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NURS 308: Foundations of Professional Nursing II


NURS 308: Foundations of Professional Nursing II Builds on NURS 301 and NURS 307 Application of skills acquired in NURS 301 (information literacy) and NURS 307 (use ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: NURS 308: Foundations of Professional Nursing II

NURS 308 Foundations of Professional Nursing II
  • Builds on NURS 301 and NURS 307
  • Application of skills acquired in NURS 301
    (information literacy) and NURS 307 (use of
    research and scholarly writing)
  • Addresses standards of practice and performance
    and encourages you to examine your implementation
    of these standards
  • Focuses on working in complex organizations in
    which change is the only certainty
  • Moves you along in your personal

What helped you decide to come back to school?
  • Making changes are often precipitated by life
    events that are stressful, pose a conflict,
    represent a dilemma
  • Confronting the situation is a deliberate choice
  • Why did you decide to come back to school ??
  • Think about this
  • Write down the reasons
  • These are your personal motivators

Beginning RN-BS education
  • Last semester, you took your first step in a
    professional transformation
  • The journey continues.
  • Restructuring process
  • An evolutionary process whereby you begin to see
    the world in a new way
  • A consciousness-raising that enhances your
    thinking processes
  • A new self-definition.a new person emerges

During the transformation
  • Begin to define ourselves differently
  • Views and perspectives change
  • We become more open to sharing these views and
    perspectives with others (who may or may not
    agree with us)

Consequences of the transformation
  • Feelings of excitement
  • Satisfaction
  • Commitment to the new self while grieving about
    loss of the old self
  • You will learn that there is no final
    destinationyour vision of the future will
    constantly change
  • You will be different when you complete this
    programand your personal journey will continue.

Professions, Professionalism,
Professional Nursing.
  • How do we measure up?

Definition of a profession
  • an occupation whose incumbents create and
    explicitly utilize systematically accumulated
    general knowledge in solution of problems posed
    by clients, either individuals or groups (Moore,
  • What do you think about when you read the words
    create and utilize knowledge?

Characteristics of a profession Historical
  • An intellectual process carrying with it great
    personal responsibility
  • It can be learned because it is based on a body
    of knowledge
  • Practical techniques can be taught
  • Internally strong
  • Motivated by altruism

Flexner, 1915
Characteristics of a profession Historical
  • Utilizes in its practice a well-defined and
    well-organized body of knowledge which is on the
    intellectual level of higher learning
  • Constantly enlarges the body of knowledge it uses
    and improves its techniques of education and
    service by use of scientific method
  • Entrusts the education of its practitioners to
    institutions of higher education

Bixler Bixler, 1959
Characteristics of a profession Historical
perspectives (Bixler Bixler, 1959 contd.)
  • Applies its body of knowledge in practical
    services that are vital to human social welfare
  • Functions autonomously in the formulation of
    professional policy and the control of
    professional activity
  • Attracts individuals of intellectual and personal
    qualities who value service above personal gain
    and who recognize their chosen occupation as a
    lifes work
  • Strives to compensate its practitioners by
    providing freedom of action, opportunity for
    professional growth, and economic security

What is professionalism?
  • a dynamic process whereby many occupations can be
    observed to change certain crucial
    characteristics (Vollmer Mills, 1966)
  • This change begins with individualsthat personal
    transformation you are experiencingand evolves
    to encompass all (most) who practice in a given

How does nursing measure up?
  • The first training schools were established in
    the US in the 1860s (proliferated2300 by 1920)
  • American Society of Superintendents of Training
    Schools for Nurses established in 1894renamed
    the National League of Nursing Education in 1912
  • First baccalaureate program established in 1909
    at the University of Minnesota
  • First licensure laws (North Carolina, New Jersey,
    New York, Virginia) passed in 1903 in order to
    safeguard the public. By 1910, 27 states had
    licensure laws
  • The Nurses Associated Alumnae of the US and
    Canada (est. 1896) became the American Nurses
    Association organized in 1912

