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Personality

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Title: Personality


1
Personality
  • Personality is the relatively stable combo of
    beliefs, attitudes, values, motives, temperament,
    and behavior patterns arising from underlying,
    internal inclinations that an individual exhibits
    in many situations and serve to distinguish us
    from another.

Each dwarf has a distinct personality.
2
The Trait Perspective Structure of Personality
  • Focus on identifying and describing peoples
    traits (dispositions and behavior patterns) not
    why people have the traits they do.
  • Interest in surface (readily evident, observable
    personality characteristics) and source (basic
    personality characteristics that underlie surface
    traits) traits

Examples of Traits
Honest Dependable Moody Impulsive
Possess traits to varying degrees. No 2 people
are alike
Allport Odbert (1936), identified 18,000 words
representing traits.
3
Assessing Traits Questionnaires and Factor
Analysis
  • FACTOR ANALYSIS
  • Statistical method that finds relationships among
    many different or diverse items and allows them
    to be grouped together
  • FACTOR ANALYSIS EXAMPLES
  • Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
  • EX Keirsey Temperament Sorter

Cattells 16 Personality Factor Inventory
Feeling Type Personality
Impulsive
4
Keirsey Temperament Sorter Pair and Share
  • Pair up with one other person in class that knows
    you relatively well
  • Each person should review the results from their
    Keirsey Temperament Sorter. (Just explain the
    traits the sorter identified you as possessing.
    You do not have to explain whether you agreed or
    disagreed.)
  • Give your write-up to your partner and on the
    back of the write-up, your partner should answer
    the following questions
  • Do you think the results from the sorter are an
    accurate representation of your partners
    personality? Why or why not? What other traits
    would you add that you think might better
    describe him/her? Why?
  • For the traits you did think were accurate, do
    they always display those traits or have there
    been times when they acted differently? Explain.
  • How useful is the Trait Theory in explaining the
    development of personality? What are the
    strengths of this theory? What are some
    limitations of this theory?

5
Are You More of an Introvert or Extrovert?
  • In the book Quiet The Power of Introverts in a
    World that Cant Stop Talking, Susan Cain
    suggests that as a society we increasingly treat
    shyness as a disorder rather than seeing the
    value of that temperament.
  • Do you think your school, work, and/or social
    life rewards extroversion and unwittingly
    penalizes the shy in some way? How so?
  • How is our culture losing out by celebrating
    extraverts and undervaluing introverts?

http//www.npr.org/2012/01/30/145930229/quiet-plea
se-unleashing-the-power-of-introverts
http//www.ted.com/talks/susan_cain_the_power_of_
introverts.html
6
Are You More of an Introvert or Extrovert?
  • Quiet Quiz Are You an Introvert or an
    Extrovert? Excerpted from Quiet The Power of
    Introverts in a World That Can't Stop Talking by
    Susan Cain
  • To ?nd out where you fall on the
    introvert-extrovert spectrum, answer each
    question True or False, choosing the one that
    applies to you more often than not.
  • 1. ______ I prefer one-on-one conversations to
    group activities.
  • 2. ______ I often prefer to express myself in
    writing.
  • 3. ______ I enjoy solitude.
  • 4. ______ I seem to care about wealth, fame, and
    status less than my peers.
  • 5. ______ I dislike small talk, but I enjoy
    talking in depth about topics that matter to me.
  • 6. ______ People tell me that I'm a good
    listener.
  • 7. ______ I'm not a big risk-taker.
  • 8. ______ I enjoy work that allows me to "dive
    in" with few interruptions.
  • 9. ______ I like to celebrate birthdays on a
    small scale, with only one or two close friends
    or family members.
  • 10. ______ People describe me as "soft-spoken" or
    "mellow."
  • 11. ______ I prefer not to show or discuss my
    work with others until it's ?nished.
  • 12. ______ I dislike conflict.
  • 13. ______ I do my best work on my own.
  • 14. ______I tend to think before I speak.
  • 15.______ I feel drained after being out and
    about, even if I've enjoyed myself.
  • 16. ______I often let calls go through to voice
    mail.
  • 17. ______If you had to choose, I'd prefer a
    weekend with absolutely nothing to do to one with
    too many things scheduled.

