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Principles of Object-Oriented Software Development

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Title: Principles of Object-Oriented Software Development Author: Faculteit Wiskunde en Informatica Last modified by: Faculteit Wiskunde en Informatica – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Principles of Object-Oriented Software Development


1
Principles of Object-Oriented Software Development
  • Application Development

2
Application Development
Introduction The drawtool application
Guidelines for design From
specification to implementation Summary
Q/A Literature
3
Application Development
  • the drawtool applications
  • guidelines for design
  • from specification to implementation

Additional keywords and phrases hush framework,
interactive editors, law of Demeter, formal
specification in Z, abstract systems
4
The drawtool application
Subsections A simple drawing canvas in hush
The drawtool application
5
A simple drawing canvas in hush
The hush class hierarchy
6
Drawing canvas
7
public interface widget
widget
public String path() public void eval(String
cmd) public void pack(String s) public
void bind(handler h,String s) public void
bind(String p, handler h,String s) public
void configure(String cmd) public void
geometry(int x, int y) public void
xscroll(widget w) public void yscroll(widget
w) public widget self()
to define compound widgets public
void redirect(widget inner)
8
import hush.dv.api.event import
hush.dv.widgets.canvas class draw extends
canvas
draw go.java boolean dragging
public draw(String path) super(path)
dragging false bind(this)
public void press(event ev) dragging
true public void release(event ev)
dragging false public void motion(event
ev) if (dragging)
circle(ev.x(),ev.y(),2,"-fill black")

9
Drawing canvas
10
(No Transcript)
11
The drawtool application
12
A (partial) class diagram
13
Widget containment
path '.' '.'string path'.'string
14
An interaction diagram
15
import hush.dv.api. import
hush.dv.widgets.frame public class toolbox
extends frame
toolbox tablet tablet public
toolbox(widget w, tablet t)
super(w,"toolbox") tablet t new
toolbutton(this,"draw") new
toolbutton(this,"move") new
toolbutton(this,"box") new
toolbutton(this,"circle") new
toolbutton(this,"arrow") public int
operator() tablet.mode(_event.arg(1))
reset tablet
mode return OK
16
import hush.dv.api. import
hush.dv.widgets.button public class
toolbutton extends button
toolbutton public
toolbutton(widget w, String name)
super(w,name) text(name)
bind(w,name) pack("-side top -fill
both -expand 1")
17
import hush.dv.api.widget public class
menubar extends hush.dv.widgets.menubar


menubar public menubar(widget w, tablet
t, toolbox b) super(w,"bar")
configure("-relief sunken") new
FileMenu(this,t) new EditMenu(this,b)
new HelpButton(this)
18
Tablet
19
import hush.dv.api. import
hush.dv.widgets. public class tablet
extends canvas
tablet int _mode canvas
canvas handler handlers final int DRAW
0 final int MOVE 1 final int
CIRCLE 2 final int BOX 3 final int
ARROW 5
20
public tablet(widget w, String name, String
options) super(w,name,"")
handlers new handler12
init(options) redirect(canvas) //
to delegate to canvas bind(this) // to
intercept user actions
handlersDRAW new DrawHandler(canvas)
handlersMOVE new MoveHandler(canvas)
handlersBOX new BoxHandler(canvas)
handlersCIRCLE new CircleHandler(canvas)
handlersARROW new
ArrowHandler(canvas) _mode 0
// drawmode.draw
21
public int operator()
handlers_mode.dispatch(_event) return
OK public int mode(String s)
int m -1 if ("draw".equals(s)) m
DRAW if ("move".equals(s)) m MOVE
if ("box".equals(s)) m BOX
if ("circle".equals(s)) m CIRCLE if
("arrow".equals(s)) m ARROW if (m gt
0) _mode m return _mode
22
void init(String options) widget root
new frame(path(),"-class tablet")
canvas new canvas(root,"canvas",options)
canvas.configure("-relief sunken -background
white") canvas.geometry(200,100)
scrollbar scrollx new
Scrollbar(root,"scrollx")
scrollx.orient("horizontal")
scrollx.pack("-side bottom -fill x -expand 0")
scrollbar scrolly new Scrollbar(root,"scro
lly") scrolly.orient("vertical")
scrolly.pack("-side right -fill y -expand 0")
canvas.pack("-side top -fill both
-expand 1") canvas.xscroll(scrollx)
scrollx.xview(canvas) canvas.yscroll(scro
lly) scrolly.yview(canvas)
23
import hush.dv.api. import
hush.dv.widgets.frame import
hush.dv.widgets.canvas public class
drawtool extends canvas
drawtool widget root tablet
tablet public drawtool()
System.out.println("meta handler created")
public drawtool(String p, String options)
super(p,"") // create
empty tablet init(options)
24
public int operator()
System.out.println("Calling drawtool"
_event.args(0) ) String argv
_event.argv() if ("self".equals(argv1))
tk.result(self().path()) else if
("drawtool".equals(argv0))
create(argv1,_event.args(2)) else if
("path".equals(argv1)) tk.result(path())
else if ("pack".equals(argv1))
pack(_event.args(2)) else self().eval(
_event.args(1) ) // send through return
OK void create(String name,
String options) drawtool m new
drawtool(name,options)
25
void init(String options) root new
frame(path(),"-class Meta") frame frame
new frame(root,"frame") tablet
new tablet(frame,"tablet",options)
toolbox toolbox new toolbox(frame,tablet)
menubar menubar new menubar(root,tablet,toolb
ox) toolbox.pack("-side left -fill y
-expand 0") tablet.pack("-side left
-fill both -expand 1")
menubar.pack() frame.pack("-expand 1
-fill both") redirect( tablet ) //
the widget of interest
26
Canvas c new DrawTool("draw","")
tk.bind("drawtool",c)
c.circle(20,20,20,"-fill red")
c.rectangle(30,30,70,70,"-fill blue")
c.pack()
The drawtool application
27
Guidelines for design
Subsections Individual class design
Establishing invariants An objective sense
of style
28
Development process
cognitive factors
  • model -gt realize -gt refine

