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Europe in Transition


Title: PPT 5 Subject: Europe in Transition Author: Dr. Sanderson Last modified by: Dr Sanderson Created Date: 6/17/1995 11:31:02 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Europe in Transition

Europe in Transition
  • Economic growth was the basis for the Renaissance
  • Northern Italy (centrally located) benefited from
    the crusades and the spice trade
  • Renaissance started in Florence and follows the
    success of the Medici family
  • Florentine merchants gained control of the papal
  • 1397 Giovanni deMedici founded the Medici Bank
  • Even marriage vows were business arrangements
  • The popolo (poor class) hated their position and
    used force to take over the cities
  • The popolo could not retain power and were later
    replaced by despots or oligarchies
  • Northern Italian cities were communes
  • Despots showed their wealth by patronizing the
    arts - Medici

  • Individual had a loyalty to their own city-state
  • Five city-states dominated the peninsula Venice,
    Milan, Florence, the Papal State, and the kingdom
    of Naples
  • Cesare Borgia (Machiavellis hero and son of Pope
    Alexander VI) tried to unite the peninsula
  • Northern Europe was uniting - Italy remained
  • Signing and breaking alliances was common

  • Renaissance was characterized by self-conscious
    awareness that Italians were living in a new era
  • One of the founders of this movement was Petrarch
  • The Renaissance was the light after the gloom of
    the Dark Ages
  • The Roman Empire was the peak of human
  • Artists of the Renaissance had contempt for
    medieval predecessors
  • But most people lived exactly the same in the
    Renaissance period as the medieval period
  • A new individualism appeared -
  • A deep interest in Latin, a revival of the
    antique lifestyle, and a more secular spirit.

  • Humanism
  • The study of the classics became known as new
    learning or humanism
  • Cicero considered this important for anyone who
    considered himself civilized
  • Humanism emphasized
  • a) human beings
  • b) human achievements
  • c) human capabilities
  • Italian humanism became more of an interest to
    lay people

  • Italian Humanists
  • i) Deeply religious viewed the classics in a new
  • ii) Skeptical of the authority of the classics
    because of distance from the author
  • iii) Studied classics to understand human nature
  • iv) Very Christian - men and women were in Gods
  • v) Rejected classical ideas that opposed
    Christianity but sought a harmony between
    paganism, secularism, and Christianity.
  • vi) Loved the language of the classics

  • Secularism
  • Concerned with the material world not the eternal
  • Lorenzo Valla On Pleasure defended pleasure also
    wrote On the False Donation of Constantine which
    weakened the popes authority.
  • Boccaccio Decameron about a worldly society.
  • Papal interests actually encouraged worldliness

  • Politics and the State

  • More of a blend of old and new
  • Much more religious than in Italy
  • Studied Greek and Hebrew texts for a greater
    understanding of Christianity
  • Students from England, Holland, France, and
    Germany went to Italy for the new learning
  • Northern humanists interpreted Italian ideas in
    terms of their own traditions.
  • a) They were more religious
  • b) They stressed the Bible and early Christian
  • c) They developed an ethical way of life
  • d) Classical and Christian cultures should be
  • e) They had a profound faith in the human
  • f) People could be improved through education

Northern Humanists
  • In Germany
  • Western and southern Germany were economically
  • 14th century - mystics like Thomas a Kempis
    believed the human soul could communicate with
  • They did not rebel against the Church but wanted
    a deeper religion

  • In England
  • Thomas More was trained as a lawyer
  • Deeply interested in the classics
  • Entered government under Henry VIII
  • Wrote Utopia where all children receive a
    humanist education
  • More believed private property caused vices and
    civil disorder
  • Beheaded by Henry VIII for refusing to
    acknowledge the supremacy of Henry in the Church
    of England

