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Chapter 17: Eastern Absolutism

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Chapter 17: Eastern Absolutism Serfdom in Eastern Europe Settlers had been lured to eastern Europe based on economic and religious freedom Black Death left eastern ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 17: Eastern Absolutism


1
Chapter 17 Eastern Absolutism
2
Serfdom in Eastern Europe
  • Settlers had been lured to eastern Europe based
    on economic and religious freedom
  • Black Death left eastern Europe de-populated
  • (1497) Peasant could only move for a 2 week
    window after the fall harvest.
  • 1649 a new code in Russia required runaway serfs
    to be returned to the owner, even after nine
    years, and placed no limit on the authority of
    owners over their peasants.
  • In Prussia runaway serfs were hunted and returned
    to lords where they were punished by having an
    ear nailed to a post.
  • (1574)Polish nobles could legally kill their
    serfs

3
Increased Serfdom
  1. Increased serfdom was also a good way for the
    monarch to gain favor with and control of his
    nobility.
  2. Serfdom was thought to help the weakened economy,
    which was a myth capitalism needs consumers to
    thrive.
  3. Robot Peasants owed lord 3 to 4 days a week of
    forced labor-They were forced to work more and
    more for their lords and were permitted less and
    less time to feed themselves. Lords then sold the
    product of the serfs labor to foreigners,
    usually the Dutch. This left them in hereditary
    subjugation.

4
5 Major Causes of Increased Serfdom in the East
  1. Labor shortages have blamed
  2. Eastern nobles were powerful enough to subjugate
    their serfs. Monarchs need them
  3. No new monarchs in east yet. The new
    monarchs will eventually free the serfs in the
    east. Kings are seen as First among equals.
    They have no concept of divine right.
  4. No peasant revolts left the nobility to do as
    they pleased.
  5. Towns lost their feudal privileges such as the
    right of refuge

5
The Austrian Empire
  • Comprised of Austrians, Hungarians, Bohemians.
  • Problems with Empire
  • Multinational empire with different cultures and
    languages.
  • Religious differences (continuous wars)
  • Threatening Ottoman Turks
  • Main alliance (Spain) deteriorating in power and
    influence.

6
The Austrian Empire
  • Comprised of Austrians, Hungarians, Bohemians.
  • Problems with Empire
  • Multinational empire with different cultures and
    languages.
  • Religious differences (continuous wars)
  • Threatening Ottoman Turks
  • Main alliance (Spain) deteriorating in power and
    influence.

7
Eastern monarchs gain political power
  1. They imposed and collected permanent taxes
    without consent.
  2. They maintained permanent standing armies.
  3. They conducted foreign relations with other
    states as they pleased.

8
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9
Leopold I (1658-1705)
  • He successfully repelled the Turks in 1683
    gaining lands of Transylvania and Hungary.
  • Tried to centralize the government partly
    successful.

10
Growth of Austria to 1748
11
Charles VI (1711-1740)
  • Inherited a fragile union of lands (Austria,
    Bohemia, and Hungary)
  • Issued the Pragmatic Sanction (1713) to solidify
    the Hapsburg Throne.
  • The Hapsburg possessions were never to be divided
    and were always to be passed intact to a single
    heir, who might be female.
  • Prince Frances Rakoczy leads a rebellion in
    Hungary, fails, but forces the Hapsburg to
    restore some traditional privileges.

12
Effects on Hungary
  • Hungary accepted Hapsburg rule in return for
    restoring traditional privileges.
  • Hungary never became a fully centralized state
    under its own ruler.

13
Maria Theresa (1740-1780)
  • Daughter of Charles VI.
  • Left with poor army, empty treasury, ineffective
    bureaucracy, and Czech rebellion from Bohemia.

14
M.T.s State Building Policies
  • Reformed the church by forbidding the founding of
    new monasteries.
  • Abolished the clergys exemptions of taxes
  • Established a new bureaucracy in Vienna by
    appointing new local officials (helped her
    collect taxes)
  • Improved the military and its training

15
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16
Prussia (Hohenzollerns)
  • State building was possible through an alliance
    between the ruler and the nobles.
  • Large land owning nobles were called Junkers
  • German Princes gained their independence in the
    Treaty of Westphalia

17
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18
Frederick William (r.1648-1688)
  • a.k.a. the Great Elector
  • Realized other states were wanting his
    possessions built a good army to defend his
    borders.

19
Frederick gains power
  • He overpowered the Junkers and denied them the
    right to vote on taxes.
  • Set up a standing army, funded by permanent
    taxes. Army collected the taxes and served as
    the police.
  • Army grew 1000
  • Junkers decided to side with the king for
    stability and gained hereditary serfdom in 1653.
  • 1685 wrote the Edict of Potsdam that offered all
    Huguenots religious freedom in Brandenburg.

