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The Renaissance

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The Renaissance The Beginning of the Modern Period: A Period of Transition Albrecht Durer Hans Holbein Bruegel Bosch Major innovations of the Renaissance Printing ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Renaissance


1
The Renaissance
  • The Beginning of the Modern Period
  • A Period of Transition

2
Two Major Divisions of the Renaissance
3
The Italian Renaissance
  • The Italian Renaissance (occurred first)
  • Involved the city-states of northern Italy and
    Rome
  • Florence
  • Venice
  • Milan
  • Pisa
  • Sienna

4
  • The Italian Renaissance tended to be more secular
    with a greater emphasis on
  • worldly pursuits
  • the humanities
  • the arts
  • Wealth and power
  • Knowledge was the key (classical knowledge)
  • The humanities

5
Petrarch- the father of Renaissance humanism
  • The Italian poet, Petrarch

6
The Northern Renaissance
  • The Northern Renaissance occurred later
  • Involved the regions of Northern Europe
  • England
  • Spain
  • France
  • Germanic regions (Holy Roman Empire)
  • The Netherlands

7
Northern Renaissance
  • The spread of the Renaissance was delayed in
    Northern Europe
  • War and political unrest
  • Hundred Years War
  • War of the Roses in Britain- civil war
  • Civil conflicts in France
  • Divisions in the Holy Roman Empire
  • (German regions)
  • Plague and famine

8
renaissance means rebirth
  • The Renaissance began a period of renewed
    interest and engagement with classical
    (Greco-Roman) learning, culture, literature, art,
    architecture, values, style, etc.

9
Major Themes of the Renaissance
  • Humanism (both secular and religious)
  • Stressed human potential, human progress,
    expansion of human knowledge
  • Secularism-greater emphasis on non-religious
    values, pursuits, and interests
  • Individualism-focus on the unique qualities,
    abilities, and potential of the individual person

10
Major Historical Movements of the Renaissance
  • Age of Exploration
  • (Period of European Expansion)
  • Protestant Reformation and the Religious Wars
  • Scientific Revolution-
  • Rise of Modern Science
  • The Rise of the Modern Nation-State

11
Background of the Renaissance- High and Late
Middle Ages
  • What happened during the period of the High and
    Late Middle Ages that would lay the groundwork
    for the Renaissance?

12
  • Increased trade and commercial activity during
    the High Middle Ages
  • Urbanization-growth of cities and towns
  • Commercial and business developments (banking)
  • Middle class merchant elite developed
  • Decline in feudalism
  • A decline in the Churchs hold and control on
    society and government
  • Growth in vernacular literature/growing literacy
  • Rise of universities and the expansion of
    learning

13
The Birthplace of the Renaissance
  • The city-states of Northern Italy
  • Florence was the center of the Renaissance
  • Italy was politically fragmented and the
    city-states often fought for power and control
  • City-states came to be ruled by wealthy and
    powerful business people (not necessarily
    nobility)
  • Signori- (despots)
  • oligarchies (group of individuals) maintained
    order

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Florence
  • Major center of
  • trade
  • banking
  • cloth production
  • the arts

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19
The Medici family of Florence
  • The most powerful family of the Italian
    Renaissance
  • Came to power through business dealings and
    banking
  • Bankers of the Vatican and the papacy
  • Spent tremendous amounts of money supporting the
    arts and cultural development (patrons) as well
    as science
  • Medici power often involved corruption and
    intrigue

20
The Medici Family
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24
Medici Pope
25
The Journey of the Magi depicts the Medici
family in procession -Celebration of Medici power
and influence
26
Italian Renaissance Literature
27
Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527)The Prince
  • Machiavelli was from Florence
  • Well educated in the classics
  • Career was in public service and he eventually
    served as the ambassador to France
  • Favored republican rule over despotism
  • Machiavelli was tortured and imprisoned for a
    time when Medici rule was reinstated after a
    conflict with a Spanish mercenary army
  • He retired to the country and wrote The Prince

28
The Prince
  • Written in Italian (not Latin)
  • Observations and commentary on political rule and
    power (Medicis)
  • Addressed the issue of effective rule
  • How to gain and maintain order and control
  • Stressed the practical (pragmatic) over the
    ethical or moral
  • More secular and humanistic
  • Challenged the idea of a social order based on
    Gods will
  • Political science-
  • Politics was to be governed by its own laws
  • it is safer to be feared than to be loved

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The Courtier by Castiglione 1528
  • Written in Italian
  • Treatise on the training of young men in the
    courtly ideal of a Renaissance gentleman
  • Stressed the value of education and manners
  • Influenced social mores and norms during the
    period

