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Chapter 4 Ancient India 3rd River Valley

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Title: Chapter 4 Ancient India 3rd River Valley


1
Chapter 4Ancient India3rd River Valley
  • The Indus and Ganges River Valleys

2
People are often unreasonable and self-centered.
Forgive them anyway. If you are kind, people may
accuse you of ulterior motives. Be kind
anyway.  If you are honest, people may cheat
you. Be honest anyway. If you find happiness,
people may be jealous. Be happy anyway. The good
you do today may be forgotten tomorrow. Do good
anyway. Give the world the best you have and it
may never be enough. Give your best anyway. For
you see, in the end, it is between you and God.
It was never between you and them
anyway.  ? Mother Teresa 1910-1997
NUN, Missionary and saint
3
Key Word and Key Places
  • Citadel a fortress
  • Migration to move from one area to another
  • Tributaries small rivers or streams, which flow
    into a large river or stream.
  • Subcontinent a large landmass jutting southern
    from a continent
  • Indus River Valley- fertile area near the Indus
    River- Pakistan today

4
More Vocabulary
  • Monsoon heavy winds and rain
  • Himalayas mt. chain NE of India
  • Hindu Kush mt. chain NW of India
  • Mohenjo-Daro first, well-planned city
  • Harappa city in ancient India

5
Geographical Information
  • Himalaya Mts. a mountain range in Asia
    separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent
    from the Tibetan Plateau of China
  • Hindu Kush Mts.- long mountain range that
    stretches between central Afghanistan and
    northern Pakistan.
  • Indus River one of the seven sacred rivers of
    Hindus. Now the river flows through China
    (Tibet)and the rest of Pakistan.
  • Ganges River Great river of the plains of
    northern India.

SUBCONTINENT
6
Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean, Bay of Bengal, Indus
River, Ganges River, Himalayas, Hindu Kush Mts.
Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro, North, South, East, West,
Nepal
7
  • Have you ever gone on a hike or a walk?
  • If a river ran across the path you were on and
    there was no bridge, what would you do? What if
    it was a really big, deep fast moving river?
  • Have you ever been in a desert?
  • What is something you must bring with you in the
    desert?
  • How does a person get across a desert?
  • How about mountain climbing?
  • How do you cross a mountain range?
  • Rivers, deserts, mountains, and seas are all
    called what?
  • ___________________________

8
Geography
  • EAST of the Fertile Crescent
  • Indias peninsula called a SUBCONTINENT large
    landmass that juts out from a continent
  • Indus River Valley located b/w 2 mountain
    chains Himalayas and the Hindu Kush Today its
    PAKISTAN.

9
Monsoons
  • India experiences MONSOONS strong winds that
    blow across the region at certain times of the
    year.
  • JUNE SEPT. summer monsoons- carries rains that
    drench the plains from the ARABIAN SEA.
  • if the monsoons are late or weak, FAMINE could
    strike- no rain for the land
  • From Oct. Dec. winter monsoons- dry cold air
    across the country from the HIMALAYAS
  • Too much rain overflowing rivers death to
    people

10
Geography contd
  • Himalayas natural barrier b/w India and Asia
    1,500 miles long Highest and Youngest
  • Indus River formed from streams of melting snow
    in the spring on the Hindu Kush and Himalayas,
    river flows south
  • Valley had fertile from silt and overflowing
    rivers - this attracted the a tribe of
    Indo-European-speaking, horse-riding nomads -
    from Mesopotamia.

11
Farming Economy
  • Had fertile land
  • Tributaries small rivers that flow into a larger
    river
  • Use irrigation
  • Grow fruits, wheat, rice
  • First to grow COTTON !!!!

12
Life in the Indus River Valley
  • From rich soil, early farmers harvested a surplus
    of wheat and other grains
  • The surplus helped the population to grow.
  • Some villages became CITIES.
  • The first city- Mohenjo- Daro, lay along the
    banks of the Indus River.

