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Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

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Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine At the beginning of embryonic development, stem cells undergo symmetric cell division. They divide symmetrically, where one cell ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine


1
Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine
2
Glow-in-the-dark dogs!
3
What is stem cell research?
  • Understand more about development, aging, disease
  • Experimental model systems
  • Prevent or treat diseases and injuries
  • Cell-based therapies
  • Pharmaceutical development
  • Includes testing and drug delivery

4
Trachea transplantationExample of adult stem
cell-based tissue regeneration
5
Outline of Presentation
  • Introduction to fertilization and embryonic
    development
  • What makes stem cells unique?
  • What do stem cells look like?
  • What are the different types of stem cells?
  • What are examples of stem cell research,
    therapies, and technologies?
  • How did they make those dogs?
  • Conclusion and future directions

6
Conception in a dish
Day 1
In the IVF procedure, sperm and eggs interact
in a dish leading to insemination. They literally
swim up to the egg and burrow toward the
nucleus. The first one to get there wins, and all
others are blocked out. Male fertility issue
Sometimes sperm cannot latch onto and penetrate
the egg. They may choose to have
Intra(within)-Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)
7
Intra-Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection
8
Intra-Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection
9
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15
At what point is this a fetus?
  • Days 7-14 Uterine implantation
  • Day 14 Three distinct layers begin to
    form (no more pluripotent stem cells)
  • Days 14-21 Beginning of future nervous system
  • Days 21-24 Beginning of future face, neck,
    mouth, and nose
  • Weeks 3-8 Beginning of organ formation
  • This picture is Week 5
  • Week 5-8 Now its called a fetus
  • (no consensus on a single timepoint)

16
Embryonic Development Zebrafish model
Keller et al. 2008
17
Outline of Presentation
  • Introduction to fertilization and embryonic
    development
  • What makes stem cells unique?
  • What do stem cells look like?
  • What are the different types of stem cells?
  • What are examples of stem cell research,
    therapies, and technologies?
  • Conclusion and future directions

18
Symmetric cell division
19
Asymmetric cell division
  1. Self-renews
  2. Differentiates

Progenitor cell
Stem cell
Stem cell
20
DIFFERENTIATION
DIFFERENTIATION
? SELF RENEWAL ?
21
Outline of Presentation
  • Introduction to fertilization and embryonic
    development
  • What makes stem cells unique?
  • What do stem cells look like?
  • What are the different types of stem cells?
  • What are examples of stem cell research,
    therapies, and technologies?
  • Conclusion and future directions

22
Embryonic stem cells in the dishWhat do
cultured ES cells look like?
23
Fluorescent imaging of embryonicstem cell
colonies.
24
Outline of Presentation
  • Introduction to fertilization and embryonic
    development
  • What makes stem cells unique?
  • What do stem cells look like?
  • What are the different types of stem cells?
  • What are examples of stem cell research,
    therapies, and technologies?
  • Conclusion and future directions

25
Pluripotent
Multi- potent
Fully mature
26
Stem cells in the adult brainAre they still
working for us now?
27
Stem cells in mature skeletal muscleIs there
power still in our stem cells?
28
Signals to Stem Cells
Little, et al. Chemical Reviews (2008).
29
How do cells know what to become?
  • All cells in a person share the same genotype
  • Yet eye cells differ from nose cells
  • Central dogma of biology

30
Induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) CellsGenetically
engineering new stem cells
Skin cells
iPS cells
31
Recreating Pluripotency
Image courtesy of Clontech
32
Induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) CellsGenetically
engineering new stem cells
Skin cells
iPS cells
33
Pros and Cons to iPS cell technology
  • Pros
  • Cells would be genetically identical to patient
    or donor of skin cells (no immune rejection!)
  • Do not need to use an embryo
  • Cons
  • Cells would still have genetic defects
  • One of the pluripotency genes is a cancer gene
  • Viruses might insert genes in places we dont
    want them (causing mutations)

34
Factors known to affect stem cells
  • Low stress levels
  • Regular exercise
  • Enriching experiences
  • Learning new information
  • Healthy diets rich in antioxidants
  • Avoid excessive drinking

Helping you help yourself
35
Outline of Presentation
  • Introduction to fertilization and embryonic
    development
  • What makes stem cells unique?
  • What do stem cells look like?
  • What are the different types of stem cells?
  • What are examples of stem cell research,
    therapies, and technologies?
  • Conclusion and future directions

36
Experimental model systemHeart muscle cells
beating in a petri dish!
Videos by the Exploratorium
37
Bone marrow transplantExample of adult stem
cell-based therapy
38
Spinal cord injuryExample of embryonic stem
cell-based therapy
  • Geron video http//www.geron.com/grnopc1clearance
    /

39
Stem cells for drug deliveryMore focused
delivery, fewer side affects
Day 0
Day 7
Day 14
NSCs injected (no tumor)
NSCs injected (tumor)
Shah et al. Dev Neurosci 2004
40
What are stem cell technologies?
  • Cloning technologies
  • Is human cloning a technology?
  • What is different about cloning embryonic stem
    cells?
  • Induced Pluripotent Stem cells
  • New ways to potentially avoid the use of embryos
  • Disease-specific stem cell lines created
  • The promise and potential pitfalls of this
    approach
  • When does research actually become technology?

41
Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT) Cloning of
embryonic stem cells
Udder cell
Egg cell
42
Types of Cloning
43
Outline of Presentation
  • Introduction to fertilization and embryonic
    development
  • What makes stem cells unique?
  • What do stem cells look like?
  • What are the different types of stem cells?
  • What are examples of stem cell research,
    therapies, and technologies?
  • Conclusion and future directions

44
Why do researchers want to use embryonic stem
cells along with other technologies?
  • Pluripotent
  • Expanded developmental potential allows them
  • to be used in ways that adult stem cells cannot
  • Can proliferate indefinitely in culture
  • Easier to obtain than adult stem cells

45
Science is discovering the unknown
  • Stem cell field is still in its infancy
  • Human embryonic stem cell research is a decade
    old, adult stem cell research has 30-year head
    start
  • Holds hope for curing or improving treatments for
  • 70 diseases
  • How can you help to shape the direction of this
    field?

46
Take our survey please!
Students  https//www.surveymonkey.com/s/stemcell
2010   Teacher  https//www.surveymonkey.com/s/s
temcellteach2010
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