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LEAN principai LEAN diegimas paslaugu sektoriuje AB LESTO Veiklos meistri

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Title: LEAN principai LEAN diegimas paslaugu sektoriuje AB LESTO Veiklos meistri


1
LEAN principai LEAN diegimas paslaugu
sektoriujeAB LESTOVeiklos meistriškumo programa
2
Toyota gamybos sistema (TGS)
Geriausia kokybe Mažiausi kaštai
Trumpiausias tiekimo laikas Didžiausias
saugumas Aukšta vidine kultura
  • Just-In-Time
  • Right part, right amount, right time
  • Takt time
  • Continuous flow
  • Pull system
  • Quick changeover
  • Integrated logistics

Highly MotivatedPeople
  • Jidoka
  • (Built-in-Quality)
  • Automatic stops
  • Andon (signals)
  • Person-machine separation
  • Error proofing
  • In-station quality control
  • 5 Whys

Operational Stability Leveled Production Standardi
zed Work Visual Management Total Productive
Maintenance (TPM) Kaizen
3
Toyota Production System
Toyota Production System (TPS) framework
Toyota have been developing their production
system since 1948 and are recognized as global
best practice. It strives for the absolute
elimination of waste, overburden and unevenness
to allow smooth and efficient work
Cost reduction throughflexible manning
Standardized work
Common work methods to ensure safety and quality

Jidoka
The principle of stopping a process immediately
an abnormality occurs

J.I.T
Jidoka
J.I.T
Linking production rate to customer demand

Flexible manning
Maintaining productivity despite demand
fluctuations

Standardized work
  • TPS has three desired outcomes
  • To provide customers with the highest quality
    products, at lowest possible cost, in a timely
    manner with the shortest possible lead time
  • To provide workers with job satisfaction,
    security and fair treatment
  • To give the company flexibility to respond to the
    market, achieve profit through cost reduction
    activities and long-term prosperity

4
Pagrindiniai lean principai
Verte Produktai ir paslaugos atitinka klientu poreikius už kliento mokama kaina, skiriama laika, norimus kiekius ir kokybe. Procese verte yra tik tai už ka klientas yra pasiruošes moketi. Siekis yra vienu metu pasiekti visus tikslus (pvz. žema kaina, reikiama produkto specifikacija, geriausia rinkoje kokybe ir greitas tiekimas)
Vertes grandine Veiksmai reikalingi atlikti tam tikra funkcija/produkta Informacijos valdymo užduotis (užsakymo gavimas ? Suplanuotas pateikimas ) Gamyba (žaliava ? pagamintas produktas/suteikta paslauga) Siekis yra identifikuoti ir iš veiksmu sekos pašalinti vertes nekuriancius žingsnius (pvz. klaidu taisymas)
Srautas Veiksmai procese nesustoja laukdami sekancio žingsnio Siekis yra vykdyti masine gamyba gaminant mažais kiekiais-vienetais (pvz. nera dideliais mastais sandeliuojamos žaliavos /dokumentacija, greitas persiorientavimas nuo vienos veiklso prie kitos)
Traukti (ne stumti) Vienintele priežastis (trigger) produkto gamyboje (gamybos žingsnyje) / paslaugoje yra pateiktas poreikis iš sekancio žingsnio gamybos sekoje Siekis yra negaminti produktu/ neteikti paslaugu kurios esamu momentu yra nereikalingos (pvz. Prekes yra parduodamos su didelemis nuolaidomis del to, kad yra per daug prigaminta, kai tuo paciu metu kitos reikalingos prekes negalima gauti)
Tobulumas Greiciausiai niekada netapsime 100 efektyviais (100 lean) bet turime siekti nuolatos gerinti ir efektyvinti savo darbo buda ir mastyma Siekis yra itraukti visus - nuo generalinio vadovo iki kiekvieno darbuotojo
5
What is Lean? Modern definition
Lean is about reaching operational excellence
  • It is a customer focused approach which
    eradicates operational business problems
  • It ensures that customers receive their required
    level of quality, price and delivery whilst
    maximizing an organization's competitive
    advantage and shareholder value

