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Proteins and Amino Acids: Function Follows Form

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Proteins and Amino Acids: Function Follows Form BIOL 103, Chapter 7-1 Today s Topics Why is Protein Important? Amino Acids are building blocks of proteins Functions ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Proteins and Amino Acids: Function Follows Form


1
Proteins and Amino AcidsFunction Follows Form
  • BIOL 103, Chapter 7-1

2
Todays Topics
  • Why is Protein Important?
  • Amino Acids are building blocks of proteins
  • Functions of Body Proteins
  • Protein Digestion and Absorption
  • Proteins in the Body

3
Why is Protein Important?
  • A part of every cell
  • Needed in thousands of chemical reactions
  • Keep us together structurally
  • In short, proteins have many, many functions from
    replacing skin cells, producing antibodies to
    assisting in nutrient transport and muscle
    contractions.

4
Food Sources of Proteins
  • Beef
  • Chicken
  • Fish
  • Milk
  • Plant foods beans, peas, grains, nuts, seeds,
    and vegetables (garlic, green peas, mushrooms)

5
Amino Acids are Building Blocks of Proteins
  • Proteins are sequences of amino acids
  • There are _____ amino acids
  • _______________________ (9)
  • _______________________ (11)
  • _______________________ (6)
  • Amino acids that are normally dispensable, but
    become indispensable under certain circumstances
    such as during critical illness.
  • Table 7.1 List of Amino Acids

6
Amino Acids Identified by Side Chains
  • Identified by side chains
  • Made up of _____________________________
  • _____________ gives AA its identity

7
Protein structure unique 3D shapes and functions
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Amino acids are linked by ______________
  • Dipeptide ____ amino acids
  • Oligopeptide _____amino acids
  • Polypeptide _____ amino acids
  • Protein ___________________________________
  • Protein shape
  • A sequence of AA determines protein _____________
  • Shape of protein determines its
    __________________

8
Protein Denaturalization Destabilizing a
Proteins Shape
  • There are factors that can cause a protein to
    unfold and lose shape (denature)
  • Changes in Acidic or Alkalinity in environment
  • _____________________
  • Alcohol
  • _____________________
  • Denatured proteins lose _____ ____________________
    _____
  • e.g. egg protein, avidin

9
Functions of Body Protein
  • ___________________________________
  • _______________ fibrous protein found in bones,
    teeth, connective tissue, blood vessel structure.
  • _______________ water-soluble fibrous proteins
    found in hair, nails, and outer layer of skin.
  • _______________ proteins that use energy and
    convert it to mechanical work (e.g. muscle
    contraction, cell division, sperm movement)
  • ___________________________________
  • _______________ infection-fighting protein
    molecules that tag, neutralize, and help destroy
    bacteria/viruses or toxins.

10
Functions of Body Proteins
  • ________________
  • Catalyze (speed up) chemical reactions
  • ________________
  • chemical messengers
  • Regulate ______________
  • ________________
  • Proteins as _____________________ by picking up
    H or donate H
  • Too acidic/low pH Acidosis
  • Too basic/high pH Alkalosis

11
Functions of Body Proteins
  • _____________________
  • ____________________ (e.g. active transport)
  • ____________________ (e.g. lipoproteins)
  • ____________________________
  • Fluids inside (intracellular), between
    (interstital), and outside (intravascular) of
    body cells must be balanced.
  • If diet lacks proteins ?___________________
    ____________________? _______________

12
Functions of Body Proteins
  • __________________________________
  • Although your body prefers using fat and
    carbohydrates, if necessary, your body will break
    down protein ? ___________________
  • Protein can be broken down for energy
    ________________________________
  • Removes nitrogen from amino acids so that only
    carbon skeleton is left.

13
Protein Digestion
  • Protein digestion
  • Cells produce proteases (protein-digesting
    enzymes) as proenzymes (inactive forms of
    enzymes)
  • In the stomach
  • Proteins are denatured by ____________
  • Pepsin begins digestion _____________ of
    proteins
  • Which one is a protease? A proenzyme?

14
Protein Digestion and Absorption
  • In the small intestine
  • ____________ (from pancreas) break down remaining
    proteins ? _______________
  • ________________ break down small peptides ?
    _________________________
  • Amino acids are then absorbed into your
    _________________ ? travel via portal vein to
    ___________________ ? released to
    _____________________

15
Undigested Proteins
  • If not digested, continues down the GI tract ?
    _________________
  • Diseases of the intestinal tract cause problems
    with digestion/absorption of proteins
  • Celiac disease _________________________
  • Cystic fibrosis ______________ prevents
    digestive enzymes (e.g. proteases) from reaching
    small intestine ? __________________ ? nutrients
    are not absorbed ? malnutrition

16
Proteins in the Body
  • Protein Synthesis
  • Draws on AA pool as needed. If your body is
    missing
  • Non-essential AA
  • Essential AA

17
Proteins in the Body
  • Amino Acid Pool and Protein Turnover
  • Cells in your body constantly build and breakdown
    proteins ? ______________________________
  • ____________________ because we are always
    recycling our proteins, we need so little protein
    in our diet!
  • When cells make proteins, they use amino acids
    from ______________________ available amino
    acids in body tissues and fluids that can be used
    to make new proteins.

18
Proteins in the Body
  • Synthesis of nonprotein molecules
  • Proteins are precursors of ___________________
    ______________
  • Protein and Nitrogen Excretion
  • Breakdown of amino acids by removing ________ _
    ________________
  • Amino groups converted to ___________
  • Urea water _________ ? excretion (in kidney)

19
Nitrogen Balance
  • We can evaluate our nitrogen balance to evaluate
    what is happening in our body
  • Nitrogen intake vs. nitrogen output
  • Nitrogen equilibrium
  • Nitrogen intake _____ nitrogen output
  • ______________________________________
  • Positive nitrogen balance
  • Nitrogen intake _____ Nitrogen output
  • ______________________________________
  • Negative nitrogen balance
  • Nitrogen intake _____ Nitrogen output
  • ______________________________________
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