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Kitchen Microbiology

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Title: Kitchen Microbiology Author: Danny Ancheta Last modified by: Danny Ancheta Created Date: 1/28/2008 6:09:50 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Kitchen Microbiology


1
Kitchen Microbiology
  • Biotechnology Use of Microbes

2
Your understanding of Microbes
  • What is a microbe?
  • Where do you find them?
  • Are they beneficial or harmful?

3
Microbes in the Kitchen
  • Microbes or MO (microorganisms) are a part of our
    everyday life.
  • What did you eat yesterday? List them in your
    notebook.
  • Let see if any of your food is made by our tiny
    friends (MOs).

4
Commonly Known
  • Cheese/Butter Fermentation lowers the pH, thus
    helping in the initial coagulation of the milk
    protein, as well as giving characteristic
    flavors. Some of the bacteria used in cheese
    fermentation is found in smelly
    feet (Streptococcus and Lactobacillus bacteria)
  • Bread - provides a variety of enzymes that enable
    carbohydrates to be broken down producing
    sufficient carbon dioxide to give bread its
    characteristic texture. (Bakers Yeast -
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • Beer -Traditionally, the natural yeasts on grape
    skins determine the quality of wine produced.
    These natural yeasts, especially Saccharomyces
    cerevisiae (beer in Spanish is "cervesa") and
    Saccharomyces ellipsoideus, ferment the grapes to
    make wine.

5
Coffee/ Cocoa (chocolate)
  • Bacteria and yeast are used to remove the outer
    coats of coffee.
  • Erwinia dissolvens, leuconostoc, and
    lactobacillus species, Saccharomyces
  • The microbes do not affect the taste of coffee
    but are necessary to confer the characteristic
    taste to cocoa and chocolate.

6
Soy sauce/Vinegar
  • Soy sauce/Miso - made from a mixture of soy beans
    and rice fermented by a variety of bacteria and
    fungi.
  • Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Aspergillus oryzae,
    Aspergillus soyae, and Saccharomyces rouxii.
  • Vinegar - Vinegar is made by two distinct
    biological processes, both the result of the
    action of harmless microorganisms (yeast and
    Acetobacter) that turn sugars (carbohydrates)
    into acetic acid.
  • The first process is called alcoholic
    fermentation and occurs when yeasts change
    natural sugars to alcohol under controlled
    conditions. In the second process, a group of
    bacteria (called Acetobacter) converts the
    alcohol portion to acid.

7
Vitamins/MSG
  • Microbes may be used to elaborate precursors in
    the making of Vitamins A, C, and the B family.
    Using sugarbeet molasses as a growth medium,
    Pseudomonas denitrificans is made to produce
    Vitamin B12. Members of the genus
    Propionibacterium are also used to make this
    vitamin. Although many bacteria and fungi produce
    riboflavin (B2), the fungus Ashbya gossypii
    produces it in huge quantities.
  • MSG (monosodium glutamate) is manufactured by
    Corynebacterium glutamicum, a cousin of the
    diptheria germ.
  • The fungus, Aspergillus niger, when grown on
    sugarbeet molasses, produces huge quantities of
    citric acid.

8
Amino Acids
  • Citric acid used to be extracted primarily from
    lemons, but worldwide demand for it forced the
    commercial industry to seek other sources. The
    fungus, Aspergillus niger, when grown on
    sugarbeet molasses, produces huge quantities of
    citric acid.
  • Glutamic acid requires Corynebacterium glutamicum
    for its formation. Biotin is a cofactor essential
    for lipid synthesis in bacteria. By growing C.
    glutamicum on limited amounts of biotin, it
    causes the bacterial membrane to leak sufficient
    quantities of glutamic acid.
  • Lysine -- The bacterium, Brevibacterium flavum is
    used in the industrial biosynthesis of lysine.
    Mutants no longer susceptible to feedback
    inhibition have been isolated to be used
    industrially to increase the yield of amino
    acids.

9
Meat Products
  • Meat products, like salami and bologna sausages,
    require some fermentation with Pediuococcus
    cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum and some
    members of the genus Bacillus. Country cured hams
    use fungi of the genus Aspergillus and the genus
    Penicillium in their fermentation process. Izushi
    (sushi), a Japanese delicacy made from a mixture
    of fish, rice, and other vegetables is produced
    by fermentation with lactobacilli.

10
Pickled Food
  • Dill pickles are simply fermented cucumbers.
    Streptococci starts the process of fermentation,
    but as the pH level falls, leuconostoc and
    pediococcus species, as well as Lactobacillus
    plantarum continue the process.
  • Olives are edible only after fermentation with
    Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus
    mesenteroides.

11
Homework
  • Find one thing at home that is made by
    microorganism.
  • On a puzzle piece
  • Front place a picture of the product, write the
    name of the MO and the ingredient produced by the
    MO.
  • Back your name, period, and date
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