6
The history of Lean and Toyota Production System
(TPS)
1903
1929
1939-45
1911
1913
1948-75
1933
The first assembly line
Kiichiro Toyoda visits the factory
World War 2
Henry Ford sells his first car
Kiichiro Toyoda starts Toyota Motor Corporation
Frederick Taylor develops Scientific Management
Taiichi Ohno father of the Toyota Production
System
6
7
Kodel ir kaip išsivyste LEAN metodai?
1913 Ford sukure konvejerine gamyba
1950 Taiichi Ohno pradeda vystyti Toyota gamybos
sistema
Ranku darbo gamybos era
Masines gamybos era
Efektyvios (Lean) gamybos era
Vietiniai amatininkai, valstieciai, pirkliai
  • TGS leidžia pasiekti masines gamybos efektyvumo,
    šalinant vertes nekuriancius darbus, gaminant
    mažomis serijomis, dirbant su nuolatinio
    tobulejimo sistema 2007 Toyota aplenkia GM ir
    tampa Nr. 1 automobiliu gamintoju pasaulyje
  • Konvejerine standartizuotu detaliu gamyba sukele
    perversma didindama produktyvuma padidindama ir
    leidusi užimti 60 rinkos
  • Klientas galejo isigyti tik vieno modelio
    automobili ir tiek vienos spalvos - juodos
  • Pritaikiusi Ford gamybos modeli, bet pasiuliusi
    didesne produktu gama (daugiau modeliu, spalvu,
    komplektaciju) GM pereme dominavima rinkoje

8
LEAN principus diegiancios organizacijos Lietuvoje
9
- faktai
Veikla koncentruojasi i šešias medicinos sritis
  • Vežys

Dirba daugiau nei 62,000 darbuotoju, iš ju47
Europoje, 31 Amerikoje, 22 Afrikoje, Azijoje
ir Australijoje
  • Širdies ir kraujagysliu ligos
  • Infekcijos
  • Skrandžio ligos

Kasmet investuoja daugiau nei 4 milijardus i
tyrimus ir vystyma ir turi daugiau nei 11,000
darbuotoju dirbanciu su tyrimais ir vystymu
  • Neurologiniai sutrikimai
  • Kvepavimo taku ligos

2009-aisiais pasauliniai pardavimai sudare 32.8
milijardus
10
- faktai
75
Klaidu skaicius
Lead time vidutinis procesu atlikimo laikas
75
200
Produktyvumas
11
Turinys
Lean metodologija ir principai paslaugu
sektoriuje
12
LESTO Veiklos meistriškumo programa
Procesu efektyvinimas
Veiklos valdymo sistemos diegimas
Kompetenciju kelimas ir darbo organizavimas
LESTO kulturos formavimas
  • Nustatyti kas iš tiesu kuria pridetine verte
    klientui, tiek išoriniui, tiek ir vidiniui
  • Sukurti nuoseklu procesa, su kuo mažiau
    nestandartiniu ir sunkiai itakojamu veiksniu
  • Standartizuoti darba siekiant darbus atlikti
    teisingai iš pirmo karto ir pasiekti nuolatinio
    tobulejimo kultura
  • Nustatyti tikslus padaliniams ir pavieniams
    darbuotojams, vedanciu link užsibrežtu LESTO
    tikslu
  • Reguliariai sekti pagrindinius veiklos rodiklius,
    kad butu bet kuriuo momentu žinoma kaip vykdomi
    iškelti tikslai
  • Aktyviai reaguoti ir imtis veiksmu jei matomi
    veiklos rodikliu nuokrypiai
  • Priimti faktais paremtus sprendimus užtikrinant,
    kad dirbame teisinga linkme
  • Kritiškai ivertinti paciu atliekama darba, kad
    butu galima ji keisti efektyvesniu ir ilgainiui
    tapti nuolatos besimokancia organizacija
  • Aktyviai ugdyti darbuotojus ir teikti grižtamaji
    ryši stiprinant nuolatinio tobulejimo kultura
    organizacijoje
  • Identifikuoti reikiamas kompetencijas ir
    užtikrinti ju ugdyma siekiant užtikrinti klientu
    poreikius
  • Organizuoti darba taip, kad jo našumas atitiktu
    klientu poreikius

13
Vertes grandines identifikavimas proceso
vizualizavimas
Proceso vizualizavimas esamos padeties
nustatymas
Paskirtis
  • Padeda identifikuoti problemas ir galimybes
    procesuose
  • Vizualizuoja esamus proceso žingsnius

Kada naudoti
  • Identifikuoti vertes nekuriancias veiklas
  • Susidaryti bendra vaizda kaip atrodo procesas
  • Identifikuoti problemas ir patobulinimo galimybes
  • Tureti pagrinda strukturizuotai diskusijai

