with Mass. 1691 Religious freedom, avoid religious persecution, to start a city upon a hill, and to begin a new life. Mayflower Compact Theocracy General Court Royal Colony
Rhode Island 1644 Formed from Mass. Roger Williams Exiled from Mass. Anne Hutchison Exiled from Mass. Dissatisfied with Mass. Bay Colony Religious freedom Consent of the governed Self-governing colony
Connecticut 1662 Formed from Mass. Rev. Thomas Hooker Religious freedom, exploring the frontier and settling new areas. Fundamental Orders of Connecticut Self-governing colony
New Hampshire 1679 Formed from Mass. John Mason Sir Ferdinando Gorges Part of Mass. Bay Colony and set up for greater opportunity in frontier---trade goods, fur, fishing lumber industry Royal Colony
44
  • James II was Charles' son, a Catholic.
  • He had a Protestant daughter, Mary, and a
    Catholic son.
  • Parliament didn't want his son taking over, so
    they gave the crown to Mary and her husband,
    William III of Orange.

James II (1685 - 1688)
45
  • This was known as the "Glorious Revolution."
    (Revolution because they overthrew the last
    Catholic monarch, Glorious because no one died.)
  • Parliament put more restrictions on the monarch.
  • The king couldn't make or suspend laws, have an
    army during peacetime, and the king couldn't
    interfere with freedom of speech in Parliament.
  • English Bill of Rights

46
Chart 13a
CHART THIRTEEN COLONIES
Colony/Date Person Responsible
Why Founded Governed/Owner
New Netherland In1609--Dutch New York1664 England Henry Hudson for Netherlands Duke of York of England names it New York English fleet takes New Amsterdam from Dutch in 1664 and becomes New York City---Good harbor for trade New Netherlands was an autocracy 1689---English Bill of Rights Representative Govt Royal Colony
New Jersey---1702 Indian land---Dutch and Swedish gift from King Charles II to brother James---gives to his friends Lord John Berkeley Sir George Carteret Attract new settlers for Dutch and Swedish colonists Royal Colony
Pennsylvania1681 Delaware--1682 William Penn Swedes Penn founded for religious freedom for the Quakers---Holy Experimentinvited all people Representative govt Royal Colony
Maryland--1634 Lord Baltimore Religious tolerationthose who believed in Christ---allowed persecuted Catholics to settle in Maryland Representative govt Proprietary Colony
47
Old Netherlanders at New Netherlands
  • 1600s ? Golden Age of Dutch history.
  • Major commercial and naval power.
  • Challenging England on the seas.
  • 3 major Anglo-Dutch Wars
  • Major colonial power mainly in the East Indies.

48
New Netherland (New York)
  • 1609 Henry Hudson sailing for Dutch East India
    Company sails into Hudson river looking for
    passage through continent claims area for
    Dutch
  • 1623-24 Dutch West India Company establishes New
    Netherland
  • Goal quick-profit fur trade
  • Bought Manhattan from Indians
  • Company town no religious tolerance or free
    speech, harsh governors

49
Henry Hudsons Voyages
50
Are they on a balconyor a patio?
51
New Netherland
  • Colony had aristocratic influence (a member of a
    ruling class or of the nobility) with large
    feudal estates (patroonships one larger than
    Rhode Island)
  • Very diverse population in 1640s missionary
    observed 18 languages

52
New Netherlands
  • New Netherlands ? founded in the Hudson River
    area (1623-1624)
  • Established by Dutch West India Company for
    quick-profit fur trade.
  • Company wouldnt pay much attention to the
    colony.
  • Manhattan New Amsterdam
  • Purchased by Company for pennies per (22,000)
    acre.

53
New Amsterdam Harbor, 1639
  • Company town run in interests of the
    stockholders.
  • No interest in religious toleration, free
    speech, or democracy.
  • Governors appointed by the Company were
    autocratic.
  • Religious dissenters against Dutch Reformed
    Church including Quakers were persecuted.
  • Local assembly with limited power to make laws
    established after repeated protests by colonists.

