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Studying the Progressive Era Through the Election of 1912

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Title: Studying the Progressive Era Through the Election of 1912


1
Studying the Progressive Era Through the Election
of 1912
  • The Election that shaped the course of the 20th
    Century

2
The Progressive Issues Immigration
Urbanization
  • Southern Eastern Europe
  • Italy, Russia, Austria-Hungary
  • 1901 1914 ? 13 Million
  • Ellis Island / Angel Island
  • Asian Mexican Immigrants
  • 1910 40 of NYs population foreign-born
  • Quest for Jobs ? freedom prosperity
  • Urban inequality ? 5th Avenue vs. tenements

3
Jacob Riis' How the Other Half Lives (1890)
4
Mulberry Street Bend, 1889
5
5-Cent Lodgings
6
Mens Lodgings
7
Womens Lodgings
8
Immigrant Family Lodgings
9
Dumbbell Tenement Plan
Tenement House Act of 1879, NYC
10
Italian Rag-Picker
11
Another Struggling Immigrant Family
12
The Other Side of the City 5th Avenue
13
The Other Side of the City Early Luxury
Apartments
14
The Other Side of the City The Dakota (1st
Luxury Apt. Complex in Manhattan)
15
  • The Other Side of the City William Vanderbilts
    5th Avenue Mansion

16
The Other Side of the City 5th Avenue Mansions
17
The Other Side of the City Cornelius
Vanderbilts Mansion
18
The Other Side of the City Cornelius
Vanderbilts Mansion
19
The Other Side of the City Cornelius
Vanderbilts Mansion
20
The Other Side of the City Charles Schwabs
Mansion
21
The Other Side of the City Charles Schwabs
Mansion
22
The Other Side of the City Carnegies Mansion
23
The Other Side ? New Jerseys Lambert Castle
24
Urban Growth 1870 - 1900
25
Vanderbilt Chateau 5th Ave. 52nd
26
Urban Conditions
  • Cramped living spaces / overcrowding
  • 2 Million in Manhattan 500k in lower east side
  • Tenements
  • No electricity
  • No indoor toilets
  • Horse Manure
  • 400,000 Horses
  • 24 pounds of manure per horse per day

27
Urban Political Corruption
  • Legislative lobbying
  • Political Machines / Tweed Ring (Tammany Hall)
  • Private welfare system
  • Patronage
  • Kickbacks
  • NYC Courthouse construction - 11 Million vs. 3
    Million
  • Robin Hood vs. Corrupt Thief

28
Thomas Nast
29
Healthcare Issues
  • Unclean meatpacking processes
  • Sales of rotten meat
  • Opium, Cocaine, alcohol in childrens
    medications.
  • No labeling
  • No inspection

30
(No Transcript)
31
Muckrakers
  • Journalists who expose the corruption of society,
    government, and business.
  • Upton Sinclair - The Jungle
  • Lincoln Steffens The Shame of the Cities
  • Ida Tarbell History of Standard Oil
  • Theodore Dreiser Sister Carrie

32
Steffens Shame of the Cities
  • But there is hope, not alone despair, in the
    commercialism of our politics. If our political
    leaders are to be always a lot of political
    merchants, they will supply any demand we may
    create. All we have to do is to establish a
    steady demand for good government. The bosses
    have us split up into parties. To him parties are
    nothing but means to his corrupt ends. He bolts
    his party, but we must not the bribe-giver
    changes his party, from one election to another,
    from one county to another, from one city to
    another, but the honest voter must not. Why?
    Because if the honest voter cared no more for his
    party than the politician and the grafter, then
    the honest vote would govern, and that would be
    badfor graft. It is idiotic, this devotion to a
    machine that is used to take our sovereignty from
    us. If we would leave parties to the politicians,
    and would vote not for the party, not even for
    men, but for the city, and the State, and the
    nation, we should rule parties, and cities, and
    States, and nation. If we would vote in mass on
    the more promising ticket, or, if the two are
    equally bad, would throw out the party that is
    in, and wait till the next election and then
    throw out the other party that is inthen, I say,
    the commercial politician would feel a demand for
    good government and he would supply it. That
    process would take a generation or more to
    complete, for the politicians now really do not
    know what good government is. But it has taken as
    long to develop bad government, and the
    politicians know what that is. If it would not
    go, they would offer something else, and, if
    the demand were steady, they, being so
    commercial, would deliver the goods.

33
Tarbell History of Standard Oil Co.
  • (about John D. Rockefeller)And he calls his great
    organization a benefaction, and points to his
    church-going and charities as proof of his
    righteousness. This is supreme wrong-doing
    cloaked by religion. There is but one name for it
    -- hypocrisy.
  • Rockefeller and his associates did not build the
    Standard Oil Co. in the board rooms of Wall
    Street banks. They fought their way to control by
    rebate and drawback, bribe and blackmail,
    espionage and price cutting, by ruthless ...
    efficiency of organization.