14
MIFA Material and Information Flow Analysis
Process Monday morning
Customer
Getting to work
Cold at floor next to bed
Bedroom
Disorganized closet
Search for soap Razor not sharp
Fix hair again
Bathroom
Cannot find briefcase
Kitchen
Hallway
15
Future State
Nr
Process step
Time (s)
Problem
E
C
R
S
Improvement idea
New Time (s)
Improvement
Cold floor
Put slippers next to bed
x
1
Get out of bed
60
30
50
2
Shower
300
Search for soap
x
Organize shower
240
20
3
Brush teeth
120
x
Combine with showering
0
100
4
Shave
180
Poor razor
x
x
Do evening before
0
100
5
Comb hair
120
x
Do after dressing
0
100
6
Find clothes
60
x
Prepare evening before
0
100
7
Get dressed
120
x
"Fireman organization"
80
33
8
Fix hair
120
120
0
x
Look for briefcase
Talk to my wife
90
0
9
100
Its not where I left it
Put on outdoor clothes
60
60
0
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
TOTALT
1230
530
57
Eliminate, Combine, Re-arrange, Simplify
16
Eikvojimas - vertes nekuriancios veiklos
procesuose, kurias reikia eliminuoti MUDA
LAIKAS - kai klientas laukia paslaugos ar
atsakymo kai vidinai padaliniai laukia, kol kiti
atliks savo darbus
1
Skirtingas produktyvumas
Transportavimas
2
7
6
3
Nereikalingas judejimas
Darymas daugiau nei reikia (Overprocessing)
5
4
Klaidu taisymas, perdarymas (rework)
Nereikalingi daikai
17
(No Transcript)
18
Strukturizuotas problemu sprendimas
19
Problemu sprendimo irankiai
5 Kodel?
Loginiai problemu medžiai
1. Kodel.?
2. Kodel .?
3. Kodel .?
4. Kodel .?
5. Kodel .?
Todel, kad.
Todel, kad.
Todel, kad.
Todel, kad.
Todel, kad.
  • Naudinga kai
  • Identifikuota problema yra pakankamai nesudetinga
  • Sprendimo variantu yra ribotai
  • Problemos sprendejas turi gera suvokima apie
    esama situacija/procesa
  • Naudinga kai
  • Identifikuota problema yra kompleksine
  • Situacija yra sudetinga ir galimi keletas
    sprendimo scenariju
  • Problemos ir situacijos žinojimas yra limituoti

20
Toyota gamintojo pavyzdys 5 kodel? (5 Whys)
PAVYZDYS
  • Problema Ivertinimas/sprendimas

Kodel?
Kodel?
Kodel?
Kodel?
Kodel?
21
Problemu medžiai Nuo problemos iki pagilintu
žiniu ir sprendimu

Ar imanoma?
Taip
Ne
22
Visada ivertinkite 8020 taisykle
Mažuma pastangu sukuria didžiaja dali
rezultato -Vilfredo Pareto
Nauda,
100
80
60
20 pastangu ? 80 naudos
40
20
0
100
20
40
60
80
Laikas, kaštai
23
Prioritetizavimas


  • Nepradekite problemos spresti veiksmais, kurie
    truks per ilgai
  • Spreskite pirmiausia greiciausiai ir didžiausia
    efekta duodancias problemas

24
Time analysis
25
Time can be analyzed in three components
  • The customer is willing to pay for this
  • This is necessary under current conditions (e.g.
    helping a client to sign a mortgage contract)
  • The customer is not willing to pay for this
  • This is not necessary under current conditions
    (e.g. waiting for a printer to finish printing a
    contract)

Value added
Waste
Elements of work
Incidental work
  • The customer is not willing to pay for this
  • This is necessary under current conditions (e.g.
    controls)