54
New Amsterdam, 1660
  • Characteristics of New Amsterdam
  • Aristocratic ? patroonships feudal estates
    granted to promoters who would settle 50 people
    on them.
  • Cosmopolitan ? diverse population with many
    different languages.

55
New York Manors Land GrantsPatroonshipssimila
r to the fedual system
56
New NetherlandNew Sweden
57
Swedes in New Netherlands
  • Mid-1600s ? Sweden in Golden Age settled small,
    under-funded colony called New Sweden near
    New Netherland.
  • 1655 ? Dutch under director-general Peter
    Stuyvesant attack New Sweden.
  • Main fort fell after bloodless siege.
  • New Sweden absorbed into New Netherland.

58
Dutch Residue in New York
Early 20c Dutch Revival Building in NYC.
New York Cityseal.
  • Names ? Harlem, Brooklyn
  • Architecture ? gambrel roof
  • Customs ? Easter eggs, Santa Claus, waffles,
    bowling, sleighing, skating, kolf golf.

59
(No Transcript)
60
Dutch Conflicts
  • Dutch cruelties to Indians brought retaliatory
    massacres Dutch built wall (Wall Street)
  • Connecticut rejected Dutch settlers

61
Dutch in New York
An Angry Peter Stuyvesant
  • English immigration to New Netherland resulted in
    1/2 total population - English regarded Dutch as
    intruders
  • Charles II brazenly granted area to his brother
    (Duke of York)
  • English squadron comes, New Netherland leader,
    Peter Stuyvesant, governor of New York had no
    defense surrendered, renamed New York

Duke of York
62
Penn's Holy Experiment
  • Mid-1600s religious dissenters named Quakers
    arose in England
  • Hated by authorities because they refused to pay
    taxes to Church of England, refused to take
    oaths, refused military service

63
Urban Population Growth1650 - 1775
64
Penn's Holy Experiment
  • Penns family owed a large debt from the British
    Crown. Given a land grant in 1681. Pennsylvania
  • Penn governs the colony, unusual for a proprietor
  • Advertised in Europe, promising land freedoms
  • Frame of Government (guaranteed elected
    assembly), Charter of Liberties (freedom of
    worship, open immigration), fair treatment of
    Native Americans

65
Penn's Holy Experiment
Penn, more than any other individual founder or
colonist, proved to be the chosen vessel through
which the stream of demand for respect for
individual rights was to flow so richly into our
American reservoir of precious ideals.
That an example may be set up to the nations as
... a holy experiment.  William Penn
All men have a natural and infeasible right to
worship Almighty God according to the dictates of
their own consciences no man can of right be
compelled to attend, erect, or support any place
of worship, or to maintain any ministry against
his consent no human authority can, in any case
whatever, control or interfere with the rights of
conscience, and no preference shall ever be given
by law to any religious establishment or modes of
worship.  - William Penn, Declaration of Rights
66
Pennsylvania Neighbors
  • Penn bought land from
    Indians treatment of
    them so fair that Quakers
    went to them unarmed and even employed Indians as
    babysitters
  • However, as non-Quaker immigrants came, they were
    less tolerant of Indians (Scots-Irish)
  • Liberal features elected assembly, no
    tax-supported church, freedom of worship, only 2
    capital crimes

67
New Jersey
Lord John Berkeley
  • James gave 2 friends, Lord John Berkeley and Sir
    George Carteret, the section of New York located
    between the Hudson River and Delaware Bay in 1664
  • He felt the territory of New York was too large
    to administer
  • Both proprietors allowed religious freedom and an
    assembly in addition to giving generous land
    offers to attract settlers

68
Delaware
William Penn
  • Penn granted the lower 3 counties of Pennsylvania
    their own assembly
  • Governor was the same as Pennsylvanias until the
    American Revolution

69
  • Middle Colonies
  • River systems
  • Valleys fertile soil
  • ."bread basket" large farms - surplus food
  • diverse population
  • manufacturing
  • iron mines, glass, shipyards, and paper
  • Cities New York and Philadelphia
  • New York
  • Pennsylvania
  • New Jersey
  • Delaware