  • Low Countries
  • Erasmus had a deep appreciation for the classics
  • Most well-respected man in Europe
  • Influenced by John Colet in England
  • Wrote The Education of a Christian Prince and The
    Praise of Folly
  • Criticized the abuses of the Catholic Church but
    advocate reform not separation
  • Initially very supportive of Luther but soon
    distanced himself from the Reformation
  • Two main themes
  • 1) Education is the means to reform
  • 2) The philosophy of Christ Christianity is an
    inner feeling

new monarchs
  • A new breed of leaders - preferred security to
  • They used the monarchy to guarantee law and order
  • The despots of Italy, Henry VII of England, Louis
    XI of France, Ferdinand of Aragon
  • All Machiavellian (but could not have read The
  • 1) invested kingship with strong authority and
    national purpose
  • 2) Monarchy linked all classes of society within
    a boundary
  • 3) Insisted on respect and loyalty
  • 4) Ruthless oppressed rebellions and opposition
  • 5) Loved the business of kingship
  • 6) Tended to rely on the middle-class - new

  • Charles VII revived the monarchy
  • i) expelled the English
  • ii) increased the influence of the middle class
  • iii) strengthened finances through taxes like
    salt (gabelle) and land (taille)
  • iv) created first permanent royal army
  • v) by the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges (1438)
    asserted French Church supremacy over the papacy
  • vi) crown could appoint bishops

  • His son, Louis XI (Valois) was a Renaissance
  • Promoted industryimproved the armysigned
    international treaties
  • The Estates General met only once during his
  • 1516 Francis I signed the Concordat of Bologna
    which rescinded the Pragmatic Sanction - king
    could appoint bishops (keeping France Catholic)

  • Decimated by the Black Death
  • The Tudors (1485-1603) won War of the Roses
  • They passed laws against nobles having standing
  • The monarch did not depend on government for
    money so much more independent
  • Royal Council (Star Chamber) was the center of
  • The Royal Council handled the kings business
    including arranging marriages.
  • Aristocratic threats were dealt with by the Star

  • Star Chamber used Roman Law and methods to
    enforce the law
  • a) accused people were not entitled to see the
    evidence against them
  • b) sessions were in secret
  • c) torture was often used
  • d) there were no juries
  • The Tudors promoted peace and order
  • Henry VII (1485) rebuilt the monarchy
  • Ruled through unpaid officials
  • a) he encouraged trade
  • b) built up the merchant fleet
  • c) crushed an invasion from Ireland
  • d) secured peace with Scotland (his daughter
    Margaret married the Scottish king)

  • Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon
    married (1469) and united the regions
  • They ruled through hermandades
  • Restructured the royal council - excluded the
    rich and powerful
  • The church was the linchpin of the reform.
  • Alliance with the Spanish pope Alexander VI
    Spanish monarchs gained great power and a
    national church

  • reconquista (1492) - expulsion of the Jews and
    Moors from Spainlasted over 100 years
  • Conversos- Jews that converted
  • Moriscos - Christians of Moorish background
  • Marranos - Christians of Jewish background
  • inquisition - the ruthless court that decided if
    conversos were telling the truth later used
    against the Protestants

  • Ferdinand and Isabella expelling all Jews from
    Spain had major economic consequences
  • Absolute religious orthodoxy and pure blood were
    the foundation of Spain
  • Ferdinand and Isabellas daughter Joanna married
    Philip. Their son was Charles V, the Holy Roman
  • Charles V - the Universal Monarch

  • Part of the Holy Roman Empire
  • Local lords recognized the supremacy of the
    Emperor, who was elected by 7 Electors
  • 1452 Archduke of Austria (Habsburg) was elected
    Emperor Maximilian I (1493-1519)
  • He married the heiress of the Duke of Burgundy
  • Their son, Philip married Mad Joanna, daughter of
    Ferdinand and Isabella
  • Their son was Charles V

  • The Prince - Machiavelli
  • For Machiavelli the test was a good government
    was an effective government.
  • Machiavellis work rests on two principles
  • 1) Permanent social order reflecting Gods will
    is impossible
  • 2) Politics should be considered a science.

  • Johann Gutenberg changed the course of history
    with the movable print. Printing made propaganda
    possible and forced people into groups i.e.
    church and state or Crown and nobility.
  • Printing stimulated literacy of lay people.