13
Worlds Earliest City Planners
  • Mohenjo-Daro was a large city that needed proper
    planning
  • Because of the Indus River flooding, the city had
    to be built on a high mound.
  • To make travel easy- streets were laid out in
    squares- like a grid.
  • At the center- the citadel.
  • Monhenjo-Daro had indoor plumbing , had clay
    pipes- and sewers- to carry waste from homes.

14
Where my parents live, its laid out just like
Mohenjo-Daro
15
Mohenjo-Daro and the Citadel..Public bath too.
16
Citadels
17
Citadel
  • Citadel was a fortress center of city used for
    religious and govt purposes.
  • Taller than a ziggurat-temples of Mesopotamia
  • Used to protect the people of the Indus River
    Valley b/c they didnt have any city walls.

18
Living in Mohenjo-Daro
  • Artisans and farmers sold their goods in shops
    along the streets
  • Carriages loaded with grains pulled into town
  • Traders came from as far as Mesopotamia to buy
    and sell
  • Children played with cards and chess.
  • Artisans made clothes and bright colored
    jewelry.
  • Still a mystery? writing, form of government
    and religious beliefs. No royal tombs or great
    temples have been found.

19
Section 2Hinduism and Ancient India
  • reincarnation- rebirth of the soul
  • dharma- the religious or moral duties of each
    person
  • Ahimsa- belief in nonviolence

20
A Blend of Religions
  • Hinduism- one of the worlds major religions
  • A way of life for more than 850 million people in
    India
  • People were polytheists.

21
Hindu Gods
  • Three most important are
  • Brahma the CREATOR
  • Vishnu the PRESERVER
  • Shiva the DESTROYER
  • The gods take on many different forms called
    AVATARS where a god will be represented as a
    human or animal

22
Section 3 - Buddhism
  • Key Terms
  • Meditate focus ones mind, think deeply
  • Nirvana the state of perfect happiness
  • Missionaries people who spread their religious
    beliefs to others

23
The Buddha and his Teachings
  • Believed in meditation to focus the mind inward
    in order to find spiritual awareness
  • Buddha Selfish desires cause human suffering.

24
Release from Reincarnation
  • In order to be released from the cycle of
    reincarnation, a person must reach nirvana
    perfect happiness
  • How?
  • Tell the truth
  • Avoid violence and killings
  • Treat people fairly

25
Achieve 3000 Floods Hit South Asia
  • Is living in places that can flood worth the
    risk?
  • https//youtu.be/9peDRkO-TLc

26
4th River ValleyChapter 5
  • Ancient China

27
North, South, East, West, Himalayas, Chang
Yangzte River, Huang Yellow River, Yellow
Sea, East China Sea, North China Plain, Beijing,
Great Wall of China, Mongolia, Plateau of Tibet,
Nepal, Russia, HARBIN
28
(No Transcript)
29
There are many parts to the Great Wall and
different emperor's had different parts built.
The total time span was many centuries. The first
parts were completed about 200 BCE and the last
parts were added over 200 years during the Ming
Dynasty (1368-1644). There is no exact amount
of years on the building of a large project such
as the Great Wall of China. Some of it was built
over 2000 years ago, several parts were added or
substantially re-built over several centuries.
The most recent rebuilding was about 500 years
ago, except for those parts rebuilt very recently
to aid tourism.
Michael and Conor at the Great Wall
30
The Harbin Ice Festival
https//mail.bethpage.ws/owa/attachment.ashx?attac
h1idRgAAAACPX341VfOnQ5s2YklH515FBwDzJvSfSNZIQ41
GjuosTrkPAAADCZI0AADzJvSfSNZIQ41GjuosTrkPAAADCZYCA
AAJattid0EADALhDroN88Tpfc5mbUc9DNattcnt1
160 Chinese Yuan equals 25.76 US Dollar HARBIN
residents
48.31 US Dollar ADULTS Annual Income 3000
58 /week
31
Geography
  • region
  • Northeast/ Eastern China best FARMLAND
  • HUANG Yellow RIVER VALLEY begins in a vast
    plateau area of flat land raised above
    surrounding land
  • It brought LOESS LUSS yellow-brown soil