7
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
Used a technique called Empirical Construction -
lots of true/false questions were given to normal
people, those with different psychological
disorders. Those questions (550) capable of
distinguishing between the different disorders
were retained
  • SAMPLE QUESTIONS
  • I like mechanics magazines.
  • I have a good appetite.
  • I wake up fresh rested most mornings.
  • I think I would like the work of a librarian.
  • I am easily awakened by noise.
  • I like to read newspaper articles on crime.
  • My hands feet are usually warm enough.
  • My daily life is full of things that keep me
    interested.
  • I am about as able to work as I ever was.
  • There seems to be a lump in my throat most of the
    time.

8
Assessing Traits Objective Personality Tests
Inventories or questionnaires (often with
true-false or agree-disagree items) that require
individuals to indicate whether the
feelings/behaviors do or do not apply to them.
  • Strengths
  • Weaknesses
  • Structure use very specific questions and
    require specific answers so info can be
    compared with others who have taken the same test
  • Easily administered
  • Scoring is straightforward
  • High reliability (consistent scores at different
    times or similar scores by different raters)
  • Provide answers that are most socially desirable
    or acceptable and thus bias the test results
  • Barnum Effect method of listing many general
    traits so that almost everyone who reads the
    results thinks that these traits apply
    specifically to him or her. Our tendency to
    accept as valid descriptions of our personality
    that are generally true of everyone.

9
Evaluating the Trait Theory
  • Strengths
  • Weaknesses
  • Traits provide a shorthand method for describing
    someones personality summarize traits that make
    people unique
  • By placing people on several trait dimensions
    simultaneously, psychologists can describe
    countless individual personality variations
  • While behaviors from a situation may be
    different, the average behavior remains the same
    average behavior across situations.
  • Paints too simplistic a picture of human
    personality and may not reflect its depth and
    complexity
  • Does not explain how these traits develop across
    ones lifetime
  • Person-Situation Controversy (Walter Mischel)
    traits are not good predictors of behavior.
    While traits may be enduring, the resulting
    behavior in various situations is different
    (traits interact with the situations cues.) EX
    Even if you were an extravert, you would behave
    differently at a wedding than at a funeral.

10
Psychoanalytic Perspective
Personality dealing with and transforming
incompatible wishes, impulses, and urges within
ones own mind
University of Vienna 1873 after medical school
he set up a private practice and specialized in
nervous disorders. Encountered patients
suffering from nervous disorders with no physical
causes, so he wondered if some disorders might
have psychological causes (EX unexplained
blindness or deafness might be caused by not
wanting to see or hear something that arouses
intense anxiety)
(1856-1939)
Emphasized unconscious motivation ? the main
causes of behavior lie buried in the unconscious
mind
11
Structure of Personality
the mind is like an iceberg mostly hidden
Conscious whatever one is aware of at a
particular point in time.
Preconscious (subconscious) part that we can
access if prompted, but is not in our active
conscious (i.e. telephone number, the name of
your best childhood friend)
Unconscious inaccessible warehouse of
anxiety-producing thoughts and drives.
At any given time, we are only aware of a very
small part of what makes up our personality
however, our unacknowledged impulses have a
strong influence on us (i.e. the work we choose,
the beliefs we hold, our daily habits, our
troubling symptoms, etc)
12
Structure of Personality
3 parts of personality at various levels of
consciousness are in conflict with one another
Id strives to satisfy biological, instinctual
drives Pleasure Principle .
Ego seeks to gratify the Id in realistic ways
and not offend the moralistic character of the
superego Reality Principle
Super Ego voice of conscience that focuses on
how we ought to behave sets unrealistic high
standards
  • Everything we do is motivated by two drives
  • Sex (Eros) drive to live, prosper, and produce
    offspring
  • Aggression (Thanatos) - drive to stay alive and
    stave off threats to our existence, our power,
    and our prosperity.