26
First analyze how time is spent for a group or a
department
10
EXAMPLE
Time spent Percent
Object for further time analysis
Total scheduled time
Call in/out
Waiting for computer
Search for info
Send/ archive
Print
Errand processing
Errand closure
27
Proceso laiko analizes pavyzdys
Visas proceso laikas
28
Buitiniai vartotojai, projekto nereikia,
pajungimas per 20 d.d.
43 d.d.
Siulymas keisti viena iš NV procesa
Proceso laikas trumpinamas 28
Vartotoju apsilankymu skaicius mažinamas nuo 5
iki 3 kartu
29
SIPOC
30
SIPOC Standard Input and Output Chart
  • SIPOC is an excellent tool for beginning the
    examination of a process. Whenever you are
    planning to start some process management or
    improvement activity, it is important to get
    high-level understanding of the elements of the
    process.
  • The SIPOC helps people to agree on the
    boundaries. It provides a structured way to
    discuss the process and to get consensus on who
    does what and when.
  • The SIPOC diagram includes a high-level map of
    the process that "maps out" its basic steps.
    Through the process, the suppliers (S) provide
    input (I) to the process. The process (P) adds
    value, resulting in output (O) that meets or
    exceeds the customer (C) expectations.
  • The flowchart shows the relationships among
    different people and functions. Examining the
    flowchart suggests opportunities for improvement
    and areas for further examination and data
    collection.

30
31
SIPOC diagram - How to do it ?
How to do it?
  • Create an area that will allow the team to post
    additions to the SIPOC diagram. This could be a
    transparency (to be projected by an overhead) of
    the provided template, flip-charts with headings
    (S-I-P-O-C) written on each, or headings written
    on post-its posted on a wall
  • Identify the Suppliers of the Inputs that are
    required by the Process
  • Identify the Inputs required for the Process to
    function properly
  • Map the Process in four to five high level steps
  • Identify the Outputs of this process. These are
    the tangible things that the process produces
    (e.g. report, or letter)
  • Identify the Customers that will receive the
    Outputs of this Process
  • You can also define the sub-processes that make
    up the Process. These are the activities that are
    carried out to convert the inputs into outputs.
    They will form the basis of a process map
  • Verify the map with project sponsor, champion and
    other involved stakeholders

31
31
32
Spaghetti diagram
Spaghetti diagram is a great way to view the
material flow in a process and illustrate the
wastes of transportation and motion that should
be eliminated in producing leaner operation. The
Spaghetti diagram is a movement path diagram by
more appetizing name aptly named so because the
lines movement drawn typically looks like a bowl
of spaghetti.
The spaghetti diagram gives you a snapshot of
daily work presented on a map, including
assessment of workspace organization
32
33
Spaghetti Diagram - How to do it ?
How to do it?
  • Identify process stages/specific steps which are
    critical for you
  • From identified stages/steps select process
    participants you want to observe (ensure
    sufficient number of observed participants to get
    a full and credible information)
  • Inform your employees who will be observed on
    purpose of the exercise
  • Before the observation prepare a detailed map of
    workspace (i.e. draw the space you will observe,
    mark desks, printers, kitchen, bathroom, etc.)
  • Perform observations follow selected process
    participants, mark their routes on the map
    (movement lines Spaghettis)
  • Mark value adding/non value adding activities and
    make notes of all important observations
  • Estimate and note times required for performing
    all marked activities
  • One person should observe 1-2 people, not more
    than 4
  • Go through the map, check your notes for
    comments, draw conclusions and identify
    improvement ideas

Remember!
  • When you assess what is value adding activity
    keep customers perspective imagine you were
    the customer, which activities would you pay for?
  • put down the ruler and forget about drawing neat
    straight lines. People don't move in straight
    lines so the spaghetti diagram should represent
    the actual lines of motion

33
34
0
Example of Spaghetti Diagram
Example key message / conclusion Relationship
Managers spend 95 of time away from desk on
value adding activities
Department name
Department and function where the analysis was
performed
Comments
Printer
Printer
  • Based on observations Relationship Managers spend
    on average 6h a day away from desk
  • Approximately 5 hours and 15 minutes of this time
    are spent on meeting clients and active sales
  • Remaining 18 minutes are spent on non value
    adding activities

Branch Director
RM3
Place important insights from Spaghetti analysis
here (only sample insights given please replace)
Cabinets
CS2
RM4
Spaghetti analysis
CS1
RM1
Printer
RM2
Kitchen/ Toilet
Servers
Average numbers in minutes for employees in the
Department where analysis was performed
Minutes
347
Activities (minutes)
0
Total time away from desk
Value adding activity
Low value adding activity
No value adding activity
34
35
Performance management
36
Veiklos valdymas
Vizija / tikslai
  • Strategija
  • Tikslai ir rodikliai

Valdymas
  • Veiklos peržiuros
  • Padalinio
  • Individualios
  • Problemu sprendimas ir atitinkami veiksmai

Irankiai
  • Ataskaitu struktura
  • Formatas
  • Dažnumas
  • Duomenu surinkimo irankiai
  • Problemu sprendimo irankiai