29
Design criteria
natural, flexible, reusable
  • abstraction -- types
  • modularity -- strong cohesion (class)
  • structure -- subtyping
  • information hiding -- narrow interfaces
  • complexity -- weak coupling

30
Individual class design

31
Class design
guidelines
  • only methods public -- information hiding
  • do not expose implementation details
  • public members available to all classes -- strong
    cohesion
  • as few dependencies as possible -- weak coupling
  • explicit information passing
  • root class should be abstract model --
    abstraction

32
Inheritance and invariance

33
Invariant properties -- algebraic laws
class employee
employee
public employee( int n 0 ) sal(n)
employee salary(int n) sal n return this
virtual long salary() return sal
protected int sal Invariant k
(e-gtsalary(k))-gtsalary()
34
Problem -- hidden bonus class manager public
employee
manager public long salary() return
sal 1000 Invariant k ?
(m-gtsalary(k))-gtsalary()
Violating the invariant
35
Solution -- explicit bonus class manager
public employee
manager' public manager
bonus(int n) sal n return this
Invariant -- restored k n
((m-gtsalary(k))-gtbonus(n))-gtsalary()
Restoring the invariant
36
An objective sense of style

37
Good Object-Oriented Design organize and
reduce dependencies between classes Client --
A method m is a client of C if m calls a method
of C Supplier -- If m is a client of C then C
is a supplier of m Acquaintance -- C is an
acquaintance of m if C is a supplier of m but not
(the type of) an argument of m or (of) an
instance variable of the object of m C is a
preferred acquaintance of m if an object of C is
created in m or C is the type of a global
variable C is a preferred supplier of m if C
is a supplier and C is (the type of) an instance
variable, an argument or a preferred acquaintance
38
Law of Demeter
  • ignorance is bliss

Do not refer to a class C in a method m unless C
is (the type of) 1. an instance variable
2. an argument of m 3. an object created in
m 4. a global variable
Minimize the number of acquaintances!
39
From specification to implementation
Subsections Structure versus behavior
Model-based specification Abstract systems
40
Structural versus behavioralencapsulation
Semantic modeling -- constructing types
aggregation,
grouping by association
41
Object-oriented modeling
  • is-a -- inheritance
  • has-a, uses -- delegation
  • uses -- templates

42
Model-based specification

43
State and operations
Change and invariance
Verification
Model-based specification
44
State
The specification of a Counter in Z
45
Z
Counter
Bounded counter
46
The specification of a Library
State
47
Operations
48
Abstract systems and events
Abstract systems -- design methodology
abstract system abstract data types
protocol Events -- high level glue
realization of the interaction protocol
49
Exemplary interface
library
p new person() b new book() p
b-gtborrower s p-gtbooks tf
b-gtinlibrary() b-gtborrow(p)
p-gtallocate(b) p-gtdeallocate(b)
b-gt_return(p)
For person p book b setltbookgt s bool tf
50
class book

book public person borrower book()
void borrow( person p ) borrower p
void _return( person p ) borrower 0
bool inlibrary() return !borrower
class person

person public person() books new
set() void allocate( book b )
books-gtinsert(b) void deallocate( book b )
books-gtremove(b) set books
51
book Stroustrup new book()
example book
ChandyMisra new book() book Smalltalk80
new book() person Hans new person()
person Cees new person()
Stroustrup-gtborrow(Hans) Hans-gtallocate(Stroust
rup) ChandyMisra-gtborrow(Cees)
Cees-gtallocate(ChandyMisra) Smalltalk80-gtborrow
(Cees) Cees-gtallocate(Smalltalk80)
52
class Event
Event
public virtual void operator()() 0

53
class Borrow public Event
Borrow
public Borrow( person _p, book _b ) _b
b _p p void operator()()
require( _b _p )

_b and _p exist _b-gtborrow(p)
_p-gtallocate(b) private person
_p book _b
54
Summary
55
The drawtool application
1
  • drawing canvas -- in hush
  • drawtool -- compound widgets

56
Guidelines for design
2
  • individual class design
  • establishing invariants
  • an objective sense of style

57
From specification toimplementation
3
  • structure versus behavior
  • model-based specification
  • abstract systems

58
Questions
1. Give an example of your choice to describe OO
application development. 2. Discuss possible
guidelines for individual class design. 3.
Discuss how inheritance may affect class
invariants. 4. What would be your rendering of
the Law of Demeter? Can you phrase its underlying
intuition? Explain. 5. Define the notions of
client, supplier and acquaintance. What
restrictions must be satisfied to speak of a
preferred acquaintance and a preferred supplier?
6. Characterize the differences between semantic
modeling and object-oriented modeling. 7. How
would you characterize the notion of abstract
systems? 8. Explain how events may be employed
to maintain system integrity. Give an example!
59
Further reading
The original paper on hush is HUSH. A veritable
catalogue of object-oriented applications can be
found in Harmon93. A classical paper on class
design is JF88. For the Law of Demeter,
consult LH89. The notion of abstract systems
was introduced in Henderson93, which also gives
a good account of a formal approach to
object-oriented design. For an introduction to
formal methods and Z, consult Diller94. For
object-oriented extensions of Z, see Stepney.
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