34
Dreiser - Sister Carrie
  • The pieces of leather came from the girl at the
    machine to her right, and were passed on to the
    girl at her left.  Carrie saw at once that an
    average speed was necessary or the work would
    pile up on her and all those below would be
    delayed.  She had no time to look about, and bent
    anxiously to her task.  The girls at her left and
    right realized her predicament and feelings, and,
    in a way, tried to aid her, as much as they
    dared, by working slower.
  •  The place smelled of the oil of the machines
    and the new leathera combination which, added to
    the stale odors of the building, was not
    pleasant, even in cold weather.  The floor,
    though regularly swept every evening, presented a
    littered surface.  Not the slightest provision
    had been made for the comfort of the employees,
    the idea being that something was gained by
    giving them as little and making the work as hard
    and unremunerative as possible.  What we know of
    foot-rests, swivel-back chairs, dining-rooms for
    the girls, clean aprons and curling irons
    supplied free, and a decent cloak room, were
    unthought of.  The washrooms were disagreeable,
    crude, if not foul places, and the whole
    atmosphere was sordid. ?

35
Social Moral Reform
  • WCTU
  • _at_ 1st ? Prohibition
  • Transforms into program of economic political
    reform
  • Louis Brandeis
  • Muller v. Oregon ? Labor protection for weaker
    women Positive Negative
  • Economic entitlement ? income, protection,
    compensation
  • Jane Addams ? Hull House (Chicago)
  • Immigrant poor
  • Urban problems
  • Suffrage
  • NAWSA (Susan B. Anthony / Carrie Chapman Catt
  • Vs. Child Female labor exploitation
  • Florence Kelley

36
State Local Reform
  • Governors ? Robert La Follette (Wisconsin)
  • Vs. RR Lumber Lobbyists corruption
  • Wisconsin Idea Primaries vs. political
    bosses, taxing corporate wealth, state reg. of RR
    utilities
  • Mayors ? Hazen Pingree (Detroit)
  • Battles big business (lower utility rates)
  • 8-hour work days
  • Paid vacations
  • Governors ? Hiram Johnson (San Francisco)
  • Child labor laws
  • Limits womens work hours
  • Public Utilities Act (RR Regulation)

37
Progressive Presidents
  • Energetic govt. needed
  • Poverty, economic insecurity, lack of
    industrial freedom
  • Goal ? social conditions of freedom
  • Jeffersonian ends with Hamiltonian mean
  • Government intervention

38
Progressive Presidents Roosevelt
  • 1901 - McKinleys assassinated
  • TR ? 42 youngest ever _at_ time
  • Elected 1904
  • Strenuous Life manly adventure
  • President as steward of public welfare
  • New Nationalism ? Big govt. for big business
  • Square Deal
  • Confront consolidation
  • Good vs. Bad Corps (Northern Securities Case)
  • Prosecutions under Sherman Anti-Trust Act
  • President as broker in labor disputes
  • 1902 Coal Strike
  • Pure Food Drug Act / Meat Inspection Act
  • Conservation ? National Parks

39
Progressive Presidents - Taft
  • TRs handpicked successor
  • 1908 Defeats Bryan
  • The scope of a modern govt. . . . Has been
    widened far beyond the principles laid down by
    the old laissez-faire school of political
    writers.
  • Aggressive anti-trust ? Standard Oil
  • Rule of Reason ? Big Business only bad if
    competition stifled
  • 16th Amendment Graduated income tax
  • Drifts toward Conservative Reps w/ Payne-Aldrich
    Tariff ? Reformers want greater reduction.

40
ConservationIssueTheBallinger-PinchotContro
versy
41
Split in the Republican Party
  • Tafts growing conservatism
  • Ballinger returns TRs wildlife lands to public
  • Pinchot vs. Ballingers business connections
  • Taft fires Pinchot, alienating Progressives
  • TR heads new Prog. Wing
  • Bull Moose Party

42
The Candidates
43
The Progressive Party Former President
Theodore Roosevelt
People should riseabove their sectarianinterests
to promote the general good.
44
Progressive Party Platform
  • Womens suffrage.
  • Graduated income tax.
  • Inheritance tax for the rich.
  • Lower tariffs.
  • Limits on campaign spending.
  • Currency reform.
  • Minimum wage laws.
  • Social insurance.
  • Abolition of child labor.
  • Workmens compensation.

NewNationalism
45
The Bull MoosePartyThe LatestArrivalat
thePolitical Zoo
46
The Republican Party President William H. Taft
47
Republican Party Platform
  • High import tariffs.
  • Put limitations on female and child labor.
  • Workmans Compensation Laws.
  • Against
  • Initiative (Petition by registered voters to
    force a vote on a statute)
  • Referendum (Vote by the entire electorate on a
    proposal)
  • Recall (Removing elected official through direct
    vote)
  • Against bad trusts.
  • Creation of a Federal Trade Commission.
  • Stay on the gold standard.
  • Conservation of natural resources because they
    are finite.