32
Geography contd
  • Chinas Sorrow
  • Bad and dangerous flooding.
  • Flooding brought life to the land
  • It also took life away
  • Without warning as often as every 2 years- washed
    crops away and kills many
  • Early Chinese built dikes a protective wall to
    hold back the waters.
  • It wasnt the ideal place for a civilization.
  • Do Chinese civilization from Smart notebook

33
The Rise and Fall of Chinese Dynasties
34
SHANG DYNASTY
  • Dynasty line of rulers who belong to the same
    family and pass control to the next generation.
  • First writings and horse-drawn carriages, and
    bronze work
  • Lasted 600 yrs
  • An Oracle- a special priest who is believed to
    receive messages from the gods.
  • They would write a question on the shoulder blade
    bone of a pig and heat it. The way the bone
    cracked was believed to be the answer from the
    gods.
  • Emperors often used oracles to help them make
    important decisions.

35
Family
  • May contain 5 generations living together.
  • EXTENDED Family closely related people
  • OLDEST male is in charge final approval- he
    decided who his children would marry
  • Some boys went to scribe school and wrote in many
    Chinese characters ???
  • The first to use 2 names family name father
    to son first name, then the individuals name .
    EX Washington George
  • This showed how important the family was
  • Girls- at age 15 - had a special ceremony.
    Their hair was pinned up. Called The Hair-pinning
    ceremony. It symbolized she was about to marry.
    The latest age would be 20.

36
Family .continued
  • ELDERS most respected- when they die all the
    land is divided to his sons
  • Spirit of ANCESTORS were important Shrines were
    built to honor them when they passed.

37
Womens Role- Mulan Story
  • LOWER status than men
  • Women were bound by three obediences
  • Obey their FATHER in youth
  • Obey their HUSBAND in marriage
  • Obey their sons in WIDOWHOOD
  • Four virtues -QUALITIES- which also guided women
  • 1. Morality- doing what is right,
  • 2. Modesty -respecting their bodies and self
  • 3. Proper speech
  • 4. Domestic skills -household chores

38
Ancient China
The True Story of Mulan
Retold by Lin DonnIllustrated by Phillip Martin
39
Mulan
In Han times, or perhaps Sui times, but certainly
before Tang times, there lived a young girl
named Mulan.
Her father was a retired and famous general. He
taught her to use a sword and ride a horse, which
was most unusual. Boys were taught to fight and
ride, not girls.
40
Mulan
One day, the military posted scrolls in the
village. The scroll announced that each family
had to send one man to the army.
Mulans father was too old to fight, but too
honorable not to go. Mulan had no older brother
to send in his place. Her baby brother was
brave and strong, but much too young to be
selected.
41
Mulan
Girls did not fight in wars. If only she were a
boy, Mulan thought to herself. It would be so
simple.
An idea grew in Mulans mind. Could she do it?
She had to. Mulan knew her father would die if
he went to war again.
That day, she bought a horse.
42
Mulan
The next morning, Mulan stole her fathers armor
and crept silently from home. Disguised as a man,
she reported for duty to the military leader.
Mulan fought for many years, some say as many as
ten years. In all that time, no one knew that
Mulan was a woman.
43
Mulan
When the war ended, Mulan was called before the
emperor to receive an award for her courage. The
emperor offered Mulan a job that would make her
rich. But Mulan wished to return to her family.
She asked for a good horse instead, a request
that was granted immediately.
44
Mulan
Her family was happy to see her. Her brother
had grown into a fine young man. Mulan gave him
her warriors clothes. She dressed herself in
womans clothes. She wrapped her hair in the
style of the day. She added rouge to her cheeks.
When she joined her family to watch the sun set,
Mulan had transformed into a beautiful young
woman.
45
Mulan
Not long after, friends who had served with Mulan
came to visit. Their eyes grew large when they
saw the beautiful woman before them.
Her story spread across China, to inspire girls
everywhere. If you love enough and have courage
enough, you can accomplish anything, no matter
how impossible it might seem.
46
Question
Based on this story and allowing for your own
opinion, do you think girls should served in the
army? Why or why not?(Justify your answer)
47
Confucius
  • Scholar and teacher
  • born when China was in chaos
  • Believes in mutual respect
  • If people would treat others properly then order
    and peace would result.
  • READ story pg 139

