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Ford s administration was a continuation of Nixon s for the most part Election of 1976: Ford ran for the Republicans against GA Democrat, Jimmy Carter – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ford

  • Fords administration was a continuation of
    Nixons for the most part
  • Election of 1976 Ford ran for the Republicans
    against GA Democrat, Jimmy Carter
  • Carter won, pledging economy reform and running
    as an outsider to bring morality back to

  • Carter, although capable, did not end up having a
    very successful presidency due to international
  • Economic trouble continued same problems plus a
    fuel crisis caused problems
  • Fuel crisis had begun back in 1973 when OPEC
    placed an oil embargo on the U.S. for supporting
  • Under Carters administration, OPEC created
    another embargo and raised prices

  • Foreign policy
  • Camp David Accords Carter attempted to broker
    peace in the Middle East
  • Negotiated a peace agreement b/t Egypt and
    Israel, but tensions existed elsewhere
  • First time peace agreement had been signed by
    Middle Eastern nations

  • Iranian Hostage Crisis huge failure for Carter
  • Iran had a revolution overthrowing their shah
    with a Muslim fundamentalist, Ayatollah Khomeini
  • Shah had cancer and U.S. allowed him to get
    treatment in the U.S.
  • Angry Iranians invaded the U.S. embassy in Iran
    and took 52 hostages, demanded shah return to
    Iran for trial
  • U.S. did not comply but wanted hostages released
    tried negotiating w/Iran but did not work

  • Carter placed economic sanctions on Iran and got
    UN to condemn Iran
  • Tried a rescue mission, but that also failed
  • Hostages held over a year444 days, released when
    newly-elected Ronald Reagan took office

  • The Reagan Years1980s
  • Reagan, a Republican, won Election of 1980
    against weak incumbent, Jimmy Carter and put
    major tenets (ideas) of conservatism into
    practice while president
  • Morning in America restoring confidence in
    American public, getting away from weak image
  • Very strong politically, almost seemed
    unassailable, but did hit a few rough spots

  • Formation of (more)modern political ideologies
    occurred during Reagans presidency
  • Conservative Coalition composed of business
    leaders, middle class, disaffected Democrats (due
    to Dems. support of civil rights) and
    fundamentalist Christians (Moral Majority)
  • New Right groups of conservatives who typically
    supported single issues that reflected key
  • Focused on social issues anti-abortion,
    anti-ERA, anti-busing, anti-affirmative action

  • Reaganomics implemented conservative policies
    seeking limited powers for federal government
  • Used trickle-down(supply-side) economics
    principles that favored business through tax cuts
    to stimulate the economy
  • Deregulation cut back on federal regulation of
  • Most notable regulation was his cut to budget of
    the EPA

  • budget cuts, tax cuts, and increased defense
  • some cuts went to social programs, which ended up
    hurting low-income Americans, causing a
    recession, but consumer spending eventually
    stimulated the economy

  • foreign policy
  • given credit for ending the Cold Warpicked up
    where Nixon left off
  • funneled money into defense through Strategic
    Defense Initiative (SDI)Star Wars
  • Soviets wanted to keep up with U.S., kept
    diverting funds toward defense, which made it

  • Soviets also had a reform-minded leader, Mikhail
  • Policies of glasnost and perestroika allowed for
    free speech and economic reform
  • Showed democratic trend? eventually led to
    collapse of communist Soviet Union
  • Berlin Wall fell in 1989symbolic end of Cold War

  • Iran-Contra Scandal Reagans biggest
    failureinvolved in two illegal activities!
  • Iran and Iraq had been at war? U.S. official
    position was to support Iraq
  • Iran was key in helping releasing various U.S.
    hostages, so secretly backed Iran while
    publically supporting Iraq
  • U.S. sold weapons to Iran, then used funds from
    weapons sales to fund a revolution in Nicaragua
    fought by people called the Contras
  • Congressional investigation revealed that a
    secret government existed promoting government
    through secret and illegal means
  • Added more fuel to public opinion of corruption
    in politics

  • One of Reagans (and Bush, his successor) biggest
    triumphs as a conservative was shifting judicial
    politics to the right, which ended liberal
    control of the Court

  • George H.W. Bush, Reagans VP, continued Reagans
    conservative policies after winning Election of
  • During the campaign, Bush promised not to raise
    taxes (built on Reagans legacy) but had to raise
    them when the economy dipped into a recession?
    decreased his popularity

  • Foreign policy U.S. relationship with Iraq
    worsened when Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein invaded
    oil-rich Kuwait and then moved on toward Saudi
    Arabia, an important supplier of U.S. oil
  • U.S. carried out Operation Desert Storm to
    liberate Kuwait as a part of the Persian Gulf War
  • Successful Kuwait freed, but Hussein remained in
    power in Iraq

  • Due in part to recession, Bush did not do well in
    the 1992 Election and lost to Democrat Bill
  • Clinton focused on the economy but he took a
    moderate approach during campaign, appealed to
    both Dems. and Reps.
  • Domestic concerns
  • Economy reformed the welfare system achieved a
    balanced budget and used a surplus to pay U.S.
    debt? showed his moderation
  • Attempted healthcare reform led by wife, Hillary
    Clinton, but it was not well received

  • Foreign policy Clinton saw flourishing trade as
    essential to U.S. prosperity, supported North
    American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) which
    brought Mexico into free-trade zone with Canada
    and U.S.
  • Supporters claimed agreement would help economies
    of all involved
  • Opponents claimed American jobs would be lost to
    Mexicoprotested outside the World Trade
    Organization (WTO), which promotes and encourages
    economic development

  • Scandal Clinton faced impeachment from House of
    Rep. due to charges of improper use of funds and
    lying under oath about an improper relationship
    with a White House intern, Monica Lewinsky
  • Clinton denied the charges and the Senate
    acquitted him so he was not removed from office
  • Second president to be impeached but not
    convicted (Andrew Johnson was 1st)

  • After Clintons two terms, the nation had two new
    choices for president in the 2000 Election
  • Clintons VP, Al Gore, ran against George W.
    Bushmost controversial election of recent times
  • Election was close---Gore won the popular vote,
    but the race for electoral votes was too close
    to call

  • Controversy centered around Florida, which was a
    narrow victory for Bush, who won the state
  • Narrow margin of victory in Florida called for an
    automatic recount further manual recounts
  • Republicans wanted to stop the manual recounts,
    so brought case before the Supreme Court
  • Supreme Court voted 5-4 to stop manual recounts,
    which gave the victory to Bush
  • BUT, said their ruling could NOT influence public
    policy or similar situations in the future

  • George W. Bushs precedency was heavily
    influenced by foreign policy, which was touched
    off by the September 11th attacks
  • Began waging a war on terror abroad and
    tightening security at home with new executive
    department, Department of Homeland Security

  • Commenced bombings and invasion of Afghanistan
    (Operation Enduring Freedom), which was believed
    to harbor Osama bin Laden and his Al Qaeda
    terrorist network, who were connected with the
    September 11th attacks
  • war on terror was later extended to fighting in
    Iraq (Operation Iraqi Freedom), ultimately led to
    downfall of Saddam Hussein, who was believed to
    be in possession of weapons of mass destruction,
    but actually did not have any

  • domestic concerns passed education and economic
    reformsNo Child Left Behind and tax cuts
  • both policies caught controversy No Child Left
    Behind criticized for putting too much emphasis
    on assessment and tax cuts were criticized for
    benefitting the rich and not creating the jobs it