If the id gets too strong, impulses and self
gratification take over the persons life. If
the superego gets too strong, the person is
driven by rigid morals and is unbending in
his/her interactions with the world
13
Defense Mechanisms
Id
Ego
When the inner war gets out of hand, the result
is Anxiety
Ego protects itself via Defense Mechanisms
Super Ego
Defense Mechanisms reduce/redirect anxiety by
distorting reality
14
Defense Mechanisms
  • Repression - banishes certain thoughts/feelings
    from consciousness (underlies all other defense
    mechanisms) EX An adult who, as a child, was
    beaten by her father, is not consciously aware of
    her hostility toward him. A child rescued from a
    fire that kills his parents does not remember the
    incident.
  • Regression - retreating to earlier stage of
    fixated development. EX An adult has a temper
    tantrum when he doesnt get his way. Child may
    suck their thumb on first day of school.
  • Reaction Formation - ego makes unacceptable
    impulses appear as their opposites. EX A
    persons bravado may mask hidden fear excessive
    concern for a child may mask a mothers repressed
    hostility for that child a man who is homophobic
    might be gay himself
  • Projection - attributes threatening impulses to
    others. EX A woman who dislikes her boss thinks
    she likes her boss but feels that the boss
    doesnt like her. A girl accuses boyfriend of
    cheating because she is thinking about cheating.
  • Rationalization - generate self-justifying
    explanations to hide the real reasons for our
    actions. EX A shoplifter who cannot accept
    herself as a thief justifies her theft of a
    bracelet by maintaining that the jewelry stores
    hiked-up prices cover losses due to theft, so
    taking a little something is OK. A student who
    postpones working on a term paper until the last
    minute excuses the delay by convincing himself
    that he works better under pressure.
  • Displacement - divert impulses toward a more
    acceptable object. EX Boss gives you a hard
    time at work and you come home and scream at your
    spouse.
  • Sublimation - transform unacceptable impulse into
    something socially valued. EX Physical
    exercise, participating in sports, and even
    viewing sports as healthy are socially acceptable
    ways of gratifying aggressive urges
  • Denial deny an unpleasant piece of external
    reality or an unwanted internal emotion. EX A
    man whose doctor tells him he has cancer reacts
    by saying that there is obviously some mistake

15
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16
Table 13.1 (continued) The Psychological
Defense Mechanisms
17
Handout 13-4 Answers
E A C G F D E F B A 11. C 12. E 13. G 14. D 15. B 16. F 17. A 18. C 19. D 20. B 21. E 22. A 23. F 24. G 25. D 26. C 27. G 28. F 29. C 30. B 31. D 32. G 33. B 34. E 35. A

18
Personality Development
Personality forms during the first few years of
life, rooted in unresolved conflicts of early
childhood
Stage Ages Focus of Libido (sexual energy or drive) Major Development Adult Fixation Example (unresolved conflict locks individual at stage frustration needs are not met and overindulgence ample meeting of needs so child is reluctant to preogress to next stage)
Oral 0 to 18 months Mouth, Tongue, Lips (Sucking) Weaning of breast feeding or formula Oral receptive personality preoccupation with oral activities, such as smoking, drinking alcohol, overeating, biting his nails. Overly dependent, gullible, and overly sensitive to rejection Oral aggressive personality hostile, verbally abusive, pessimistic, and sarcastic
Anal 18 months to 3 Anus (eliminating and retaining feces) Toilet Training Anal retentive personality stingy, with a compulsive need for cleanliness, perfection, and control. Stubborn, passive-aggressive, and perfectionist Anal expulsive personality lack of self-control, messy, disorganized, careless
Phallic 3 to 6 Genitals Resolving Oedipus/Electra Complex learn gender roles through identification with same-sex parent Reckless, self-assured, narcissistic and excessively vain sexual dysfunction and incapable or fearful of close love
Latency 6 to 12 None Sexuality is dormant direct repressed libidal energy into asexual pursuits such as school, athletics, and same-sex friendship None
Genital 12 Genitals Reaching full sexual maturity If all stages were successfully completed then the person should be sexually matured and mentally healthy
19
(No Transcript)
20
Personality Development
  • Oedipus Complex boy develops unconscious sexual
    desire for his mother and sees father as
    competition for the mothers affection, so
    becomes rivals with him. Boy also develops a fear
    that his father will punish him for these
    feelings, such as by castrating them (castration
    anxiety). Due to this fear, boy suppresses
    desire and decides to identify with father rather
    than fight him thereby, developing masculine
    characteristics
  • Girls suffer Electra Complex and a penis envy,
    where the daughter is initially attached to her
    mother, but then a shift of attachment occurs
    when she realizes she lacks a penis. She desires
    her father whom she sees as a means to obtain a
    penis substitute (a child). She then represses
    her desire for her father and incorporates the
    values of her mother and accepts her inherent
    'inferiority' in society.