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Renaissance Art
  • A reflection of Renaissance ideals and values
  • Emphasis on the classical style and classical
    themes
  • Humanistic - with an emphasis on the individual
  • Religious art remained very important

33
Characteristics of Renaissance Art
  • Realism- three-dimensional
  • Balanced and ordered-
  • geometric /mathematical balance
  • Portraits- focus on the individual person
  • Landscapes and attention to depictions of nature
  • Classical style
  • Depiction of classical themes, stories, characters

34
Humanism The School of Athens by Raphael- a
celebration of classical learning
35
Individualism Portraits -portraits celebrated
the unique qualities and personality of the
individual person (two examples by Leonardo da
Vinci)
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Secularism-non-religious- Botticellis
Primavera (Spring) Renaissance art often
depicted stories and scenes from classical
literature
38
The Birth of Venus
39
Religion remained a major focal point of
Renaissance art -The Sistine Chapel-Michelangelo
40
Michelangelos Pieta
41
Michelangelos statue of David
42
Raphael
43
Raphael
44
Renaissance surrealism
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The Renaissance spread to Northern Europe
47
Focus of the Northern Renaissance
  • The focus of the Renaissance in Northern Europe
    was more religious
  • Many sought religious reform and a return of the
    Church to its true mission and spirituality
  • Many were highly critical of the worldliness and
    corruption in the Church and papacy

48
  • Northern Renaissance humanists believed that
    education and literacy were key to social and
    religious reform
  • Advocated the translation of the scriptures into
    the vernacular languages

49
Major figures of the Northern Renaissance
  • Northern Renaissance Humanists (Christian)

50
Desiderius Erasmus scholar and theologian
51
Erasmus - 1446-1536
  • Dutch (the Netherlands)
  • Biblical scholar and educator
  • Believed that the Bible was at the center of the
    Christian faith
  • Stressed Christian education and access to the
    scriptures (for everyone)
  • Believed that people should be able to read the
    scriptures for themselves
  • Highly critical of papal abuses and worldliness
  • The Praise of Folly

52
The Praise of Folly a condemnation of Church
and papal abuses and worldliness
53
Illustration from Praise of Folly
54
Sir Thomas More 1478-1535
55
Sir Thomas More
  • Lord Chancellor of England during the reign of
    Henry VIII-
  • highest political office in England
  • Lawyer and scholar
  • Works reflect a commitment to the values and
    mandates of Scripture and the Church
  • Wrote Utopia explored the idea of a perfect
    society
  • Executed by Henry VIII for refusing to agree to
    the king and Parliaments Act of Supremacy

56
First edition copy of Utopia
57
Early illustration from Utopia
58
Sir Thomas More and family by Hans Holbein
59
Martin Luther 1483-1546
  • German
  • Critical of Church corruption and abuses
  • sale of indulgences
  • 95 Theses - 1517
  • Sought to reform the Church
  • Wrote the first German translation of the Bible

60
William Shakespeare 1564-1616
  • English playwright and poet
  • Many of his major works are an expression of
    Renaissance values of honor, heroism, and the
    struggle against fate and fortune
  • His view of mans capacity for evil and
    self-destruction contrasted with the Renaissance
    humanistic ideal of humanity

61
The Globe Theater in London
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Michele deMontaigne 1533-1592
64
Montaigne
  • French humanist and writer
  • Associated with the rise of modern skepticism
  • Highly critical of the religious intolerance and
    violence associated with the Reformation
  • Advocated for political calm and greater
    tolerance within the Christian faith
  • A politique- religious and political moderate
  • Questioned the power of human reason skepticism
  • Father of the modern essay form of writing

65
Northern Renaissance Art
66
Albrecht Durer
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69
Hans Holbein
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72
Bruegel
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77
Bosch
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81
Major innovations of the Renaissance
82
Printing Press
  • 1455
  • Moveable type printing
  • Developed in Germany
  • Associated with Gutenberg
  • 1456 the first Gutenberg Bible was printed
  • Printing press allowed for the spread of
    knowledge and ideas throughout Europe

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The Clock
  • The idea of quantification developed
  • The universe came to be conceived in more
    quantifiable terms (measurable terms)
  • Allowed for more precise measurements
  • Changed the focus of daily life which had been
    guided by the rhythms of the Church

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87
The Renaissance brought a new way of thinking and
living to Europe
  • A new worldview was emerging
  • The medieval Christian worldview was giving way
    to a more MODERN (secular and humanistic) view of
    the world and humanity
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