48
Influence of Confucius
  • The teaching of Confucius had major effects on
    the Chinese govt.
  • His belief became the basis for -
  • Civil Service - is the group of people who carry
    out the work of the govt.
  • A MERIT SYSTEM - a job was given to a person
    based on his qualification not b/c he was the
    son of a govt official.
  • Candidates had to pass official tests

49
About Civil Service
  • Police
  • Army
  • security
  • your firemen
  • some school positions lunch, clerical,
    secretaries, buildings and grounds

Basic Arithmetic Working with US Money Count
the money. How much money is there?
50
  • Administrative and Clerical
  • Arrange the following items in alphabetical order
    for filing
  • 1.Michael Jordan
  • 2.Janis Joplin
  • 3.Michael Jackson
  • 4.Jennifer Lopez

51
Achievements
  • Arts
  • Silk weaving
  • Bronze work
  • Poetry
  • Architecture
  • Jade carvings
  • Great Wall- 4,160 miles long,
  • Qin Shin Dynasty, then the Ming Dynasty
  • Medicine
  • ACUPUNCTURE a treatment to treat disease w/
    needles
  • Herbal remedies
  • Technology
  • Paper
  • Iron plow
  • Rudder
  • Wheelbarrow
  • compass

52
Lets learn to count in Chinese a real Chinese
woman http//www.youtube.com/watch?vGD77sfgCRJI
  • 1 ee
  • 2 ur
  • 3 san
  • 4 szi si
  • 5 ooo
  • 6 leeoh
  • 7 chee
  • 8 bah
  • 9 g-oe
  • 10 sher

53
1.   Place the first chopstick in the hollow between thumb and index finger and rest its lower end below the first joint of the third finger. This chopstick remains stationary.                          
2.   Hold the other chopstick between the tips of the index and middle fingers, steady its upper half against the base of the index finger, and use the tips of the thumb to keep it in place.                          
3.  To pick up things, move the upper chopstick with index and middle fingers.                          
4.  After a little practice, you will be able to use chopsticks like an expert.                          
54
Chinas New Year-Zodiachttps//youtu.be/Iw0adpGLI
dk
  • Year of the Goat
  • Lucky numbers 2, 7, or numbers containing 2 and
    7
  • People born in a year of the Goat are generally
    believed to be
  • gentle
  • Shy
  • sympathetic
  • Friendly
  • a strong sense of kindheartedness
  • strong creativity
  • show perseverance.
  • Although they look gentle on the surface, they
    are tough on the inside, always insisting on
    their own opinions in their minds.
  • prefer to be in groups,
  • they do not want to be the center of attention.
  • They are reserved and quiet, most likely because
    they like spending much time in their thoughts.
  • Goats like to spend money on fashionable things
    that give them a first class appearance
  • they are not snobbish.

55
  • HORSE 2002
  • Lucky Colors yellow and green
  • Lucky Numbers 2, 3, 7, and numbers containing
    them (like 23 and 37)
  • People born in a year of the Horse are
  • extremely animated
  • active and energetic.
  • love to be in a crowd
  • they can usually be seen on such occasions as
    concerts, theater performances, meetings,
    sporting events, and parties.
  • They love to take center stage and delight
    audiences everywhere.
  • Sometimes, the Horse is a little self-centered,
    but it doesn't mean that s/he can not be
    interested in others' problems.
  • very healthy
  • hold a positive attitude towards life.
  • heavy responsibility or pressure from their job
    may make them weak.
  • Are more of an early-bird, than a night-owl.
  • Also Horses should refuse some invitations to
    parties at night

56
  • Rat charming, successful, hardworking
    (2020, 2008,1996,1984,1972,1960)
  • Ox patient, quiet, good listener (2021,2009,
    1997, 1985, 1973, 1961)
  • Tiger courageous, aggressive, adventurous (2022,
    2010, 1998, 1986, 1974, 1962)
  • Rabbit trustworthy, talented, well-mannered
    (2023,1999, 1987, 1975, 1963)
  • Dragon powerful, energetic, confident (2012,
    2000, 1988, 1976, 1964)
  • Snake charming, mysterious, passionate (2013,
    2001, 1989, 1977, 1965)