70
New York
71
Settling the Middle or Restoration Colonies
72
New Netherlands Becomes a British Royal Colony
  • Charles II granted New Netherlands land to his
    brother, the Duke of York, before he controlled
    the area!
  • 1664 ? English soldiers arrived.
  • Dutch had little ammunition and poor defenses.
  • Stuyvesant forced to surrender without firing a
    shot.
  • Renamed New York
  • England gained strategic harbor between her
    northern southern colonies.
  • England now controlled the Atlantic coast!

73
Duke of Yorks Original Charter
74
Pennsylvania
75
The Quakers
  • Called Quakers because they quaked during
    intense religious practices.
  • They offended religious secular leaders in
    England.
  • Refused to pay taxes to support the Church of
    England.
  • They met without paid clergy
  • Believed all were children of God? refused to
    treat the upper classes with deference.
  • Keep hats on.
  • Addressed them as commoners ? thees/thous.
  • Wouldnt take oaths.
  • Pacifists.

76
William Penn
  • Aristocratic Englishman.
  • 1660 attracted tothe Quaker faith.
  • Embraced Quakerismafter military service.
  • 1681 ? he received agrant from king toestablish
    a colony.
  • This settled a debt the king owed his father.
  • Named Pennsylvania Penns Woodland.
  • He sent out paid agents and advertised for
    settlers ? his pamphlets were pretty honest.
  • Liberal land policy attracted many immigrants.

77
Penn Native Americans
  • Bought didnt simply take land from Indians.
  • Quakers went among the Indians unarmed.
  • BUT.. non-Quaker Europeans flooded PA
  • Treated native peoples poorly.
  • This undermined the actions of the Quakers!

78
Government of Pennsylvania
  • Representative assembly elected by landowners.
  • No tax-supported church.
  • Freedom of worship guaranteed to all.
  • Forced to deny right to vote hold office to
    Catholics Jews by English govt.
  • Death penalty only for treason murder.
  • Compared to 200 capital crimes in England!

79
Pennsylvanian Society
  • Attracted many different people
  • Religious misfits from other colonies.
  • Many different ethnic groups.
  • No provision for military defense.
  • No restrictions on immigration.
  • No slavery!!
  • Blue Laws sumptuary laws ? against stage
    plays, cards, dice, excessive hilarity, etc.

A society that gave its citizens economic
opportunity, civil liberty, religious freedom!!
80
New Jersey
81
New Jersey PAs Neighbor
  • 1664 ? aristocratic proprietors rcvd. the area
    from the Duke of York.
  • Many New Englanders because of worn out soil
    moved to NJ.
  • 1674 ? West NJ sold to Quakers.
  • East NJ eventually acquired by Quakers.
  • 1702 ? E W NJ combined into NJ and created one
    colony.

82
Delaware
83
Delaware PAs Neighbor
  • Named after Lord De La Warr harsh military
    governor of VA in 1610.
  • Closely associated with Penns colony.
  • 1703 ? granted its own assembly.
  • Remained under the control of PA until the
    American Revolution.

84
MERCANTILE THEORY
Mercantilism is an economic policyWealth is
power, key to wealth is export more than
import European countries competed for world
power and needed colonies to provide necessary
raw materials. Colonies role provide raw
materials (so mother country does not have to
import from other nations) and markets for
exports Favorable balance of trade for England
85
MERCANTILE THEORY
  • European nations relied on strong central
    governments to enforce mercantile doctrines
  • Americans helped British maintain naval supremacy
    by providing wood for ships, ships stores,
    sailors, trade (enumerated commodities- goods
    that can only be traded to Britain)
  • Americans provide profitable market for English
    manufactured goods
  • Americans discouraged from buying these goods
    from other countries