21
Accessing the Unconscious
  • Freudian Slips
  • http//personalitypedagogy.arcadia.edu/pmwiki/pmwi
    ki.php?nExamples.FreudianSlips
  • I dont think weve been properly seduced, um
    introduced
  • What do you think of Fraudian theory?
  • I hope you are well and unhappy
  • Pleased to beat you
  • Psychoanalysis
  • Many psychological problems are fueled by
    childhoods residue of repressed impulses and
    conflicts.
  • Free Association method of exploring the
    unconscious in which the person relaxes and says
    whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or
    embarrassing. Follow the chain of thought
    leading into the patients unconscious.
  • Dreams
  • Glimpses of unconscious drives and wishes
  • Latent content underlying meaning analyst can
    suggest meaning and the unconscious wishes the
    dreamer suppressed
  • Manifest content remembered content of dreams
    (basic storyline) that is a censored expression
    of the dreamers unconscious wishes.

http//www.youtube.com/watch?vBEIslG2McpA (start
at 123 Examples of Freudian slips)
22
Projective Test Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
  • Designed by Henry Murray, examiners present
    individuals with a subset (typically 5 to 12 of
    31 cards displaying pictures of ambiguous
    situations, mostly featuring people and then
    respondents construct a story about each picture,
    describing the events that are occurring, what
    led up to them, what the characters are thinking
    and feeling, and what will happen later.

http//www.utpsyc.org/TATintro/ http//www.haverfo
rd.edu/psych/ddavis/psych212h/tat.umich.html http
//www.haverford.edu/psych/ddavis/psych212h/p212.95
.tat.html
23
Projective Test Rorschach Inkblot Test
  • Designed by Hermann Rorschach an examiner hands
    10 symmetrical inkblots one at a time in a set
    order to a viewer, who says what each blot
    resembles. . It seeks to identify peoples inner
    feelings by analyzing their interpretations of
    the blots.

24
Evaluating Projective Tests
Require individuals to look at some meaningless
object or ambiguous photo and describe what they
see (EX Rorschach or TAT).
  • Strengths
  • Weaknesses
  • Difficult to fake or bias, since there are no
    correct or socially desirable answers
  • Clients project their hidden feelings, thoughts,
    or emotions onto these ambiguous stimuli, so able
    to assess thoughts and desires of client in which
    he/she is normally unaware.
  • Useful in eliciting unique information about the
    person
  • Scoring is based on analyzing and making
    judgments about so many different variables
    (content, theme, color and detail) that
    disagreements often arise over interpretations
    and classifications.
  • Low reliability
  • When evaluating the same patient, even trained
    raters come up with different interpretations
    (reliability).
  • Low validity (measure what it claims/supposed to
    measure)
  • Projective tests may misdiagnose a normal
    individual as pathological poorly equipped to
    identify most psychiatric conditions

25
The Neo-Freudians
  • Accepted Freuds basic ideas personality
    structures of id, ego, and superego the
    importance of unconscious the shaping of
    personality in childhood and the dynamics of
    anxiety and the defense mechanisms. However,
    they placed more emphasis on the conscious mind
    and doubted that sex and aggression were
    all-consuming motivations
  • Jung Personal unconscious vs collective
    unconscious (archetypes) psychological health
    is dependent on integrating opposing parts of
    personality including archetypes
  • Horney Interpersonal relationships and
    dependence on other people, especially parents.
    Anxiety is caused by sense of helplessness
  • Adler Inferiority complex and compensation.
    Also stressed importance of birth order