  • The status of upper-class women declined
  • women generally had less power than in the Middle
  • Renaissance humanism represented an educational
    advance for a small minority.
  • Women had to choose marriage or education
  • Education brought jealousy and envy
  • Girls in the upper-class were taught how to
    dance, paint, and play music - they were
  • Women belonged at home
  • Educational opportunities were severely
    limitedLiterary and art works had no effect on
    ordinary women
  • Women were a sign of wealth.

  • The Italian and Christian humanists denounced the
    corruption of the Church
  • a) clerical immorality
  • b) clerical ignorance
  • c) clerical pluralism
  • At the village level priests were not much better
    off than peasants
  • Government officials were often rewarded with
    clerical positions
  • Many priest had concubines, drunkenness,
    gambling, and elaborate dress were common
  • Many priests could barely read or write
  • Christian humanists condemned the ignorance of
    the Church
  • The Church held a large portion of European wealth

  • Popes were just as corrupt
  • Innocent VIII made the papal court the gossip of
  • Alexander VI publicly acknowledged his mistress
    and children
  • Julius II led an army against France
  • Europe was still deeply religious and many groups
    i.e. The Brethern of Common Life wanted reform
  • The Lateran Council did recommend changes - but
    there were many obstacles
  • Martin Luther would force the issue

  • Born in East Germany from peasant stock
  • Almost hit by lightning became religious
  • Entered the strict Augustinian monastery against
    his fathers wishes
  • Disillusioned with the Church questioned good
    works prayers, fasting, etc.
  • The Tower Experience read Apostle Pauls letter
    to the Romans
  • The just shall live by his faith if people had
    faith God will save them

  • Archbishop Albert of Magdeburg hired John Tetzel
    to oversee the collection of funds
  • Luther openly criticized the abuses of
  • October 31, 1517, he posted his 95 theses on the
    Castle Church in Wittenberg
  • Spread without Luthers knowledge.
  • Reasons for successa) Germany resented papal
    powerb) Distance from Romec) Lack of central
    authority to mediate the dispute

  • Pope Leo X did not take the threat seriously he
    thought Luther would disappear
  • The Augustinians championed reform and supported
    Luther, the Dominican attacked Luthers views.
  • Church opinion was espoused by Tetzel
  • Diet of Augsburg demanded that Luther recant.
  • Luther refused and even criticized the pope

  • The church wanted to banish Luther but he was
    protected by Frederick the Wise
  • Under increasing pressure Luthers views became
    more critical
  • Luther a) defended the radical martyr Husb)
    Proclaimed the Bible was the supreme authorityc)
    Appealed to the German nobles to stop the abuses
    of the churchd) Recognized good work but
    emphasized faith

  • The pope gave Luther 60 days to recant Luther
    burned the papal bull
  • Luther appealed to the Holy Roman Emperor to hear
    the argument at the Diet of Worms
  • Luther refused to modify his views and said Here
    I stand. I cannot do otherwise
  • Luther was abducted an placed in Wartburg Castle
    for his own protection
  • Philip Melanchthon implemented Luthers ideas

  • Luther was not a revolutionary
  • Knew the Church would not change
  • Concerned with issues of the soul
  • Equality of all people before God
  • Luther believed
  • salvation comes by faith alone
  • religious authority resides in the Bible and is
    open to interpretation
  • the church is a community of believers
  • all vocations are equal in the eyes of God
  • there are only 2 sacraments baptism and the
    Lords Supper
  • the importance of marriage
  • a womens place was in the home

  • Luther gained wide support among the peasants but
    they misunderstood him
  • Business people envied the church and disapproved
    of the clergys lifestyle
  • But Luther meant independence from the Roman
    Catholic Church not simply freedom
  • Still religion was a public matter
  • Very few believed in religious liberty
  • Humanists validated Luthers words
  • While Luthers translation of the Bible into
    German made it an issue of nationalism

  • In the Habsburg-Valois War, Catholic France
    supported Protestant Germany against Catholic
  • The Peace of Augsburg (1555) officially
    recognized Lutheranism and each prince could
    decide the religion of his territory
  • cuius regio eius religio
  • Northern Germany -ProtestantSouthern Germany -
  • The Protestant movement proved a disaster for