57
  • Horse cheerful, independent, skillful (2014,
    2002, 1990, 1978, 1966)
  • Goat/Sheep elegant, compassionate, kind-spirited
    (2015, 2003, 1991, 1979, 1967)
  • Monkey mischievous, successful, adventurous
    (2016, 2004,1992,1980,1968)
  • Rooster determined, busy, talented (2017, 2005,
    1993, 1981, 1969)
  • Dog honest, loyal, charismatic (2018, 2006,
    1994, 1982, 1970)
  • Pig studious, quiet, affectionate (2019, 2007,
    1995, 1983, 1971)

58
Best Matches for 12 Signs
  • Rat Ox, Rabbit and Dragon
  • Ox Rat, Monkey and Rooster
  • Tiger Dragon, Horse and Pig
  • Rabbit Sheep, Monkey, Dog and Pig
  • Dragon Rat, Tiger and Snake
  • Snake Dragon and Rooster
  • Horse Tiger, Sheep and Rabbit
  • Sheep Rabbit, Horse and Pig
  • Monkey Ox and Rabbit
  • Rooster Ox and Snake
  • Dog Rabbit
  • Pig Tiger, Rabbit and Sheep

59
  • When a son is born,
  • Let him sleep on the bed,
  • Clothe him in fine clothes,
  • And give him jade to play.
  • When a daughter is born,
  • Let her sleep on the ground,
  • Wrap her in common wrappings,
  • And give her broken tiles to play

What message is this poem sending to you, the
reader?
60
Chinas One Child Policy
  • In 1979,China was to temporarily have adopted a
    law that specified that you were only allowed to
    have one child in urban areas
  • Millions of people dying of starvation annually
    because the population was extremely bigger than
    the production too much competition for limited
    resources.
  • China adopted this law because China needed to
    limit the population growth current pop. 1.4
    billion
  • In rural areas you can try for another child.
  • If a couple both do not have siblings, they may
    try to have two children
  • If you broke this law then you were fined a lot
    of money. Rich people were able to pay the fine
    and keep the child.
  • No Bill of Rights to protect you from unfair bail
    and punishment
  • They are a Communist region the government
    controls all areas of their lives. The people
    have no say.

61
  • Boys were wanted.
  • Name
  • Take care of elderly parents financially in the
    future
  • Girls were abandoned or even left along the road
    side.
  • Never to know their mothers
  • Girls were like pouring precious water out of a
    basin a waste.
  • Families of girls must pay dowries to the grooms
    family when they are married.
  • The shortage of women has left some men unable to
    marry and have a family
  • This law was to end in 2010 , but it has not.
  • Prevented about 300 million births

62
When Niu Jian Fang and Jiao Na got married they
knew China's rules - one couple, one child.
Many Chinese take fertility drugs in the hope of a multiple pregnancy                                Beating the system
According to law,a woman can only give
birth once. So, some years ago, Jiao
Na got pregnant and gave birth to a son, Bei
Bei. And then a few minutes later she had a
daughter, Jin Jin, then another son,
Huan Huan, a second daughter, Ying Ying, and
finally another girl, Ni Ni. She and her
husband beat China's one-child policy by having
quintuplets. But life has not been easy for
them. Their small farm does not bring in much
money. They have had to give Ying Ying to a
relative because they cannot afford to raise all
five children on their own. They managed to beat
China's system.
63
  • Orphanages raise the children.
  • There are also a great deal of older children
    (boys and girls) whose families couldn't afford
    them and are forced to give them up - rather than
    have them starve to death.
  • A number of children are abandoned because they
    have disabilities that the family doesn't have
    the resources to deal with.
  • Many families live in absolute poverty, and while
    the kids (usually girls) aren't given up, they
    may have had a better life if they were.

64
Chinas One Child Policy REFORMED changed
  • http//www.cnn.com/2013/12/28/world/asia/china-one
    -child-policy-official/
  • Finally!
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