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Chapter%204:%20Great%20Britain

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Chapter 4: Great Britain Thinking About Britain Key Questions Gradualism the belief that change should occur slowly or incrementally. Relative economic decline ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter%204:%20Great%20Britain


1
Chapter 4Great Britain
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4
Thinking About Britain
  • Key Questions
  • Gradualism the belief that change should occur
    slowly or incrementally.
  • Relative economic decline and its political
    implications
  • The end of collectivist consensus Margaret
    Thatchers policies and legacy
  • Impact of New Labour and Tony Blair

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Thinking About Britain
  • The basics
  • The Kingdoms
  • The cleavages
  • Geographic
  • Religious
  • Economic
  • Social class

7
The Evolution of the British State
  • Sequential, not simultaneous crises
  • Building the nation state
  • Defining the role of religion
  • Establishing liberal democracy
  • Industrial revolution
  • The broad sweep of British history
  • More and more democracy
  • Persistence of class divisions
  • The collectivist consensus leaders from both
    parties agreed on a variety of social policy
    goals the golden era of British politics

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10
British Political Culture
  • The civic culture and collectivist years
  • Widespread sense of legitimacy
  • Tolerance of diversity
  • Nationalism

11
British Political Culture
  • The politics of protest Toward an uncivic
    culture?
  • Confrontational political participation and civic
    unrest racism militancy of unions clash
    between the left and the right created a far more
    polarized political system, but the majority of
    the populace did not take part and grew
    frustrated with the confrontational politics.

12
British Political Culture
  • The civic culture holds
  • Thatchers stand against the left helped sharply
    reduce the political tensions that seemed to
    imperil traditional British institutions and
    practices.
  • The analysts who predicted the end of the civic
    culture overstated the dangers the protest
    movements posed revolution was never on the
    horizon.
  • Dissatisfaction with the recent governments had
    not translated into dissatisfaction with the
    regime.

13
British Political Culture
  • Will there always be a Britain?
  • Polarization and catch-all parties
  • Devolution
  • Cultural and racial diversity
  • European Union

14
Political Participation
  • The Conservatives
  • Pragmatic
  • Noblesse oblige
  • Organization
  • Thatcherism and after
  • Labour
  • Pragmatism
  • Crisis-motivated radicalization
  • Defeat-motivated moderation
  • Blairs waning popularity

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Political Participation
  • The Liberal Democrats merger of the Liberals
    and the Social Democrats (SDP) the number three
    party and in some ways the most radical
  • Minor Parties the rise in Scottish, Welsh, and
    Irish nationalism has led to moderate growth in
    support for regional parties.
  • The British electorate
  • Interest groups
  • Little of the lobbying one finds in the U.S.
  • Interests groups focus their attention on
    decision makers ministers, party leaders, and
    senior civil servants try to influence the
    drafting of a bill, not how it is dealt with on
    the House floor.
  • The TUC with Labour and the Confederation of
    British Industry with Conservatives wield
    disproportionate influence
  • Corporatist arrangements during collectivist
    years Thatcher government effectively froze the
    unions out of the decision making.

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The British State Enduring Myths Changing
Realities
  • Bagehots dignified and real parts of the British
    system
  • The Monarchy and the Lords Still dignified?
  • Very little power proposals for reform
  • Parliamentary Sovereignty, sort of
  • Parliamentary parties
  • Collective responsibility
  • Party discipline

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22
The British State Enduring Myths Changing
Realities
  • Cabinet government?
  • Many analysts argue that Britain has prime
    ministerial government
  • The rest of the state
  • Weakness of the bureaucracy
  • Diluted sovereignty of cabinet and parliament
    because of regulatory agencies and QUANGOs
  • The courts have never had a policy-making role

23
Public Policy The Thatcher and Blair Revolutions
  • Break with the past in domestic policy
  • Thatchers politics of conviction brought
    dramatic change, especially to economic life.
  • Blairs government has accepted privatization and
    the core of Thatcherism
  • Continuity in foreign policy

24
Public Policy The Thatcher and Blair Revolutions
  • Domestic politics
  • Margaret Thatcher
  • The retreat from the commanding heights
    Nationalizing and privatizing
  • Rolling back the welfare state
  • Thatchers supporters say she saved the British
    economy by bring both inflation and unemployment
    under control and by creating a more dynamic
    private sector.
  • Thatchers detractors say she created new
    problems and exacerbated existing ones by
    widening the gap between rich and poor and by
    allowing public services to deteriorate.

25
Public Policy The Thatcher and Blair Revolutions
  • Domestic Politics, cont.
  • Tony Blair
  • Not rolling back Thatchers and Majors reforms
  • Government spending as a percentage of GNP shrank
  • Welfare that gives recipients skills to find jobs
    rather than just benefits
  • The New Deal
  • Tuition increase
  • Tolling London drivers to reduce traffic
    congestion
  • Blairs supporters say he has create the Third
    Way combining the best aspects of the socialist
    goals commitment to equality with a market
    economy.
  • Blairs detractors say he sold out the left and
    created Thatcher lite.

26
Public Policy The Thatcher and Blair Revolutions
  • Foreign policy
  • Europe
  • European Monetary Union?
  • Ratify the draft constitution for the EU?
  • Iraq
  • Political ramifications of backing George W. Bush
    on war with Iraq

27
Feedback
  • British media far more centralized than U.S.
  • Broadsheets and tabloids
  • Very little local news on television national
    news at different times of the day networks tend
    to be impartial, but journalists are not
    necessarily so interviewers grill politicians
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