How does nursing measure up?
  • First doctoral program in nursing (EdD) was
    initiated in 1930 at Columbia Teachers College
    NYU initiated the first PhD program in 1934
    University of Pittsburgh opened the first
    clinical nursing research program (PhD) in 1954
  • Associate degree programs initiated in 1952 and
  • Major impact was to reduce the shortage of nurses
    in the 1970s and 80s
  • 1970 saw a major increase in the of nursing
    doctoral programs
  • Expanded the body of nursing knowledge
  • Code of Ethics (ANA, 1985)

Barriers to full professionalism
  • Within the profession
  • Entry into practice
  • Body of knowledge and the application of this
    knowledge in practice
  • Outside the profession
  • Legal status of nurses functioning in the
    expanded role
  • Lack of autonomy
  • Entry into practice

Overcoming the barriers
  • Research
  • Develop and expand the body of nursing knowledge
  • Apply knowledge in practice
  • Education
  • BS as the entry level into professional nursing
  • Support for advanced education in nursing
  • Legislation
  • Protect against threats to our privilege to
  • Distribution of the work force
  • Continue to expand into the community to make
    nursing more visible
  • entrepreneurship

Professional Nursing Practice
  • Nursings Social Policy Statement (ANA, 2003 p.
    69) identifies 4 essential features of
    contemporary professional nursing practice in the
    definition of nursing stating that nursing is
    defined as the diagnosis and treatment of human
    responses to actual or potential health problems
  • Attention to the full range of human responses to
    health illness without restriction to a
    problem-focused orientation
  • Integration of objective data with an
    understanding of the subjective experiences of
    the patient
  • Application of scientific knowledge to the
    process of diagnosis and treatment
  • Provision of a caring relationship that
    facilitates health healing

Nursings Social Policy Statement
  • Social contract between society and professional
  • Nursing uses this document as a framework for
    understanding nursings relationship with society
    and its obligation to those who receive
    professional nursing care
  • Includes a definition of professional nursing,
    descriptions of nursing and its knowledge base,
    scope of professional nursing practice, and the
    methods by which the profession is regulated
  • Be familiar with this frameworkit provides a
    foundation for our practice

Nursings Social Policy Statement
  • On p. 3 of the Social Policy Statement, the
    values and assumptions undergirding the social
    contract between nursing and society are
    delineated. They include
  • Humans manifest an essential unity of mind, body,
    and spirit
  • Human experience is contextually and culturally
  • Health illness are human experiences. The
    presence of illness does not preclude health not
    does optimal health preclude illness
  • The relationship between nurse and patient
    involves participation of both in processes of
  • The interaction between nurse and patient occurs
    within the context of the values and beliefs of
    the patient and nurse
  • Public policy and the healthcare delivery system
    influence the health and well-being of society
    professional nursing
  • Think about how your values as a professional are
    (or are not) influenced by these values. Think
    about how your behaviors are influences by them.

Nursings core values
  • Are communicated through the Code for Nurses
    (ANA, 2001, 2008)
  • Ethical principles
  • Distributive justice
  • Truth-telling (Veracity)
  • Autonomy (patients professionals)
  • Privacy, Confidentiality, Informed Consent
  • Fidelity (loyalty)
  • Beneficence
  • Non-maleficence
  • Concepts of interpersonal relationships

Code of Ethics for Nurses
  • Naturally evolved and developed in accordance
    with the changing social context of nursing, and
    with the progress and aspirations of the
  • Central ethical values, duties, and commitments
    of nursing have remained stable
  • The Code of Ethics is the public expression of
    those values, duties and commitments

Our first Code of Ethics
  • The first Code of Ethics for Nurses was the
    Nightingale Pledge (Grettner, 1910)
  • On p. xiii of the Guide to the Code for Nurses
    Interpretation and Application read the pledge.
    Think about how it defines our practice todayor
    does it??

The COMPASSES that direct our profession
  • The Code of Ethics for Nurses Nursings Social
    Policy Statement
  • The focus of Unit I
  • Define nursing and nursings social contract with
    recipients of professional nursing care and the
  • Built on our values as a profession
  • Standards of Professional Practice and
  • Reflect the values and priorities of the
  • Describe the responsibilities for which
    practitioners are accountable
  • Will be the focus of Unit II