Carl Jung (1875-1961)
Karen Horney (1885-1952)
The Hero archetype is a universal notion of the
individual who embodies good and strength.
Alfred Adler (1870-1937)
26
Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Theory
  • Strengths
  • Weaknesses
  • Iceberg view of mind is still accepted most
    actions are carried out automatically or by
    subconscious mechanisms (unconscious is just not
    filled with sex and aggression)
  • Implicit Memory
  • Classical Conditioning
  • Quick fear responses
  • Id and Pleasure Principle
  • Damage to inhibitory brain structures, such as
    the frontal lob, releases wishful, irrational
    modes of mental functioning
  • Think of some of our athletes (Tiger Woods) and
    corrupt politicians
  • Use defense mechanisms to defend ourselves
    against anxiety
  • Terror management theory (ie, death anxiety
    increases prejudice)
  • One of the first to study meaning of dreams
  • Freuds theories based on his recollections
    interpretations of patients free associations,
    dreams slips o the tongue few objective
    observations
  • Repression is not widely validated
  • Slips of the tongue are likely competing areas in
    memory network or intrusion of a strong habit
    not hidden motives or desires
  • Personality development does not stop in
    childhood
  • Dreams may not be glimpses of unconscious drives
    and wishes but random burst of neural activity or
    consolidation of learning

27
Humanistic Perspective
  • By the 1960s, psychologists became discontent
    with Freuds negativity and the mechanistic
    psychology of the behaviorists.
  • Humanism emphasized our capacity for personal
    growth, development of our potential, and freedom
    to choose our destiny. Our sense of self and
    self-esteem are at the center of our personality
    and outlook.
  • Self how we see or describe ourselves
    (self-perceptions, abilities, personality
    characteristics, and behaviors). All the
    thoughts and feelings we have in response to the
    question, Who am I?
  • Self Esteem a feeling of self worth.

28
Humanistic Perspective
  • Directions Answer the following questions in
    your notebook
  • According to this perspective, how is the self
    constructed?
  • What is the difference between self-concept and
    self-esteem?

29
Humanistic Perspective
  • By the 1960s, psychologists became discontent
    with Freuds negativity and the mechanistic
    psychology of the behaviorists.
  • Humanism emphasized our capacity for personal
    growth, development of our potential, and freedom
    to choose our destiny. Our sense of self and
    self-esteem are at the center of our personality
    and outlook.
  • Self how we see or describe ourselves
    (self-perceptions, abilities, personality
    characteristics, and behaviors). All the
    thoughts and feelings we have in response to the
    question, Who am I?
  • Self Esteem a feeling of self worth, which
    involves a sense of personal responsibility for
    ones actions and a readiness to perceive
    ourselves favorably (self-serving bias)

30
How is the self constructed?
  • We are motivated by a hierarchy of needs need
    to satisfy our deficiency needs before having the
    time and energy to satisfy our growth needs and
    move toward self-actualization (the process of
    fulfilling our potential) and self-transcendence
    (meaning, purpose, and communion beyond the self)

Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)
31
How is the self constructed?
  • Personality is guided by each persons unique
    self-actualization tendency inborn tendency for
    us to develop all of our capacities in ways that
    best maintain and benefit our lives. Guides us
    toward positive or healthful behaviors rather
    than negative or harmful ones.

Given the right environmental conditions, we will
develop to our full potentials
Carl Rogers (1902-1987)
32
Growth Promoting Environment
  • Genuineness individual
  • Real Self based on our actual experiences and
    represents how we really see ourselves
  • Ideal Self based on our hopes and wishes and
    reflects how we would like to see ourselves.
  • Contradiction between two results ? personality
    problems.
  • Acceptance environment
  • Each of us has a personal need for positive
    regard love, sympathy, warmth, acceptance, and
    respect which we crave from significant others.
  • unconditional positive regard warmth,
    acceptance and love that others show you because
    you are valued as a human being
  • conditional positive regard warmth, acceptance
    and love that others show you because you behave
    in certain acceptable ways, such as living up to
    or meeting the standards of others.
  • Empathy environment
  • One's ability to recognize, perceive and directly
    experientially feel the emotion of another

33
Dead Poets Society
  • Humanistic Perspective
  • Did Neals parents provide a growth promoting
    environment? Address each component
    acceptance, empathy, and genuineness.