  • John Calvin was the person most responsible for
    the spread of Protestantism
  • About 20 years younger than Luther
  • Started in Geneva a theocracy
  • Absolute rule by Calvin and the Consistory
  • Institutes of Christian Religion
  • Did not believe in free will
  • Predestination
  • The Calling Protestant work ethic
  • Michael Servetus burnt at the stake
  • Spread to Scotland, France, England and America

The Kings Great Matter
  • English humanists had been wanting reform
  • 1509 Henry VIII became the king aged 18
  • Henry was strongly Catholic and had been trained
    as a priest
  • The pope gave him the title Defender of the Faith
  • Luther called him a lubberly ass
  • Was given special permission from Pope Julius II
    to marry Catherine of Aragon
  • Catherine had been his brothers wife

Catherine of Aragon
  • Daughter of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella
  • Catholic
  • She had five daughters, only Mary survived
  • Henry asked Pope Clement VII to grant a divorce
  • Charles V was Catherines nephew
  • Leviticus divorce not an option
  • Charles V was in Rome
  • Lutheranism
  • Papal infallibility
  • The matter took six years

  • Denied an annulment of marriage
  • Henry issued The Act in Restraint of Appeals
    (1533), which made the king supreme head of
  • The Act of Submission of the Clergy (1534),
    clergy must submit to the monarch
  • The Supremacy Act, (1534) made the king head of
    the Church of England
  • Separated Church of England from the Roman
    Catholic Church
  • Thomas More and John Fisher refused and were
  • Catherine still remained loyal to him and the
    Catholic faith
  • The king could now remarry

Anne Boleyn
  • Maid of honor to Catherine
  • 2nd wife and most famous wife
  • Bore him a daughter
  • Elizabeth I
  • In 1536, charged Anne of adultery
  • Beheaded on May 19, 1536

  • Henry dissolved the monasteries and kept the
  • Sold the land to his friends
  • The Pilgrimage of Grace proved the whole country
    was not willing to change

Edward VI
  • Only son of Henry
  • His mother died of child bed fever
  • Became king at nine
  • Had been tutored by Protestants
  • Died from several sicknesses in 1553

Mary Tudor
  • Became queen after Edward died
  • Devoted Catholic
  • Nicknamed Bloody Mary
  • Married her cousin Philip II of Spain
  • Very unpopular

Elizabeth of York
  • Became queen of England in 1558
  • Protestant, but tolerant
  • Elizabethan Settlement required conformity
  • Thirty Nine Articles became the basis of the
    Anglican Church

  • Did not follow the English model
  • Mary Queen of Scots allied with the French
  • Scottish nobles supported the Protestants and
    John Knox
  • Knox persuaded Parliament to end papal supremacy
    in Scotland
  • Established the Presbyterian Church of Scotland

The Catholic Reformation
  • Also, known as the Counter-Reformation
  • Began in 1517 in response to calls for reform
  • Didnt really have an affect until the 1540s
  • Catholic Church wanted to persuade dissidents to
    return to the church
  • The Lateran Council (1512) had told Julius II to
    reform the church
  • Adrian VI wanted reform but he was Dutch
  • Popes resisted reform because they feared a loss
    of power and revenue
  • Pope Paul III Council of Trent in 1545

  • The council met sporadically until 1563
  • Decideda) 7 sacramentsb) Bishops had to reside
    in their diocesesc) Suppressed pluralism and
    simonyd) Churches had to establish seminariese)
    The Index of Prohibited Books
  • Great emphasis was placed on discipline
  • The Council did not meet expectations but it did
    correct the church

  • New religious orders appeared, such as the
    Jesuits and the Ursuline nuns
  • These orders emphasized strict Catholic dogma to
    lift up the spiritual condition of the clergy and
  • The Jesuits (The Society of Jesus) was founded by
    Ignatius Loyola and emphasized education
  • The Ursuline order was only for women