86
MERCANTILE THEORY
  • Most famous of laws to enforce mercantilism were
    the Navigation Laws (1650)
  • Restricted trade to English vessels (no Dutch)
  • Additional laws Goods bound for colonies had to
    go to England first for duties
  • Colonists also not allowed to manufacture certain
    products to not compete with British

87
The Navigation Acts 1650
Was it reasonable for England to pass laws such
as these to control Colonial trade? It was
difficult for Great Britain to enforce these laws
because of the distance. Colonists broke the law
and smuggled and traded with other countries.
No country could trade with the colonies unless
the goods were shipped in either colonial or
English ships.
All vessels had to be operated by crews that were
at least three-quarters English or colonial
The colonies could export certain products only
to England
Almost all goods traded between the colonies and
Europe first had to pass through an English port.
88
MERCANTILE THEORY
  • Advantages of mercantilism
  • VA/MD tobacco farmers guaranteed monopoly on
    English market.
  • Rights of Englishmen, but some self-government,
    no taxes to support army/navy to protect them
  • Until 1763, Navigation Laws were not a burden
    because laxly enforced (salutary neglect)
  • Merchants disregarded or evaded restrictions,
    some got rich by smuggling (e.g. John Hancock)
  • Average American better off economically than
    average English

89
MERCANTILE THEORY
  • Disadvantages of mercantilism
  • Mercantilism stifled economic initiative due to
    lack of freedom
  • South favored due to Tobacco, sugar and rice
  • Parliament set up a Board of Trade with Admiralty
    Courts. Took away the right of trial by jury and
    were considered guilty until proven innocent.
  • Most important, mercantilism was insulting
    colonies felt they were being milked like cows,
    kept in economic adolescence
  • British failed to see an emerging nation

90
Trade
  • Enumerated Commodities
  • Lumber
  • Tobacco
  • Rice
  • Indigo
  • Furs
  • Sugar

To England
91
  • Manufactured Goods
  • Furniture
  • Clothing
  • Colonials hadnot factories.

From England to Colonies
92
Strange Sign
93
DOMINION OF NEW ENGLAND
  • Forced by King James II
  • NE Colonies, NJ NY
  • Goals
  • Restrict Colonial trade
  • Defend Colonies
  • Stop Colonial smuggling
  • Sir Edmund Andros
  • Gain control over Colonies
  • Eliminated town meetings, the press and schools
  • Taxed without the consent of the governed
  • Collapsed after Glorious Revolution

94
SALEM WITCH TRIALS
  • The Salem Witch Trials took place in Salem,
    Massachusetts from March to September 1693, was
    one of the most notorious episodes in early
    American history.
  • Based on the accusations of two young girls,
    Elizabeth Parris and Abigail Williams.
  • Under British law and Puritan society those who
    were accused of consorting with the devil were
    considered felons, having committed a crime
    against their government. The punishment was
    hanging.

95
SALEM WITCH TRIALS
  • Causes
  • disapproval of Reverend Parris
  • land disputes between families,
  • Indian taught witchcraft to girls.
  • Girls caught dancing, began to throw fits and
    accuse people of bewitching (To put under one's
    power by magic or cast a spell over) them to not
    get in trouble.
  • 19 hanged, 1 pressed, 55 confessed as witches and
    150 awaited trial.
  • Shows the strictness of Puritan society
  • Of the 50 who actually confessed, none were
    hanged.
  • Eventually ended by the Governor when his wife
    was accused

96
ZENGER TRIAL
Zenger decision was a landmark case which paved
the way for the eventual freedom of the
press. Zenger Case, 1734-5 New York newspaper
assailed corrupt local governor, charged with
libel, defended by Alexander Hamilton
97
ZENGER TRIAL
  • John Peter Zenger, a New York publisher charged
    with libel against the colonial governor
  • Zengers lawyer argues that what he wrote was
    true, so it cant be libel (defamation of
    character)
  • English law says it doesnt matter if its true
    or not
  • Jury acquits Zenger anyway
  • Not total freedom of the press, but newspapers
    now took greater risks in criticism of political
    figures.

98
Are they on a balconyor a patio?
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