20
Frederick III (r.1688-1713)
  • Unlike dad, enjoyed court society and made Berlin
    into a cultural center with a lively court.
  • First king of Prussia became Frederick I

21
Frederick William I (r.1713-1740)
  • Was a Spartan ruler who did not enjoy court life
    but loved his military. The Soldiers King
  • Made Prussia the Sparta of the North (military
    state)
  • Best army in Europe
  • Was into tall soldiers 6 feet and above
  • Said sword is mightier than the pen
  • He lived frugally to support the army

22
Frederick II (Frederick the Great)
  • Trained for kingship by his father and had a
    sense of duty for his country
  • Used absolute rule to reach his objectives
  • Establish religious toleration and judicial
    reform
  • Main goal security. Acquire new stronger
    borders
  • 1740 attacked Silesia Hapsburg owned (War of
    Austrian Succession)

23
Growth of Prussia to 1748
24
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25
Eastern Europe (1772-1793)
26
Russian Absolutism
27
Russian Absolutism
  • BACKGROUND
  • Russians are Slavic and Vikings ancestry
  • Boyars Russian nobles, acted more like mafia
    goons
  • Mongols Golden Horde took control in the 13th
    century left legacy of ruthless rule. (Genghis
    Khan)
  • Greatly influenced by Byzantine and Roman
    heritage.
  • Ivan I a.k.a. Ivan moneybags was a tax
    collector for the Mongols used army to put down
    enemies.

28
Ivan III Ivan the Great (1442-1504)
  • Third Rome He assumed leadership of Orthodox
    Christian Church (centralized government)
  • Liberated Russia from the Mongols
  • Conquered much territory expanded its borders.
  • Tsars see themselves as defenders of the Orthodox
    Faith

29
Ivan IV Ivan the Terrible (1533-1584)
  • First to take the title tsar
  • (1547-1560) Good Period
  • Defeated the last of the Mongols in Russia
    conquered the Baltic, Black Sea region
  • Began westernizing Russia by increasing trade
    contacts with the Dutch, English, and French
    (hated for this).
  • Began service nobility doing services for the
    tsar for land in return. (more serfs)

30
  • (1560) Bad Period
  • Wife dies and he blames Boyars
  • Destroys the Moscow boyars with a reign of
    terror with his secret police The oprichniks.
  • (reading Ivan IV)
  • Violent quarrel, he killed his eldest son and
    heir.

31
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32
Time of Troubles (1598-1613)
  • Period of chaos after Ivans death in Russia
    leaves no clear heir.
  • Cossacks peasants who fled oppressive rule and
    called for the true tsar (not nobles and
    officials)
  • Sweden and Poland even occupied Moscow.
  • Michael Romanov is elected hereditary tsar (1613)
  • Split in the Church (1652) Nikon tries to make
    the Russian Church more like the Greek Orthodox
    Church. considered an Antichrist
  • Old Believers- resisted change and
    westernization in Russia.

33
Peter the Great (1682-1725)
  • Overthrew his ½ sister, Sophia and strelski
    imperial guards for the tsar.
  • Peter forced Russians to adapt western ways
  • Sent Russians away to study and brought
    foreigners into his court.
  • Forced the Old Believers to shave.

34
  • Toured Western Europe and was called back by a
    strelski revolt in 1698.
  • Modernized the army with (Prussias help)
    standing army of 200,000.
  • Created Schools required 5 yrs. of compulsory
    education away from for every nobleman.
  • Table of ranks based on merit.
  • Great Northern War (1700-1721) Took on Charles
    XII of Sweden and he gets his butt kicked at
    Battle of Poltava.

35
St. Petersburg
  • Built Winter Palace on the Baltic
  • Moved govt there including the Boyars. (Just
    like Louis)
  • Got nobility to build and pay for the city. City
    layed out by strictly separated classes.
  • Conscripted peasants to build the city in the
    summer.
  • Treaty of Nystad (1721) Peter gained Baltic
    states window to the West

36
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37
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38
Effects of Peters Reign
  • Russia became the dominant power on the Baltic
    and a Great European Power
  • Western ideas and culture flowed into Russia
  • New class of educated Russians emerged.
  • The gap between Russian serfdom and educated
    nobility widened.
  • New idea of states interest instead of personal
    interest took hold.

39
Palaces and Power
  • Palaces of Europe tried to exemplify baroque
    style and Versailles architecture.
  • Schonbrunn was built in Vienna by emperor Leopold
    I to demonstrate his Habsburg power and military
    victories.

40
A virtual tour of the Great Catherine Palace
41
St. Petersburg
  • Comfortable modern city
  • Broad, straight, stone paved streets
  • Houses built in uniform line
  • Large parks, stone bridges
  • All buildings had to conform to strict
    architecture codes
  • Each social group had its certain section of town.

42
Building St. Petersburg
  • Built on a swamp
  • Used recruited serfs in the summer time
  • 1 in every 10 to 15 households had to furnish one
    worker and then pay a special tax in order to
    feed and house the workers.
  • Many died due to sickness, hunger, and accidents.
  • Forced nobles to live there and had them pay a
    tax to pay for maintenance of the city.
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