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PLAY IN THE PRESCHOOL YEARS

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PLAY IN THE PRESCHOOL YEARS PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT According to Gallahue (1993), children move through a sequence of motor skill development. Reflexive movement. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: PLAY IN THE PRESCHOOL YEARS


1
PLAY IN THE PRESCHOOL YEARS
2
PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • According to Gallahue (1993), children move
    through a sequence of motor skill development.
  • Reflexive movement. (birth to 1yr).
  • Infants engage in reflexive movements
  • Rudimentary movement. (2 yrs).
  • Basic motor skills acquired during infancy
    Reaching, grasping sitting, standing, walking.
  • Fundamental movement. (2-7yrs).
  • Greater control over motor skills such as
    running, jumping, throwing, and catching.
    Isolated movement schemes are combined to form
    more complex movements.
  • Specialized movement. (7-to teens years).
  • Execution of skills committed to certain sports
    or recreation.

3
Characteristics of Motor Development
  • Preschoolers exhibit capability of a range of
    motor skills regarding Gross motor development.
  • Locomotor skills.
  • Movements that facilitate jumping, hopping,
    running, and climbing.
  • Fine-Motor skills.
  • Preschool children learn to work with puzzles
    cut with scissors use brushes, pencils, pens,
    and markers. They manipulate blocks and clay.
  • Perceptual-Motor skills.
  • The ability to combine senses with emerging motor
    skills to engage the environment.

4
Play and Physical Development Factors of
Consideration
  • Today, children are more sedentary than 20 years
    ago.
  • Childhood obesity and rising health problems is
    on the rise
  • Rise of non-traditional families (both parents
    working, single-parent families) often producing
    latch-key kids.
  • Diminishing settings for free play

5
Categories of Play
  • Directed Physical Play.
  • A comprehensive preschool program
  • Locomotor skills to include walking, running,
    hopping, throwing, catching, and other motor
    skills.
  • Fine motor skills such as block construction,
    sand play, and art activities.
  • Organized physical sports
  • Soccer, basketball, or T-ball usually for kids 4
    to 5 yrs of age.

6
Free Play
  • Free play vs. Structured play.
  • Studies have noted that free play promotes
    greater muscular endurance and motor behaviors.
  • Free play is often restricted due to concerns for
    safety regarding children.
  • Children play hard
  • Unsafe neighborhoods
  • Through monitoring, adults are charged to provide
    a good balance of free play and structured play
    with many opportunities of expression.

7
Adult Roles in Physical Play
  • Play is diminishing in the presence of
  • Television
  • Video games
  • Rising technocratic society.
  • Adults have responsibility to ensure that
    children receive adequate amounts of time engaged
    in play and exercise.
  • OR ELSE.
  • Health is compromised
  • Important physical milestones are compromised
  • Social and emotional development can be
    compromised

8
Characteristics of Cognitive Development
  • According to Piaget
  • Children are preoperational
  • Children are able to use symbolic reasoning.
  • Preschoolers are still egocentric.
  • Seeing the world from a singular point of view.
  • Between 2-4yrs
  • Children develop symbolic function.
  • The ability to picture things through imagination
    that are not present.
  • Intuitive Thought (ages 4-7yrs)
  • Development of intuitive thought.
  • Begin to experiment with ordering and collecting
    things but it is still limited. (Challenge of
    centration)
  • Children are still very primitive in their
    reasoning

9
Piagets Level of Cognitive Play
  • Practice/Functional Play.
  • Sensory-motor play.
  • Symbolic Play.
  • Initially appears during sensory motor stage but
    transitions to preoperationional.
  • Play through imagination and imitation of
    reality.
  • Also evolving to games with rules.

10
Smilanskys Levels of Cognitive Play
  • Children from 3 to school age alternate between
    levels of play.
  • Functional Play.
  • Physical play activities. The child uses
    repetition in physical actions, language, and
    manipulation of toys.
  • Constructive Play.
  • Children move from handling objects and materials
    to constructing or building for fun.
  • Dramatic/Pretend Play.
  • Imitation of human relationships thru symbolic
    representations.

11
Vygotskys Perception of the Functions of Play
  • Representational Play.
  • Make-believe play which permits the child to deal
    with unrealizable desires.
  • Fantasy Play.
  • Develops as toddlers must learn to follow
    approved behaviors and delay gratification.
  • As the child matures, fantasy play increases as
    expectations by society increases

12
Adult Facilitation to Produce Maximum Outcomes
  • Provide activities that lead to greater thinking
    and problem-solving.
  • Provide children with stimulating environments.
  • Be encouraging, positive, and supporting.
  • Distinguish between play as manipulation and play
    as active education.
  • Provide opportunities for children to engage in
    dramatic play that encourages cooperation and
    negotiation.
  • Make available materials that encourage
    representation through construction
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