37
Veiklos valdymas padeda vieningai siekti
užsibrežtu tikslu
38
Veiklos vertinimo susitikimu schema ir dalyviai
Metiniu rezultatu aptarimas
Ketvirtiniu rezultatu aptarimas / strateginis
problemu sprendimas
Menesio rezultatu aptarimas / taktinis problemu
sprendimas
Veiklos peržiura / operaciniu problemu sprendimas
Tarnybos vadovas
Regiono vadovas
Rytiniai vadovu veiklos peržiuros susitikimai
Rytiniai veiklos peržiuros susitikimai
Funkcines veiklos peržiura
KAC vadovas
Skyriaus vadovas
Rytiniai darbuotoju veiklos peržiuros susitikimai
Rytiniai darbuotoju veiklos peržiuros susitikimai
Darbuotojas
Funkcines veiklos peržiura
Kasdien
Kas savaite
Kas dvi savaites
Kas menesi
Kas ketvirti
Kasmet
39
Baltos lentos vaizdas
Lenta peržiurima iš kaires i dešine
Stat
Data
Atsak
Sprendimas
Problema
Rodikliai
Grupes specialioji dalis
Ilgalaikes problemos
40
Rodikliai
41
Darbo organizavimas
42
Continuous flow production, perfectly calibrated
to customer demand
Traditional manufacturing inhibits material flow
and creates waste
Activity
Activity
Activity
Hand off
Hand off
Dept C
Dept A
Dept B
Wait
Wait
Wait
Inventory
Inventory
Inventory
One piece flow is the first step in improving
material flow
Process ABC
43
A push system creates disorder where is a
pull system creates clarity
  • Controlled shop stock
  • Minimum level of work-in-progress
  • Uncontrolled inventory
  • High visibility of material movement
  • High level of work-in-progress
  • Different queues created with work rotation
  • Low transparency of flow
  • All case handlers dedicated to queue at least one
    day at a time
  • All case handlers pick from one queue
  • Many mini learning curves
  • Large productivity improvement due to
    specialisation
  • Case per day target setting impossible
  • Best practices enforced by team targets on cases
    per day

Source McKinsey
44
5S - How to do it ?
How to do it?
  • 3. Shine Keep up the good order and work
  • Ensure that Sort, Systemize and Standardize
    become part of the daily routine and way of
    thinking
  • 4. Standardize implement one way of doing
    repetitive tasks
  • Standardize your working instruction
  • Standardize routines and organization
  • Standardize check-lists
  • 5. Self discipline create good habits
  • Be a role model, set direction and drive change
  • Give room for training
  • Share experience, take actions on bad habits,
    give credit on good results
  • Work systematic on new ideas
  • Be loyal to decisions
  • 1. Sort Reduce variation
  • Clean your area remove all materials/machinery
    that is not in use
  • Define criteria for sorting incoming tasks
  • Define criteria for distributing incoming tasks
    to team members
  • Define quality and quantity
  • 2. Systemize create simple and logic orders
  • Define logic process steps
  • Remove unnecessary steps/double activities within
    your process
  • Order your electronic files in a logical
    structure
  • Keep the reporting on a adequate level

44
45
Mastymas ir elgsena
46
Mindsets are a hidden part of the performance
chain, how to act to be fact based?
Mindsets
Inputs
Performance
Behaviors
What we say we want to happen
What people think this means and how they behave
in response
The outcome of individual and group actions.
Possible for us to act on.
What people do in the workplace. Visible to
others.
47
What we see is the behavior, what we want to get
to is the mindsets
People development example
Visible What we see and attempt to address
Behaviors can be measured by facts
  • I dont make time for coaching
  • I care about people, but dont feel coaching is
    as high a priority as ops and financial issues
  • Coaching doesnt help me or others get ahead
  • None of my bosses ever took time to coach me . .
    .

Behavior
Invisible What we dont see, but creates
behaviors (Mindsets)
Thinking and feeling
Mindsets are more objectively measured
Values and beliefs
Needs that are met or not met
48
I will change my behaviour if I have the right
skills, system, understanding and a role model
A compelling story because employees must see the
point of the change and agree on it
See the manager and the colleagues they admire
behaving in the new way
Reinforcing mechanisms, because systems,
processes and incentives must be in line with the
new behavior
Capability building because employees must have
the skills required to make the desired changes
49
The end
50
Aciu
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