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Aircraft Navigation Basics

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Greater range but less precision than other methods. ... Any of the navigational aids utilized by aircraft are vulnerable to attack/jamming/compromise. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Aircraft Navigation Basics


1
Aircraft Navigation Basics
  • 1/C MQS

2
Two Schools of Air Nav
  • Visual Flight Rules (VFR)
  • Navigation accomplished primarily by visual
    reference to the ground (charts, DR)
  • Requires at least 1000 ft. cloud ceiling and 3
    miles of visibility (must be able to see where
    youre going!)
  • Basic pilot training/certification
  • Instrument Flight Rules (IFR)
  • Navigation accomplished primarily by reference to
    onboard instruments, electronic navigation aids,
    and Air Traffic Control
  • No weather minimums
  • More advanced pilot training/certification
    required

3
Methods of AirNav
  • Visual (Pilotage)
  • Dead Reckoning
  • Course Rules (preplanned routes based on major
    landmarks)
  • Charts
  • Global Navigation Satellite System
  • GPS
  • GLONASS
  • Radio Beacons
  • Automatic Direction Finder (ADF)/Non-Directional
    Beacon (NDB)
  • Very-High Frequency Omnidirectional Range (VOR)
  • Tactical Air Navigation (TACAN)
  • RADAR Surveillance
  • Air Traffic Control
  • Airborne/Shipboard RADAR

4
Visual Flight Rules
  • VFR Charts Display
  • Major landmarks/obstacles
  • Airports and relevant information
  • Population centers
  • Major roads
  • Airspace dimensions

5
Global Positioning System (GPS)
  • Primary navigation method for modern aircraft
  • Minimal error
  • Can be used for precision landings
  • Worldwide coverage

6
Non-Directional Beacon (NDB)
  • Fixed ground station provides basic bearing to
    information
  • Greater range but less precision than other
    methods
  • Aircraft can use signal to home on the station

7
Radio NavigationVHF Omnidirectional Range (VOR)
  • Ground station emits directional radio signals
    360 around station
  • Offers more precise course guidance
  • Line-of-Sight (LOS) dependent
  • Provides aircraft with a line of position to/from
    the station (radial)
  • Multiple station fixes can be used to triangulate
    position

8
TACAN (TACtical Air Navigation)
  • Available to military users only
  • Ground or ship-based
  • Provides bearing AND range information
  • Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) onboard
    aircraft sends and receives signals to ground
    station to determine range (similar to active
    SONAR).
  • Distance provided is slant range distance,
    which is not the same as distance over the
    ground!

9
RADAR Surveillance
  • Navigation function performed by RADAR stations
  • Ground facilities
  • Airport towers
  • Approach/Departure Control
  • Air Route Traffic Control Centers (ARTCC)
  • Ships
  • CIC
  • ASW/ASUC Tactical Air Controller (ASTAC)
  • Aircraft
  • E-2 Hawkeye
  • E-3 AWACS
  • Primary function is aircraft separation and
    airspace management
  • Requires two-way communication

10
Signals Degradation
  • Navigational data is typically provided
    simultaneously, providing redundancy and enhanced
    reliability.
  • Any of the navigational aids utilized by aircraft
    are vulnerable to attack/jamming/compromise.
  • In a degraded signals environment, aircraft
    navigation and operational performance will
    suffer as data inputs are reduced or eliminated
    altogether.
  • Many modern weapon systems such as the GPS
    guided JDAM are similarly vulnerable to a
    degraded environment.

11
Review
  • Two categories of aircraft navigation
  • Visual Flight Rules (VFR)
  • Instrument Flight Rules (IFR)
  • Methods of aircraft navigation
  • Dead reckoning, visual orientation, pilotage
  • GNSS (GPS)
  • Radio beacon (NDB, VOR, TACAN)
  • RADAR Surveillance
  • Signals degradation
  • Navigational accuracy and operational performance
    are degraded when input signals are jammed or
    compromised
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