34
Reciprocal Determinism
  • You love being in the limelight you feel great
    when youre the center of attention (PERSONAL
    FACTORS). As a result, you sign up for a drama
    class and start hanging out with a group of
    gregarious friends (BEHAVIOR). This
    (ENVIRONMENT) reinforces your thoughts and
    feelings, and soon enough your behaviors reflect
    increased extroversion you audition for
    American Idol you perform at a local open mike
    night you start conversations with strangers
    while standing in line.
  • Your thoughts and personalities helped you choose
    an environment, which in turn further shaped your
    thoughts, behaviors, and personality

35
Social-Cognitive Perspective
  • Personality External World (physical
    surroundings, other people, and potential for
    reinforcement in those surroundings) Internal
    World (personality traits and thinking
    processes., such as locus of control, delay of
    gratification, optimism-pessimism attributional
    style, and self-efficacy)
  • Personality is shaped by
  • Reciprocal Determinism interaction of personal
    traits, our environment, and our behaviors (EX
    Sally is often rejected by her parents
    (environment), so shes mistrustful and treats
    other people with hostility (personal traits and
    behaviors), which leads to their rejection of her
    (environment))

Albert Bandura
36
Social-Cognitive Perspective Reciprocal
Determinism
  • Personality development is shaped primarily by
    three forces which all interact to influence how
    we evaluate, interpret, organize, and apply
    information
  • environmental conditions (learning) social,
    political, and cultural influences, as well as
    our particular learning experiences
  • cognitive-personal factors
  • cognitive factors - beliefs, expectations,
    values, intentions, and social roles.
  • personal factors our emotional makeup and our
    biological and genetic influences
  • behaviors variety of personal
  • actions, such as the things we
  • do and say.

Both products and architects of our environment
37
Social-Cognitive Perspective Reciprocal
Determinism
  • Specific ways in which individuals and
    environments interact

Different people choose different environments.
Mrs. Walenga likes to take Liberty to dog parks
and anything dog-related!
Mrs. Walengas outgoing personality causes her
to seek out and chat-up other dog owners at the
dog park. Her responsible nature causes her to
seek out information on how to provide the best
quality life for her pug.
Our personalities (cognitive/personal factors)
shape how we react to events.
Due to her outgoing personality and exposure to
many dog owners at the dog park, Mrs. Walenga
learns of pug parties and starts to take
Liberty to them! She might even start to
participate in dog show (probs not)
Our personalities help create situations to which
we react/behave
38
Social-Cognitive Perspective Locus of Control
  • Social-cognitive psychologists emphasize our
    sense of personal control, whether we control the
    environment or the environment controls us.
  • Internal locus of control believe that ones
    successes and failures are determined by ones
    actions and abilities control own destiny
  • External locus of control believe that ones
    successes and failures are governed by external
    factors such as other people, fate, luck, and
    chance
  • Positive correlation between internal locus and
    mental health and psychological functioning.
  • People fall on a continuum between internal and
    external locus of control.
  • Developed by Julian Rotter

39
Outcomes of Personal Control Learned
Helplessness
When unable to avoid repeated adverse events an
animal or human learns helplessness.
Uncontrollable bad events
Perceived lack of control
Generalized helpless behavior (passive
resignation an organism learns when unable to
avoid repeated aversive events)
  • Important Issue
  • Nursing Homes
  • Prisons
  • Colleges
  • Culture shock

One measure of how helpless or effective we feel
is where we stand on optimism-pessimism
40
Social-Cognitive Perspective Delay of
Gratification
  • Not taking an immediate but less desirable reward
    and instead waiting and pursuing an object or
    completing a task that promises a better reward
    in the future.
  • Marshmallow Experiment
  • Ability to delay gratification more
    intelligence, greater social responsibility,
    strive for higher achievement.
  • Inability to delay gratification
    self-regulatory problems, such as impulsive
    violence, eating disorders, abusing drugs, having
    unprotected sex, and unwanted pregnancies