48
KeeptheWhistleBlowing
Taft was determined to defeat TR and preserve
the conservative heart of the Republican Party.
49
Come, Mr. President. You Cant Have the Stage
ALL of the Time!
50
The GOPAftertheCircus
TR ? The Republican Party must stand for the
rights of humanity, or else it must stand for
special privilege.
51
TheAnti-Third-TermPrinciple
52
The Socialist Party Eugene V. Debs
The issue is Socialism versus Capitalism. I am
for Socialism because I am for humanity.
53
The Working Class Candidates

Eugene V. Debs Emil Seigel for President
for Vice-President
54
Growth of the Socialist Vote
Year Socialist Party Socialist Labor Party Total
1888   2,068 2,068
1890   13,704 13,704
1892   21,512 21,512
1894   30,020 30,020
1896   36,275 36,274
1898   82,204 82,204
1900 96,931 33,405 130,336
1902 223,494 53,763 277,257
1904 408,230 33,546 441,776
1906 331,043 20,265 351,308
1908 424,488 14,021 438,509
1910 607,674 34,115 641,789
1912 901,873

55
Socialist Party Platform
  • Government ownership of railroads and utilities.
  • Guaranteed income tax.
  • No tariffs.
  • 8-hour work day.
  • Better housing.
  • Government inspection of factories.
  • Womens suffrage.

56
The Democratic Party Governor Woodrow Wilson
(NJ)
Could he rescue the Democratic Party from
Bryanism??
57
Democratic Party Platform
NewFreedom
  • Groundwork for modern democratic welfare state
  • Government control of the monopolies ?
    trusts in general were bad ? eliminate them!!
  • Tariff reduction.
  • vs. Big Govt.
  • Direct election of Senators.
  • Create a Department of Labor.
  • Strengthen the Sherman Anti-Trust Act.
  • Did NOT openly support womens suffrage

58
The ReformGovernorof NJIt TakesTimeto
Removethe Grime
59
WhichWaytoJump?
60
The Key Issues
61
UpAgainst theHurdles
62
As Big As a Balloon
Tariff Reform
63
The Unanswerable Argument for Suffrage
64
Never Again!
I don't think we ought to take as radical a step
as that without being certain that when we do it
it will meet the approval of all those or
substantially all of those in whose interest the
franchise is extended because if it does not meet
their views and they don't avail themselves of
the opportunity to exercise the influence which
that would give them, then we should be in a bad
way because we might lose a substantial
proportion of the votes of those that would be
for better things. Therefore I am willing to wait
until there shall be a substantial, not unanimous
but a substantial, call from that sex before the
suffrage is extended.
Taft Abandons Support for Womens Suffrage
65
TRWomensSuffrage The Militant Recruit
The Progressive Party, believing that no people
can justly claim to be a true democracy which
denies political rights on account of sex,
pledges itself to the task of securing equal
suffrage to men and women alike.
66
Woman Suffrage Before 1920
67
Songs of the Sunny South
68
Segregation
  • 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson
  • Invalidated Civil Rights Act of 1875 that
    outlawed racial segregation in public places.
  • LA RR upheld in wanting to maintain separate rail
    cars for blacks and whites.
  • Ct.s decision in favor of the RR
    institutionalizes the doctrine of separate but
    equal.
  • Separate but equal laws become Jim Crow laws,
    ALWAYS leading to INFERIORITY.
  • Ex ? In 1900 the South DID NOT HAVE a public high
    school for blacks.
  • Southern social code develops to restrict
    suppress blacks
  • Segregation was an oddity that depended on the
    community.

69
Lynching theRaceIssue
70
Trying to Catch the Colored Vote
Politicians reluctant to support anti-lynching
legislation for fear of alienating the Solid
South.
71
The Results
72
An Actual 1912 Ballot
73
Election Results
  • By 1912, 100,000 fewer people had voted for
    Wilson than had voted for Bryan in 1908.
  • The 1912 election marked the apogee of the
    Socialist movement in America.

74
GOP Divided by Bull MooseEquals Democratic
Victory!
75
TheGOP AnExtinctAnimal?
76
Wilsons Presidential Policies
  • Progressive despite partys history (laissez
    faire / states rights)
  • Restore competition to rescue democracy.
  • Different than TRs big govt. for big business
  • Collaboration w/ Congress ? Office SOU
  • Underwood Tariff Reduced import duties
  • Need Income ? Graduated income tax on richest 5
  • New Freedom
  • Anti-Trust
  • Protecting unionization
  • Encourage small business

77
Wilsons Presidential Policies
  • Clayton Act (1914) Unions exempt from
    anti-trust laws / bars injunctions
  • Keating-Owen Act (1916) Outlaws child labor
  • Adamson Act 8-hour workday on RRs.
  • Federal Trade Commission unfair business
    practices.
  • Federal Reserve System Regional banks w/
    central board
  • Issue currency aid failing banks
  • Reaction to Panic of 1907 ? JP Morgan

78
How did the election of 1912 change politics in
America for the rest of the 20c?
79
Progressive Imperialism
80
Progressivism and War
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