41
Social-Cognitive Perspective Self-Efficacy
  • The confidence in your ability to organize and
    execute a given course of action to solve a
    problem or accomplish a task.
  • Judge self-efficacy from four sources of
    information
  • Use previous experiences of success or failure on
    similar tasks to estimate how you will do on a
    new, related task.
  • Compare your capabilities with those of others.
  • Listen to what others say about your capabilities
  • Use feedback from your body to assess your
    strength, vulnerability, and capability.
  • Influences motivation to achieve, perform, and do
    well in a variety of tasks and situations.

42
Growth Promoting Environment
  • Genuineness individual
  • Real Self based on our actual experiences and
    represents how we really see ourselves EX Neal
    has to follow his dads order that he go to
    military school and stop acting
  • Ideal Self based on our hopes and wishes and
    reflects how we would like to see ourselves. EX
    Neal wants to stand up to his dad and pursue
    acting as a career
  • Contradiction between two results ? personality
    problems.
  • Acceptance environment
  • Each of us has a personal need for positive
    regard love, sympathy, warmth, acceptance, and
    respect which we crave from significant others.
  • unconditional positive regard warmth,
    acceptance and love that others show you because
    you are valued as a human being
  • conditional positive regard warmth, acceptance
    and love that others show you because you behave
    in certain acceptable ways, such as living up to
    or meeting the standards of others. EX Neals
    dad only accepted and provided love to Neal if he
    was a good student and pursued a medical degree.
  • Empathy environment
  • One's ability to recognize, perceive and directly
    experientially feel the emotion of another EX
    Neals dad could not recognize the devastation he
    was causing to his son.

43
Reciprocal Determinism
  • Specific ways in which individuals and
    environments interact
  • Lives with an authoritarian dad, has a teacher
    that promotes self-actualization, participates in
    plays ?? Neal is submissive, has an external
    locus of control, and is pessimistic ?? Neal
    submits to his dads bullying and thus his dad
    bullies him more.

The friends Neal surrounds himself with and the
extracurricular activities (acting) he
participates in are partly based on his
dispositions.
Different people choose different environments.
Neals submissive personality and respect for
authority caused him to react in a helpless way
to his father
Our personalities shape how we react to events.
Since Neal views his father as the ultimate
authority figure, his father continues to bully
him and tell him what to do
Our personalities help create situations to which
we react/behave
44
Dead Poets Society
Social-Cognitive Perspective How can you apply
the idea of reciprocal determinism to Neil Did
Neals environment promote an internal or
external locus of control? How will his locus of
control influence his future behavior?
45
Criticisms of Humanistic and Social-Cognitive
Perspectives
  • Social-Cognitive
  • Humanistic
  • Its concepts are vague and subjective based on
    theorists own values and ideals rather than
    science
  • Positive Psychology the scientific study of
    optimal human functioning aims to discover and
    promote strengths and virtues that enable
    individuals and communities to thrive
  • The emphasis on the self encourages selfishness
    in individuals
  • It fails to appreciate the reality of evil in
    human behavior
  • Critics say that social-cognitive psychologists
    pay a lot of attention to the situation and pay
    less attention to the individual, his unconscious
    mind, his emotions, and his genetics.
  • Fails to appreciate the persons inner traits.
    While the situation does guide behavior, our
    unconscious motives, our emotions, and our
    pervasive traits also influence personality and
    predict behavior.

46
Culture Self-Esteem
  • People maintain their self-esteem even with a low
    status by valuing things they achieve and
    comparing themselves to people with similar
    positions.

47
Benefits of Self-Esteem
  • Maslow and Rogers argued that a successful life
    results from a healthy feeling of self-worth
    (self-esteem).

? Involves a sense of personal responsibility for
ones actions responsible human being ?
Self-serving bias our readiness to perceive
ourselves favorably
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